International Studies & Programs

Annotated Bibliographies

Domestic Workers in the Republic of South Africa and Surrounding Countries

Domestic Workers in the Republic of South Africa and Surrounding Countries
Compiled by Rachel Parsons, April 2004

This bibliography primarily contains literature published on domestic workers in the Republic of South Africa. Most of the literature emerged in the late 1980s when the domestic workers union was at its peak, bringing international attention to their struggles. A new wave of publications on domestic workers has just emerged in the last decade, their situation once again gaining attention from the international community. With the transition to the new democracy, the social and economic situation of domestic workers becomes especially pertinent to look at during the birth pangs of the new country. A country can be judged on the treatment of its poorest members, and by looking at those at the bottom of the social ladder in South Africa—domestic workers—it is apparent that this country has a long way to go before it realizes its promise of being a democracy. The bibliography is meant to give a broad view on the literature available and the lived realities of domestic workers in South Africa. Literature from surrounding countries in Southern Africa is also listed, as a basis for comparison. Looking at the situation of domestic workers addressed many matrices of oppression—sexism, racism, and classism, among others—and their intersections.

Resources Arranged by Country (49)


Legal Assistance Center
1996. The Living and Working Conditions of Domestic Workers in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Gender Research Project, Legal Assistance Centre: Social Sciences Division, Multi-Disciplinary Research Centre, University of Namibia.
This study looks at the history of domestic work in Namibia from the 19th century, and the place of domestic work in society since independence. More of a straightforward report than an analytic study, the Legal Assistance Center traces legislation relating to domestic workers throughout Namibia's history, as well as trade unionism and terms and conditions of employment. The latter part of the study presents data from the mid-90s addressing the previous topics, as well as demographics, knowledge and awareness of rights, and remuneration.

Østreng, Dorte
1997. Domestic Workers' Daily Lives in Post-Apartheid Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit.
This thesis looks at the daily life of domestic workers four years after Namibian independence. It looks at the factors of why domestic workers are so low in social status, to what degree changes have taken place since independence, and why only a small level of change has occurred. It addresses the role of South African apartheid in Namibia's labor force, the passage of Labour Acts and their effects, and the impact of the union on workers' lives.


Berger, Iris
1992. Threads of Solidarity: Women in South African Industry, 1900-1980. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
This book takes a broad look at gender and industrialization, women in unions, and the rise of a new working class. Domestic workers are discussed at length: employment patterns, forced removals, marital status, attempts at unionization, and race and employment. It also looks at the changes in the profession with unionization and during the period of the 1970s, with strikes and organizing.

Bothma, Martin and Celeste Campher
2003. "Minimum Wages for Domestic Workers: A Comprehensive Analysis." Acta Academica 35(1):190-205.
"This article investigates the impact of a minimum wage for domestic workers on employment levels. A comparative analysis of two surveys undertaken in a Bloemfontein suburb challenges the Minister's statement that the newly announced minimum wage for domestic workers in South Africa is 'not only affordable but very realistic.' The analysis indicates that the demand for domestic workers is decreasing and that minimum wages could aggravate the situation. The wages of domestic workers vary not only between areas, but also within areas. Therefore, if job losses occur, rural and full-time domestic workers will be most affected. COSATU's proposal that minimum wages should not be set according to geographical differentials, but according to work performed, seems meritorious." (Quoted from article abstract).

Cock, Jaclyn
1989. Maids and Madams: Domestic Workers Under Apartheid. London: Women's Press.
A revision of her longer work of the same title in 1980, Maids and Madams takes a look at the lives of domestic workers in South Africa under the reign of apartheid, including the conditions of service, relations with employers, self-perception of the workers, and the employers themselves. An important work that explores the oppression of women by women, it draws attention to the story of the poorest of the poor, examining the race, class, and gender dynamics that posit domestic workers in their societal position. 
1988. "Trapped Workers: The Case of Domestic Workers in South Africa." In Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and Workforce, Sharon B. Stichter and Jane L. Parpart, eds. Boulder & London: Westview Press, pp. 205-219.
This chapter looks at the way that domestic workers are "trapped" in their societal place due to apartheid laws, sexism, racism, and the power dynamics within their employers' homes. Pass and influx controls, Bantustans, economic necessity, and extreme poverty are all discussed here. Much attention is paid to the exploitation of black women by white women. Cock asserts that domestic labor does not exist specifically for economic reasons, but as an important social status marker that has been normalized within white South Africa.

Cole, Melissa
1992. "Inthuthuko Means That We Are Going Forward: Hearing the Voices of Domestic Workers in South Africa." Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 2(1):61-110.
"An account of the lives of domestic workers in Johannesburg, South Africa: their working hours, the wages they receive, the food and accommodations of live-in workers, the separation from their families, their relationships with their employers, their experiences with violence and harassment, the cultural and social status of African women, and their hopes for change." (Annotation from Colombia Journal of Gender and Law archives).

Cronje, E.
2002. "Story of the Life Satisfaction of a Group of Retired Domestic Workers in South Africa: A Qualitative Study." Social Work 38(3):224-238.
Abstract unavailable.

De Villiers, Florence
1989. "From Domestic Worker to Head of the Domestic Workers' Union." In Lives of Courage: Women for a New South Africa, Diane E.H. Russell, ed. New York: Basic Books, pp. 168-177.
The story of Florence De Villiers is the story of a woman who grew up as a "child of slaves" to become a leading labor organizer for domestic workers. De Villiers identifies some of the struggle that workers faced, including fighting against sexual harassment, dealing with racism, and fighting to be part of a union. A story of organizing and resistance from every possible angle, this chapter is a good primary account of the experiences of a union organizer of domestic workers.

Delport, Elizabeth
1994. "Domestic Workers-Light at the End of the Tunnel." In South African Women Today, Margaret Lessing, ed. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.
Abstract unavailable. 
1992. "Women as Domestic Workers in Southern Africa." Presented at the First International Conference on Women in Africa and the African Diaspora, July 13-18, Nsukka, Nigeria. Indianapolis, IN: Association of African Women Scholars, Indiana University, Women's Studies Program. Volume 7.
Abstract unavailable.

Department of Labour, South Africa
2001. "On the Release of a Report About Wages and Conditions of Employment for Domestic Workers."
This media statement talks about the different laws that have been applied to domestic workers since the fall of apartheid, including the Labour Relations Act and the Unemployment Insurance Bill. The report releases the findings of an investigation done by the Department of Labour into the minimum wages of domestic workers, and finds that workers are not being paid enough and are getting no benefits. The proposals from the Department to the government on remedying this situation are included in the conclusion.

Fish, Jennifer Natalie
2003. "Domestic Workers and Democratization: Challenging the Limits of Transformation in the New South Africa." PhD Dissertation, American University.
Fish's dissertation asks the question: How has the institution of domestic work changed in post-apartheid South Africa? Her paper is based primarily on field notes and personal interviews with workers in Cape Town. Her analysis is done through a feminist framework intersecting race, class, gender, and political location. Fish contends that until domestic workers' rights are recognized, South Africa will not fully realize its goal of a democratic government.

Flint, S.
1988. "The Protection of Domestic Workers in South Africa: A Comparative Study." Industrial Law Journal 9:1-15+.
Abstract unavailable.

Flood, Patrick, Clive Gibson, and Rodney Gibson
2002. You and Your Domestic Worker. Cape Town, South Africa: Ampersand Press.
This guide, written for employers, details the new domestic worker laws that have been passed in South Africa. It includes an outline of the legislation, definition of a domestic worker, conditions of service, and other important information, such as termination of employment benefits and good management practices. By no means comprehensive, this is the most widely available handbook for employers in South Africa.

Francis, S.
1999. International Maid of Mystery. Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Phillips Publishers.
The latest in a collection of comic strips by Francis, this comic gives the reader a glimpse of the image of domestic workers portrayed in pop culture (there is also a television series of the same name). Its comical representation of relations between the maid and her madam shows the normalization of the institution of domestic work that is the backbone of South African society.

Ginsburg, Rebecca Ann
2001. "At Home with Apartheid: The Cultural Landscapes of Suburban Johannesburg, 1960-1976." PhD Dissertation, University of California-Berkeley.
Ginsburg examines the rules and norms that Johannesburg's middle-class suburban employers impose on their African employees. It is an investigation into the ways that these employers act to keep their workers "in their place." Oral interviews are used to explore the cultural landscapes that are created in these homes, as well as the resistance of the workers to their exploitation.

Gordon, Sue
1974. Domestic Workers: A Handbook for Housewives. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations.
The third edition of the book, this "handbook" gives instruction to potential employers who are looking for a domestic worker. Including sections on everything from cultural background to wages to dealing with pass laws, it is a good illustration of the mindset and practices of white employers under apartheid in South Africa.
1985. A Talent for Tomorrow: Life Stories of South African Servants. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
Named as the most comprehensive personal history of South African domestic workers ever published, Gordon's book analogizes 24 life stories of domestics in South Africa. Though lacking in analysis, the work is an important contribution to the literature on domestic workers in S.A. The stories are told using the women's voices, giving the reader a window directly into the everyday lives of the domestic workers.

Grossman, Jonathan
2004. "The Denigrated Compassion and Vision of the Backyard: South African Domestic Workers in the New Global Village." Paper, February. University of Cape Town.
This paper takes a new look at the idea of "being a voice for the silenced." Grossman takes the instance of silence by domestic workers and shows that it is not a sign of ignorance, but a sign of knowing and resistance. Grossman also points out that the lessons that many activists need to learn in the fight for global justice is found in the silence and actions of those who are thought of as the bottom of society. This paper includes the biographical story of a domestic worker, and her silences and struggles, as evidence for his argument. 
2001. "Proposals for Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment for Domestic Workers." Paper, October. University of Cape Town.
This submission calls for the change into law of protections for South African domestic workers. There are nine proposals given by Grossman to change what he identifies as the unequal power relations in employment between the workers and employers. He states that the minimum wage proposed by the South African government is grossly inadequate, and advocates not only for higher pay, but legislation that would allow for a greater amount of integrity and comfort in the lives of the workers. 
2000. "Workers and Transition: An Investigation of Domestic Workers' Experience of Change and Continuity." Report to the National Research Foundation.
This investigation is looking at the concrete changes in conditions of domestic workers' lives with the passing of the revised Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1998. The project is focused on a series of meetings of domestic workers in Sea Point, Cape Town, and East London. The study found that there was evidence of widespread and systematic non-compliance with the laws. Most of the changes were in attitudes instead of material conditions. Enforcement practices and conditions of labor are also explored. 
1999. "Submission on Domestic Workers." To COSATU, September. Commission Investigating the Future of Trade Unions.
This submission is looking at the position of domestic workers in the labor market and the shortcomings and challenges of the organizing that was going on at the time. It names specific problems within the union, such as funding and lack of trained organizers, as well as a bit of the history of unionism. It also includes Grossman's proposals on the minimum standards needed for protective legislation. 
1996. "'My Wish is That My Kids Will Try to Understand One Day': Domestic Workers in South Africa Communicating the Experience of Abuse, Resistance, and Hope." Presented at 9th International Oral History Conference, Göteborg, Sweden, March.
This paper takes excerpts from a book that was written by Grossman collecting oral histories of the everyday lives of domestic workers in South Africa. The book shows that domestic workers do not enjoy the new freedoms they were promised under the new government. The stories are gathered beginning in the mid-1980s, and Grossman uses "then and now" comparisons to show the stagnation of progress in the workers' situation.

Hickson, Joyce and Martin Strous
1993. "The Plight of Black South African Women Domestics: Providing the Ultraexploited with Psychologically Empowering Mental Health Services." Journal of Black Studies 24(1):109-122.
This article gives the reader a brief description of the social position of domestic workers and the material inadequacies they face both inside and outside of their employers' homes. It describes the psychological place of the domestic worker as "non-human in the eyes of their employer," and the effects of that mentality. The issue of mental health services for domestic workers is discussed, placed in the already inadequate frame of South African mental health services. This article gives a psychological perspective on the sociological impacts of oppression. The target audience is mental health professionals, and recommendations are made in order to remedy the problems discussed above.

Human Rights Committee of South Africa
2000. "Domestic Workers." HRC Quarterly Review: Labour Rights are Human Rights June:61-73.
This report outlines the state of domestic workers in South Africa at the time of writing. Drawing upon documents such as the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, UDHR, and CEDAW Convention, it shows the lack of implementation of these documents in the new South Africa. At the end of the report, recommendations are made for formalization of the institution of domestic work in order to end the extreme exploitation of the workers.

Kedijang, M.
1990. The Best Kept Secret: Violence Against Domestic Workers. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand, Project for the Study of Violence.
Abstract unavailable.

Kgobetsi, Siballi
2000. "Tale of a Domestic Worker." In Poets Against War, Violence, and Nuclear Weapons (PAWN) presents, Poetically Speaking, Words Can Come Easy: An Anthology of Contemporary African Poetry, Siballi E.I. Kgobetsi, ed. Windhoek, Namibia: Gamsberg Macmillan, pg. 59.
This piece is a poem about the position of domestic workers in South African society.

Khan, Quarraisha
1992 "The Health of Domestic Workers in South Africa." In Women and Health in Africa, Meredith Turshen, ed. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, pp. 79-88.
Khan looks at the day-to-day conditions of domestic workers' lives and relates them to their health. The many occupational hazards are explored, such as stress-related disorders and injury from monotonous daily activities or harsh cleaning agents. The health hazards resulting from the poverty in which they live are also discussed-conditions of squatter camps, vulnerability to rape and theft, the double burden of housework for employers and their own families. The chapter ends with a look ahead to reform measures that can be taken to change the domestic workers' situation for the better.

Lazar, Eva Doreen
2000. "'Ain't I a Citizen?' A Study of Consciousness, Resistance, and Identity in the Domestic Service Sector in Post-Apartheid South Africa." PhD Dissertation, Queen's University at Kingston (Canada).
"This dissertation provides first a critical analysis of the current epistemological and ontological accounts of the domestic service sector. Second, it proposes a new theoretical framework of accommodation and resistance for examining this sector, drawing upon both cross-national literatures related to slavery, as well as a number of neo-Gramscian concepts. Third, within this new framework, this dissertation presents the findings of dozens of interviews with domestic workers, employers, government officials, union officials, and church workers, carried out in the Johannesburg region in 1997. Finally, primary data is integrated with a textual analysis of the new labour legislation in South Africa. The findings of this dissertation suggest that while domestic workers remain on the margins of South Africa's new social contract, there is evidence that a movement towards transformative politics in this sector may be possible in the near future. (Abstract taken directly from ProQuest).

Le Roux, Tessa
1999. "'Home is Where the Children Are': A Qualitative Study of Migratory Domestic Workers in Mmotla Village, South Africa." In Gender, Migration, and Domestic Service, Janet Henshall Momsen, ed. New York: Routledge, pp. 183-194.
This article contains short case studies of domestic workers, ages 23-39, in a small village 50 km north of Pretoria. It shares the reality of these women's lives and addresses the concerns that they have as live-in domestics, away from their families. It asks important questions about independence and women's liberation both through and from domestic work. It is a bit lacking in feminist analysis, but nevertheless, a good information piece.

Makosana, Isobel Z.
1989. "IZWI: The Working Conditions of African Domestic Workers in Cape Town in the 1980s." MA Thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Abstract unavailable.

Mandela, Makaziwe P.
1989. "A Study of the Relationship Between Work and Family Among Black Female Domestics in the United States and South Africa." MA Thesis, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts.
Abstract unavailable.

Matlanyane Sexwale, Bunie M.
1993. "Violence Against Women: The Case of South African Domestic Workers." In Breaking the Silence: Women Against Violence, W.K. State, ed. Kano, Nigeria: El-Kafiu Prints Company, pp. 38-57.
"This paper focuses on violence against black women domestic workers whose lives spell the centre of convergence for gender, race, class, and national oppression-underwritten by their legal abnegation. A brief historical background to the violence that surrounds domestic workers, their experiences of different forms of violence are described mainly through their own narration, and their action against the violence." (Abstract taken from chapter introduction).

Mohutsioa-Makhudud, Yvonne N.K.
1989. "The Psychological Effects of Apartheid on the Mental Health of Black South African Women Domestics." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 17(3):134-142.
The author of this article describes the relationship between domestic worker and employer as master-servant, regulated by social norms, legal measures, and racial-economic situations. The psychological effects of apartheid on the mental health of black women are explored at length. By looking at this, deeper insight into the effects of prejudice, segregation, and discrimination by the apartheid government on all people can be viewed. The aim of the article is to familiarize counselors working in South Africa with an understanding of the harsh realities that domestic workers face in their everyday lives.

McNeil, Colleen
1989. "Contradictory Forces in the Domestic Worker's Struggle: The Significance of Union Church and Culture in the Lives of Domestic Workers in Durban." MA Thesis, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa.
Abstract unavailable.

Møller, Valerie
1984. Images of Retirement: An Exploratory Study Among Black Domestic and Service Workers. Durban: Centre for Applied Social Sciences, University of Natal.
The purpose of this book was to explore the extent to which elderly black workers were influenced by a fast-changing society. The author picked women domestic workers specifically because of their lack of social mobility and low societal status because they were perceived as the least likely social group to adopt modern values. The central question of the study was whether or not the women took their modernity, learned at their place of employment, back with them to their traditional places of origin. This article offers statistics along with narratives from domestic workers on their perceptions of work and growing old in South Africa.

Romero, Patricia
1998. Profiles in Diversity: Women in the New South Africa. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
This book is a collection of oral histories from women in South Africa after independence. It is important to the literature on domestic workers because it situates them within a wider context of women, provides insight into other women's perceptions of them, and also speaks largely to the omittance of these women from mainstream consciousness. Romero compiles stories from many different races of women to produce this important volume of female narratives in the new South Africa.

South African Communist Party
2003. Red October Campaign Mobilises Domestic Workers in KwaZulu Natal. Johannesburg: SACP, October 31.
Announcement of rally to mobilize domestic workers in KwaZulu Natal. States the problems the workers face and the effort that will be made to organize them and educate them about their rights.

Van Der Westhuizen, Marinda
1998. "Routine Activity and Rational Choice with Specific References to the Victimization of Black, Female Domestic Workers in South Africa." Acta Criminologic 11(2):80-86.
Abstract unavailable.

Walker, Cherryl
1982. Women and Resistance in South Africa. London: Onyx Press.
This book traces the development of a women's movement in South Africa from 1910 to the early 1960s. Domestic workers are discussed at some length. This study is different than many of the others because it presents domestic workers as agents of change instead of victims. From their participation in the pass protests to everyday acts of resistance, Walker shows the strong nature of the unappreciated women who build the backbone of South African society.

South African Department of Labour
1997. "Basic Conditions of Employment Act, Chapter Four: Particulars of Employment and Remuneration."
This is the full content of South Africa's Basic Conditions of Employment Act. Chapter Four is of particular interest because when it was first passed, domestic workers were excluded from this chapter.

Zlotnick, Caron
1992. "The Courage to Survive: Violence in the Lives of Domestic Workers in South Africa." Paper Presented at the First International Conference on Women in Africa and the African Diaspora, Nsukka, Nigeria, July 13-18.
Abstract unavailable.


Miles, Miranda
1999. "Working in the City: The Case of Migrant Women in Swaziland's Domestic Service Sector." In Gender, Migration and Domestic Service, Janet Henshall Momsen, ed. London: Routledge, pp. 195-213.
This article explores the factors of female migration to the urban centers as domestic workers in the postcolonial state of Swaziland. It places a lot of weight on the land-reform programs of the Swazi government, and the need for two-income households in the capitalist Swaziland. The article includes gender analysis of land property and inter-family dynamics.

Mkhonza, Sarah
1996. "Narratives of Domestic Workers and the Role of Language in their Experiences in Swaziland." PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University.
This dissertation examines the place of domestic workers in both colonial and post-colonial Swaziland. By analyzing language use, Mkhonza draws conclusions about power relations between worker and employer. Structures like questions and commands exchanged between worker and employer are examined for issues of power. The primary finding of the research is that the employers have the power in the relationship, and that the workers view themselves as objects to be controlled in their employers' homes.


Bujra, Janet M.
2000. Serving Class: Masculinity and the Feminisation of Domestic Service in Tanzania. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute.
This book looks at the place of domestic servants in Tanzanian society, and its transformation, from a mostly male profession in the 1980s to now, when more women are taking up domestic service jobs. "Each chapter problematizes the question of domestic service in a different wayas colonial discourse, gender dislocation, labour migration, personal narrative, class statement, household politics, and political struggle." It examines the causes and effects of the feminization of labor, including creating competition between men and women, and the social and economic transformation of the rural areas. (Abstract quotation taken from introduction).


Hansen, Karen Tranberg
1989. Distant Companions: Servants and Employers in Zambia, 1900-1985. London and Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hansen's work gives a description and analysis of continuity and change in domestic service in Zambia from 1900-1985. It examines the origins of domestic service, the everyday life of the workers, and the relationships between employer and employee. The construction of gender roles is also addressed now that women are entering the domestic service force in Zambia.


Clarke, Duncan G.
1974. Domestic Servants in Rhodesia: The Economics of Masters and Servants. Gwelo, Rhodesia: Mambo Press.
Clarke's book looks at the position of domestic workers in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Macro- and micro-economic factors are analyzed here, as well as the impact of the Masters and Servants Act and the possibility for reform. Though the political and social landscape of Zimbabwe has changed considerably since the time of publishing, it is a good historical piece.

Gender & HIV/AIDS

Gender and HIV/AIDS
Compiled by Marita Eibl and Valerie Foster

HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic. As of December 2002, over 42 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, with 70% of those cases occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS 2002). Women are fast becoming the predominant group infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; in Sub-Saharan Africa, women have a higher number of new HIV/AIDS cases than do men. Because HIV/AIDS is growing among women, gendered perspectives and research are needed to understand contexts of infection and its effects on agriculture and other aspects of the economy and society. The Gender and HIV/AIDS bibliography is divided into two major sections. The first, "Gender and Development," gives an overview of literature concerning how HIV/AIDS has affected land and water rights, agrarian livelihoods, and food and nutrition, as well as how those issues may affect the course of the disease. The second section, "Empowerment, Vulnerability, Rights, and Sexuality," focuses on constructions of gendered power and risk as well as human rights and social justice. The bibliography includes citations from many countries but the major focus is Sub-Saharan Africa, the current epicenter.

I. Gender and Development

HIV/AIDS is not solely a health crisis; it is a development one as well. Ninety-five percent of HIV/AIDS cases are from developing countries. As women often bear the double burden of being both sick and a caregiver to the sick, the context of gendered development is critical to understanding the epidemic.

Akeroyd, Anne
1996. Some Gendered and Occupational Aspects of HIV and AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa: Changes, Continuities and Issues for Further Consideration at the End of the First Decade. Occasional Paper #60. Centre for African Studies: Edinburgh University.
Understanding and evaluating the broader and long-term consequences of the AIDS pandemic in developing countries require the analysis of national and international political and economic systems, of social institutions and organizations, and the cultural contexts of behaviors and beliefs, as well as of individual responses and motivations. This paper addresses some of these sociocultural factors with a particular emphasis on the gendered and occupational aspects that impact the spread of AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa, using evidence and inference and noting the silences.

Barnett, Tony and Alan Whiteside
2002. AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Barnett and Whiteside examine HIV/AIDS at the intersection of poverty and inequality. The book is divided into three main sections. The first details the global epidemic with statistics and outlines the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. The following section reviews the socioeconomic factors of the pandemic and gives national case studies. The last part concentrates chapters on the impact of HIV/AIDS on development, marginalized populations, agrarian livelihoods, land tenure, governance, and globalization. Barnett and Whiteside work to contextualize HIV/AIDS and development not only in specific places, but to place the epidemic in a global viewpoint.

Benell, Paul, Karin Hyde, and Nicola Swainson
2002. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Education Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Synthesis of the Finding and Recommendations of Three Country Studies. Centre for International Education. University of Sussex, Institute of Education.

Dryer, Abigail, Julia Kim, and Nikki Schaay
2002. Violence Against Women: What Do We Want to Teach Our Teachers?.
South Africa has a history of very high levels of violence which dates back to the apartheid era, if not further. A women is raped every 35 seconds, estimates the South African Police Service. Gender-based violence (GBV), and its link to HIV infection, is very gradually being discussed in the public domain, but educators have no choice but to provide learners with the basic skills to cope with the dual threat of gender violence and HIV/AIDS now. But how, and when, can this be done within an education system?
*Please note that this source may be difficult to find and access online*

This website contains a resource guide, complete with full-text articles, to the impact of HIV/AIDS on issues regarding human rights, agrarian livelihoods, gender, and more.

Epstein, H.
2002. The Hidden Cause of AIDS. The New York Review of Books 49(8).
This article links HIV/AIDS in rural Mozambican areas with poverty, unemployment, and the mining industry in South Africa.

Ferguson, Anne
2003. Water Reform, Gender, and HIV/AIDS: Perspectives from Malawi. Paper delivered at the Society for Applied Anthropology Meetings, Portland, OR, March.
In Southern Africa, where the rates of HIV/AIDS infection are the highest in the world, the disease is increasingly recognized as both a health and a development crisis. New policies and laws on water, land, poverty alleviation, and natural resource management recently enacted in the region have largely overlooked the implications of HIV/AIDS. This article considers the gender and health implications of the neoliberal inspired water reform being implemented in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Southern Africa. While privatization of municipal water supplies has captured much international notice - and criticism - little attention has been given to the effects of "community based" policies for rural water supply in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Here too enclosure is underway. Research findings from Southern Malawi suggest that the new water reform policy may increase social and gender differentiation, inequality, and ill-health.

Fleishman, Janet
2003. Fatal Vulnerabilities: Reducing the Acute Risk of HIV/AIDS Among Women and Girls. Washington: CSIS.
The HIV/AIDS crisis makes lethal the subordinate status of women and girls. In some of the worst-affected countries in Southern Africa, HIV prevalence among girls aged 15 to 19 is four to seven times higher than among boys their age, a disparity linked to widespread sexual abuse, coercion, discrimination, and impoverishment. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the epicenter of the epidemic, women and girls account for more than half58 percentof those living with HIV/AIDS, and infection rates are rising rapidly among young women in many parts of the world.

Gupta, Geeta Rao
2001. Gender, Sexuality, and HIV/AIDS: The What, the Why, and the How. In Global Perspectives on Gender, Sexual Health, and HIV/AIDS, SIECUS Report 29(5).

Halperin, Daniel
2001. Is Poverty the Root Cause of (Southern) African AIDS? AIDS Bulletin 10(2):12-14.
This article considers whether we should also be looking at some of the more neglected factors behind the pandemic.

Kempe, Ronald Hope Sr.
1999. AIDS and Development in Africa: A Social Science Perspective. New York: The Haworth Press.
This book demonstrates the human consequences of AIDS and the efforts being made by governments, individuals, families, villages, communities, and non-governmental organizations to respond to the pandemic. The reader will go beyond the usual analysis of demographics and receive much more substantial assessments and analyses of the burden on the people, economics, and healthcare systems of the African countries. Specifically this book focuses on: socioeconomic context of AIDS; social scientific explanations of the AIDS pandemic in Africa; HIV/AIDS and the status of women in Botswana and Swaziland; sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS; law and HIV/AIDS; orphans of the AIDS pandemic; media and the African context of social construction; human resource development and training in relation to HIV/AIDS in Zambia.

Manuh, Takyiwaa
1998. Women in Africa's Development: Overcoming Obstacles, Pushing for Progress.
Using data collected from numerous sources, Manuh seeks to present an overview of women and development in Africa. While realizing women's power, she recognizes women have mutual aid organizations and spheres of influence. Yet women lack control over many aspects of their lives. Manuh attributes the lack of power to three factors. First, structural adjustment programs have increased women's responsibilities in the household. Second, civil strife and violence have also eroded women's empowerment. Finally, more women than men have been infected by HIV/AIDS. Manuh explores these factors in relation to economics, education, health, law, and politics. While these issues affect women's lives, women are still responsible for over half of household food production and often work 12 to 13 more hours a week than men. Manuh closes by exploring routes of empowerment by detailing women's organizations in Africa.

Page, Sam
2001. Promoting the Survival of Rural Mothers with HIV/AIDS: A Development Strategy for Southern Africa. Development 44(4):40-46.
African women are often responsible for care of children, care of the sick, and ensuring food for the household. Many women are infected with HIV/AIDS; the suppression of their immune systems speeds the progression of the disease and their deaths. Page looks at factors that increase immune suppression. First, a poor diet affects health - many farmers turn to low-impact crops like cassava and taro when they are sick, even though those foods have few nutrients. Contact with organophosphate and carbonate pesticides, without proper protection, suppresses the immune system. Exposure to other infections and reinfections of STDs also wears on one's immune system. Successive pregnancies also repress the immune system. Finally, fatigue due to labor, as well as anxiety over disease and poverty, negatively affects one's health. After reviewing the factors that inhibit the immune system, Page puts forth recommendations for development strategists that address each issue.

Siyanda is a site dedicated to gender equality and development. Its database contains full text articles on gender, development, and HIV/AIDS.

Tallis, V.
2002. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Overview Report. Institute of Development Studies, UK.

Topouzis, D.
1998. The Implications of HIV/AIDS for Rural Development Policy and Programming: Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. UNDP, Geneva.
This paper examines the implications of the HIV epidemic for rural development policies and programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, the interrelationships between rural development and HIV/AIDS; and broad policy and programming challenges that the epidemic poses for rural institutions. The proposed conceptual framework for the identification of key policy and programming issues for rural development raised by HIV is intended to provide guidance for the design and conduct of a set of four case studies to be carried out in Southern and Eastern Africa.

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
2001. Turning the Tide: CEDAW and the Gender Dimensions of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. UNIFEM, New York.
This booklet is a guide to assist governments and NGOs in understanding and incorporating a gendered human rights perspective in their responses to HIV/AIDS.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
This is the United Nations website dedicated to HIV/AIDS. It includes links to HIV/AIDS and gender, human rights, and more. It also has updated news, links, and full text articles.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2002. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS, Geneva.
This report presents the considered views on the state of the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), which is comprised of eight United Nations system agencies. It also presents evidence of the responses to the epidemic mounted by many partners, including governments, the business sector, and civil society. The report provides positive proof that HIV, if left to run its natural course, will cause devastation on an unprecedented scale.

UN Women
UN Women produced this web portal that has news, full-text articles, and links to other websites concerning gender and HIV/AIDS.

Wellesley Center for Research on Women and Development & Training Services, Inc.
2003. Unsafe Schools: Gender-Based Violence and Its Impact on Girls' Education and Health: A Literature Review and Analysis.
Explores the impact of an unsafe, hostile school environment on girls' education and health. Reviews literature in the areas of 1) violence against girls and young women and 2) HIV/AIDS and youth. Also engages in a systematic exploration of literature in the area of harassment and violence again female students, HIV risk in schools, and programmatic interventions that attempt to address these issues. Concludes with a series of recommendations for further research and interventions derived from the literature reviewed.

Whelan, Daniel
1999. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Taking Stock of Research and Programmes. International Centre for Research on Women. United Nations,
Gender norms significantly affect an individual's risk and societal vulnerability to HIV/AIDS because they ascribe distinct productive and reproductive roles to women and men, and because they differently influence women and men's access to key resources such as information, education, employment, income, land, property, and credit. Insofar as gender permeates all aspects of society and social relations, any accurate analysis of personal and societal vulnerability to HIV/AIDS must examine these factors from a gender perspective. This article has two sections. The first describes public health and social science research on personal and societal vulnerability of HIV/AIDS in terms of prevention, care, and support as they relate to gender. The second reviews programme efforts within public health and development initiatives to address gender issues and concerns as a key component of reducing personal and societal vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and its impact.

I. a. Water and Land Rights

Drimie, Scott
2002. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land: Case Studies from Kenya, Lesotho, and South Africa. Southern African Regional Office of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Using research collected from three African nations, Drimie examined the effect of HIV/AIDS on land use, rights, and land tenure administrations. Paying close attention to women and children, he investigated tenure policies, survival strategies, security of rights, food security, and the training of new administrators. Overall, Drimie saw that HIV/AIDS caused more land to remain fallow, a switch to less labor-intensive crops, a preference for home gardens, and an increase in the selling of livestock. He closes by putting forth recommendations to diversify income bases, increase access to water, overcome stigma, and develop community-based strategies and homecare projects. Drimie also argues for more formalized, enforceable land tenure policies in order to protect women and children's land rights.

Mphale, Matšeliso M. and Emmanuel G. Rwambali
2003. Feedback Report on Communities Reactions to the Findings on the Study of HIV/AIDS and Its Impacts on Land Tenure and Livelihoods in Lethoso. Southern African Regional Poverty Network.
Supported by the Southern African Regional Poverty Network and by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Mphale and Rwambali gathered data on the national, local, and community levels regarding results from a study on HIV/AIDS. Arguing that research results are often confined to journals or books, the researchers sought to share the results of a study with the people that were studied. Also knowing mass media does not reach rural areas, the researchers organized workshops to get feedback. The topics of the original study and of the workshops included food insecurity, delays in farming, school fees, reduced wages, cultural restrictions on widows, garden farming, sale of assets, and stigmatization due to HIV/AIDS.

Mullins, Dan
2001. Land Reform, Poverty Reduction and HIV/AIDS. Paper presented at the Southern African Regional Poverty Network Conference on Land Reform and Poverty Alleviation in Southern Africa.
Mullins argues that HIV/AIDS is not only a development issue, but a long-term one as well. Attention must be paid to the present and future impacts of HIV/AIDS on land reform policies. As there is usually a four- to ten-year period between HIV infection and AIDS, current statistics are reflective of circumstances five years ago. Current circumstances must be studied in order to anticipate future issues. In assessing impacts on human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital, each policy must be contextualized within its own setting. National statistics cannot be relied on for individual communities. Mullins argues that land reform institutions must educate themselves first about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in local settings and then create workplace policies and vulnerability audits to mitigate future effects.

Walsh, Janet
2003. Double Standards: Women's Property Rights Violations in Kenya. Human Rights Watch 15(5A).
Gathering data from interviews across ten ethnic groups, Walsh investigates women's lack of access and ownership of land in Kenya. Women, often because of cultural norms, cannot own land. Women are to be supported by fathers and husbands. As HIV/AIDS claims more and more lives, greater numbers of women are left to head households, yet many are denied land from family and from the state. The government, according to Walsh, often states that it should not get involved with culture, meaning it does not challenge customary, patriarchal land tenure. Walsh's report details her interviews with women who have lost land and women who have retained it, as well as offering insight from men regarding changing land tenure to include women.

I. b. Agriculture, Food Security, and Nutrition

de Waal, Alex and Joseph Tumushabe
2003. HIV/AIDS and Food Security in Africa. Southern African Regional Poverty Network.
The authors focus on the effects of HIV/AIDS on agrarian livelihoods, specifically on food insecurity in Southern Africa. de Waal and Tumushabe argue for an alternative paradigm regarding HIV/AIDS called the "New Variant Famine," which recognizes the effects of the epidemic and prolific food insecurity as intertwined. In addition, they argue that even in the absence of HIV/AIDS, current stress coping strategies may be inefficient for meeting a household's food needs. People, usually women, who rely on agriculture and livestock for subsistence and survival, suffer from loss of income, productivity, land, labor, knowledge, and experience when a household is affected by HIV/AIDS. After reviewing the consequences of HIV/AIDS on agrarian livelihoods, de Waal and Tumushabe give recommendations to developers that include the incorporation of low-input, high-yielding cash crops, lighter ploughs for women and children, animals who need less care, the forum to share agrarian knowledge, and the opportunity for community micro-credit projects. As the epidemic grows, action, not just awareness, will need to be taken to combat both HIV/AIDS and food insecurity. The article includes statistical listings regarding labor losses and cassava production for Southern and Eastern African nations.

Egal, F. and A. Vlastar
1999. HIV/AIDS and Nutrition: Helping Families and Communities to Cope. FAO, Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture 25.
This article focuses on the detrimental impact of HIV/AIDS on nutrition and household food security. The article focuses on the interaction between HIV/AIDS and nutrition from the biological and socioeconomic perspectives.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
n.d., search on "AIDS."
A number of articles and other resources are available on this site that focus on a combination of the interrelationships of gender, AIDS, agriculture, poverty, and food security.

Mtika, Mike Mathambo
2001. The AIDS Epidemic in Malawi and Its Threat to Household Food Security. Human Organization 60(2):178-188.
With AIDS taking the lives of the most economically productive members of a household, there is a decrease in labor and increase in medical costs, funeral costs, and food insecurity. Mtika argues that the escalation of household food insecurity negatively impacts social immunity, which he defines as a collective resistance against problems. The collective he discusses is not only extended family, but community as well. In researching food security, Mtika breaks down labor, caregiving, and funeral attendance responsibilities between men and women. Women were often laborers, primary caregivers, and attended more funerals than men. Interestingly, though, Mtika concludes AIDS is not a direct factor in food insecurity. The level of social immunity directly impacts food security. It is AIDS that affects social immunity, making it difficult for families and friends to have the resources or labor to support each other during a time of epidemic.

Mutangadura, Gladys, Helen Jackson, and Duduzile Mukurazita (eds.)
1999. AIDS and African Smallholder Agriculture. Harare, Zimbabwe: Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service.
This edited volume is the product of a conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe, addressing AIDS and agriculture in Southern and Eastern Africa. The papers have been divided into four main themes. The first section, "AIDS and Rural Livelihoods," focuses on how AIDS has affected the quantity and quality of African agriculture and livestock production. It also pays attention to how decreased production affects both child labor and nutrition. The papers in "Gender Dimensions of the Impact" center on women's roles as household supporters working to acquire and maintain land as they fight AIDS. The third section, "Technology Development for Smallholder Farmers," deals with AIDS as the impetus for agricultural reform by looking at the resource bases of both affected and non-affected households. The fourth theme concentrates on how to call attention to the effect of AIDS on agriculture, both internationally and locally, as well as how to make farming practices possible for older and younger farmers, who have lost the most economically productive family members to HIV/AIDS. The book includes two appendices that summarize the other papers presented at the conference and gives contact information on the participants. Each paper also includes bibliographic references.

Rugalema, Gabriel
1999. HIV/AIDS and the Commercial Agricultural Sector of Kenya: Impact, Vulnerability, Susceptibility and Coping Strategies. FAO Report, SDdimensions.
This article illustrates the effects of HIV/AIDS on agriculture in Kenya and on the economy as a whole and how the epidemic severely hits the Kenyan workforce in its prime. Many of the victims are in their 20s and 30s, their most productive years, when they begin to develop symptoms and fall ill. These severe losses affect an entire generation. Beyond the human tragedy, this situation results in steadily rising costs to companies, and these companies suffer sharp profit losses as a result of the loss of workers and decreased working hours due to illness, death, overwork and stress, attendance at funerals, and home care of ill dependents.

SADC FANR Vulnerability Assessment Committee
2003. Towards Identifying Impacts of HIV/AIDS on Food Insecurity in Southern Africa and Implications for Response: Findings from Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The article focuses on the link between HIV/AIDS and food insecurity. SADC found that food security relied on three factors: adult morbidity, adult mortality, and demographic load. In turn, these factors were most negatively affected by HIV/AIDS. The authors then ask the question of what can slow, prevent, or reverse the growing trends of HIV infection and food insecurity. Using data collected from Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, each of which has over 25 percent of their respective populations on food aid, SADC puts forward three recommendations. First, aid should focus on consumption side support, looking at households headed by chronically ill adults, women, and children. Second, productivity enhancing projects should be initiated for women and the elderly. Finally, household and community safety nets such as micro-credit and savings projects should be started. Used in combination, the authors believe that the effects of HIV/AIDS and food insecurity could be positively affected. The article includes tables and graphs illustrating quantitative data from the national studies.

Stokes, C. Shannon
2003. Measuring Impacts of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods and Food Security.
Stokes reviews the five capital assets of rural households - human, financial, natural, social, and physical - in relation to the effects of HIV/AIDS on each of them. Using research funded by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Stokes investigates those assets at the household and community levels. Stokes argues that, in addition to developing labor saving technologies and better access to water and fuel, researchers must also investigate to see if and how the technologies are being used. She also contends that knowledge must be shared across generational and gender boundaries. The article has tables on the effects of HIV/AIDS on household and community assets.
*Please note that this source may be difficult to find and access online*

Takashi, Yamano and T.S. Jayne
2002. Measuring the Impacts of Prime-Age Adult Death on Rural Households in Kenya. Tegemeo Working Paper 5. Nairobi, Kenya: Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development.
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, the authors measure how prime-age adult mortality affects rural households' size and composition, agricultural production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available date on an HIV-negative sampling from neighboring Tanzania to predict the number of deaths that might have been expected in the absence of HIV, and compares this to the number of deaths actually recorded over the survey interval in the Kenyan sample. Next, using a household fixed-effects model that controls for time-varying effects, the authors measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult death are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for agricultural research and extension programs as well as for safety net programs designed to cushion the impacts of prime-age adult death.

Topouzis, Daphne and Jacques du Guerny
1999. Sustainable Agricultural/Rural Development and Vulnerability to the AIDS Epidemic. FAO and UNAIDS Joint Publication.
The impacts of AIDS in developing countries are out of the ordinary in many ways, but three stand out. First, AIDS affects primarily the most productive age groups; second, although it strikes most harshly among the poor and marginalized in global terms, AIDS does not spare the elites or middle class; and third, AIDS is not gender-neutral. For an example of the latter, one has only to look at the acute vulnerability of widows compared to widowers in high-prevalence societies. However, no matter what level of prevalence is found in any given country, the impact of AIDS on affected families and communities is of devastating magnitude. Thus, while macro-economic effects are of importance in evaluating the socioeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS, they must never be separated from the human-scale consequences on individuals. FAO's constitutional mandate is to improve food production and distribution as well as the conditions of rural populations. To that end, it works in partnership with governments, regional organizations, international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and, where appropriate, with the private sector. For its part, UNAIDS has the task of mobilizing a broad-based response to the global health and development challenges posed by HIV/AIDS. The programme works in partnership with governments, NGOs, and the business sector as well as seven co-sponsors (UNICEF, UNDP, UNDCP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO, and the World Bank) and other regional and international bodies. Together with their range of partners and expertise, FAO and UNAIDS are uniquely positioned to develop measures to alleviate the impact of AIDS on food security, and to reduce vulnerability to AIDS through sustainable rural development. This joint publication is but one example of cooperation between the two partners.

Topouzis, Daphne and Jacques du Guerny
1995. Module III: Gender, Rural Fertility/Mortality & Farming Systems. United Nations Population Information Network.
This article focuses on how approximately 80 percent of African women live and work in rural areas under conditions that support and sustain high fertility and where the expected economic contribution of children is substantial. Further, Sub-Saharan Africa exhibits the highest rates of economic activity and fertility and the highest levels of maternal and child mortality in the world.

United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN)
2001. Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Nutrition Policy Paper No. 20. ACC/SCN: Geneva.
Each section of this paper is followed by audience questions with answers from the authors.

Sassa, Oliver S.
2001. HIV/AIDS and Development: Unsolved Challenges for Africa. In Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Nutrition Policy Paper No. 20. ACC/SCN: Geneva. Pp. 26-37. 
Poverty is a driving force behind the AIDS epidemic. Poverty, in turn, is driven by a lack of control over resources, such as land, water, livestock, and social support. Sassa begins by examining HIV/AIDS with macro-economic indexes like the Human Development Index and Human Poverty Index, as well as GNP for African nations. He then investigates how those readings affect the nutrition levels of individual households, productivity of malnourished workers, and crop outputs of farmers. He argues that the education and health sectors of society are also affected by the malnourishment of not only those suffering from HIV/AIDS, but their families as well. This paper includes tables listing macro-economic indicators, boxes with statistics on AIDS, and a bar graph on AIDS and risk.

Gillespie, Stuart, Lawrence Haddad, and Robin Jackson
2001. HIV/AIDS, Food, and Nutrition Security: Impacts and Actions. In Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Nutrition Policy Paper No. 20. ACC/SCN: Geneva. Pp. 38-53.
The nutritional needs of an individual with HIV are higher than the needs of an uninfected individual. In addition, good nutrition may slow or lessen the effects of HIV. In turn, malnourishment speeds the effects of HIV and increases risk for vertical transmission. Women are the most affected by issues of food security, as they are often the primary caregivers of the sick and of the children in a household. AIDS diverts their labor from income or food generating activities or energy gathering work as they care for the sick. As medical costs increase, household assets are sold and malnourishment becomes an issue for the uninfected as well. Gillespie, et al., contends that food aid is a necessity, but wants to focus on three main points. One, food aid should be focused at the community, not household, level. Two, food aid needs to be combined with other initiatives like education and income training with the goal of sustainability. Finally, as AIDS kills individuals, farming knowledge is lost too. Food security policy should include farmer meetings so knowledge can be shared. The authors have included figures and boxes explaining how malnutrition and HIV vulnerability are connected to vertical transmission, and listings of rural household responses to HIV/AIDS.

Dlamini, Phetsile
2001. Nutrition and the Care Package. In Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Nutrition Policy Paper No. 20. ACC/SCN: Geneva. Pp. 54-61.
As HIV/AIDS takes the lives of parents, a group of grandmothers and great-grandmothers are raising children. As these extended families grow, nutrition and food security are growing problems as well. Dlamini, the Minister for Health and Social Welfare in Swaziland, argues that while anti-retroviral drugs are needed, many are out of reach for most individuals. Good nutrition, though, is a reasonable goal, is necessary for a strong immune system, and may slow HIV progression. The paper includes a nutritional guide for people with HIV. Dlamini also argues for the implementation of school feeding projects to ensure children are being fed well.

II. Empowerment, Vulnerability, Rights, and Sexuality

Gendered inequality produces both social and individual risk of HIV/AIDS for women. This section explores how gender inequality manifests itself in education, employment, economics, survival sex, and violence. It is also concerned with contested means of empowerment including education, activism, contraceptives, and human rights discourse. Contextualizing individuals with HIV/AIDS in a specific time and place creates greater awareness of the risk factors and possible prevention initiatives it is necessary to identify to fight HIV/AIDS.

Baylies, Carolyn
2002. HIV/AIDS and Older Women in Zambia: Concern for Self, Worry over Daughters, Towers of Strength. Third World Quarterly 23(2):351-375.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, there are more women living with HIV/AIDS than men. Yet, as Baylies notes, women are not a homogenous group. Therefore, women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is not uniform, but affected by social locale in a particular time and place. Drawing from personal research in Zambia as well as comparative studies from other African nations, Baylies looks at age, marital status, family ties, and cultural gender norms as to how they affect women's risk for HIV/AIDS. What Baylies reveals is that each factor may correlate with decreased risk in one area and with increased risk in another. Finally, Baylies looks at women as advocates for their daughters and within their communities. As women work to educate their daughters and communities, they are also empowering themselves by creating space to change their social status. Baylies also asks for further exploration into what change women can produce and which women are able to produce it.

Baylies, Carolyn, Janet Bujra, and the Gender and AIDS Group
2000. AIDS, Sexuality, and Gender in Africa: Collective Strategies and Struggles in Tanzania and Zambia. London: Routledge.
The focus of this edited volume is on gender and HIV/AIDS. The authors are researching women's physiological, economic, and social vulnerabilities to the disease, as well as their ability and potential to actively prevent and fight the disease. Using seven case studies from Tanzania and Zambia, the authors work to not make women or men homogenous groups, but recognize age and status as well. More importantly, the authors, while focusing mainly on women, see HIV/AIDS as a genderedconcerning both men and womenproblem needing a gendered solution.

Bujra, Janet
2000. Risk and Trust: Unsafe Sex, Gender, and AIDS in Tanzania. In Risk Revisited, edited by Pat Caplan. London: Pluto Press, pp. 59-84.
Using anthropological research from 1995-97 in Lushoto, Tanzania, Bujra looks at ideas of risk regarding AIDS, including concepts from Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens. Taking points from Beck and Giddens, Bujra constructs a risk framework based on their work. In this framework, risk is a social equalizer, and it is universalized, so there is no escape. While Bujra agrees that men and women are suspicious of each other and that both rich and poor are vulnerable to AIDS, she thinks that the framework does not fully address the concept of risk for AIDS. In Tanzania, risk is intertwined with the concept of trust. Trust is defined in relationships, as those "inside" one's community can be trusted, while those "outside" are viewed with doubt. The symbol of trust is defined by the condom in the AIDS epidemic. One does not use a condom with those he or she "trusts." For women, though, trust is outlined by others - they are to trust their husbands, regardless of personal risk. While women and men both have multiple partners, women are often blamed by society for HIV transmission, making women "untrustworthy." In addition, the condom itself is from the outside, and is regarded with skepticism as well. Effective HIV prevention initiatives, including condom campaigns, must address societal norms about trust and risk in order to work.

Bujra, Janet and Carolyn Baylies
2001. Targeting Men for a Change: AIDS Discourse and Activism in Africa. ID21 Research Highlights.
This submission to the ID21 Research Highlights points out that women cannot protect themselves against HIV infection without the cooperation of men. Two key challenges include (1) creating programs that treat men as individuals, and (2) being aware that the relations between men and women -- not men and women themselves -- are in need of change. Men continue to make important family decisions, control the benefit of women's labor, consider it their right to marry younger women and have extramarital relationships, and run the risk of contracting HIV through unprotected sex with multiple partners. At the same time, men are beginning to re-evaluate traditional gender roles and discuss issues of sexual health and condom use. Prevention programs need to focus on men in general rather than only such groups as long-distance truck drivers and army personnel. HIV/AIDS programs should target men but also acknowledge women's need for support and resources. Creative approaches should encourage men to take responsibility for their wives, partners, and children. Effective programs must also appeal to all sexually active men, not just those who appear promiscuous. Finally, politicians and other high-profile men need to advocate for men to assume their responsibility in HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

Cáceres, Carlos
2000. Afterword: The Production of Knowledge and Sexuality in the AIDS Era: Some Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges. In Framing the Sexual Subject, edited by Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa, and Peter Aggleton. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 216-259.
Cáceres investigates trends in the construction of sexuality in "Afterword." The chapter is broken into four main sections, along with a bibliography. The first part, "Science and the Construction of Knowledge of the Sexual," focuses on the use of scientific knowledge in sex culture research. Scientific knowledge is universal, but interpretation is local. The "new paradigm of the sexual" integrates power into the realm of the sexual, which has driven a social constructionist movement both academically and in activism. Cáceres uses the World Health Organization's policies on AIDS to show that sexuality is a part of the social sciences, along with biomedicine. He also argues for a more complete methodology and for a more local focus in research on the sexual. The second section, "Looking for a New Paradigm?" delves more into combining the methodologies of biomedicine and social science. Cáceres views quantitative and qualitative research as complementary. In "Some Relevant Issues," the author posits that sexual identity and practices must be studied in cultural meanings, relational contexts, and outside of biomedical classifications. Finally, in "Postmodern Concerns," Cáceres acknowledges that researchers must also frame themselves within their research. There is no objective researcher. The strength of the piece is in its exploration of the theories on the sexual and in tracing how the sexual was appropriating to certain disciplines.

Campbell, Catherine
2000. Selling Sex in the Time of AIDS: The Psycho-social Context of Condom Use by Sex Workers on a Southern African Mine. Social Science and Medicine 50:479-494.
Campbell investigates the social support networks and coping strategies formed by groups of marginalized women who work as sex workers. Using individual interviews for data, Campbell notes that the majority of women have become sex workers for economic reasons, and their poverty as well as their gender makes them vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, as they are unable to negotiate condom usage. While most sex workers feel separated from their biological families, most have formed social bonds with their colleagues, who offer physical, psychological, and economic support. By tracing "matrilineal lines" created by retired sex workers for younger ones, Campbell reveals a stratified society. By redefining social respectability, women have reappropriated for themselves social norms of status, respect, and confidence.

Center for Reproductive Rights
2002. HIV/AIDS: Reproductive Rights on the Line.
The Center for Reproductive Rights looks at seven areas of concern regarding women, HIV/AIDS, and reproduction. First, the center argues for more research regarding anti-retroviral drugs on the health of the pregnant woman. Also, the center wants a more coherent message concerning whether breast milk or formula is better for HIV positive mothers to give their infants. Looking at some Chinese and African policies that try to reduce reproduction by HIV positive women, the center would like to ensure the right of those infected by HIV/AIDS to reproduce and marry. In addition, it calls for greater access to abortion without coercion. It also seeks to decrease discrimination and stigmatization associated with HIV/AIDS. Finally, it asks governments to direct HIV/AIDS prevention policies to both men and women. The article also discusses Nevirapine, a drug that may reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission.

Chiarelli, D., J. Delahanty, C. Marcelis, R.M. Murphy, B.N. Seaborn, K. Seabrooke
1999. Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS. Ottawa: Women's Health Interaction.
The women's health movement has a powerful tool in feminist theory, which, at base, includes a critique of male-dominated and hierarchical power structures that underlie poverty and powerlessness. A feminist analysis of women's health problems is based upon core principles with which to approach the phenomena of disease and health, as well as the related processes involved in the research, treatment, and prevention of disease.

Chiganze, F, J. Decosas, and J. Chikore
2000. Linking the Issues: HIV, Gender, Human Rights, and Child Protection. Durban: International AIDS Conference.
There is general awareness of the links between vulnerability to HIV, gender inequality, limitation of human rights, and the abuse of children. This awareness is particularly high among AIDS service organizations, although it is often only conceptual and not reflected in the organization's activities. On the other hand, organizations working for gender equality, human rights, or the protection of children may be aware of the impact of HIV on their work, but have few means to translate this awareness into action.

Chigodora, J.
2001. Young Men and HIV/AIDS. SAfAIDS 9(4):17.
Though cultural practices in the region vary from one community to another, young men are brought up to be heads of families and decision makers especially on sexual matters, yet many care programs in the region do not specifically target men. The burden is often carried by women and children with little involvement of men, yet their inclusion in HIV/AIDS programs is of paramount importance if they are to be effective.

Commonwealth Secretariat and Maritime Centre of Excellence in Women's Health
2002. Gender Mainstreaming in HIV/AIDS: Taking a Multisectoral Approach. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Gender mainstreaming is planning for the results of any development action with respect to both men and women. The Commonwealth Secretariat has organized a basic text that gives definitions for terms regarding "gender" as well as statistics about HIV/AIDS for entire populations, as well as sections of populations. It gives brief overviews of the effects of AIDS in agriculture, education, health, labor, and law along with eight case studies from around the globe. It also contains two appendices on the United Nations guidelines for HIV-related human rights and on global commonwealth mandates on gender and HIV/AIDS. In addition, the book has a list of online resources and a bibliography.

de Guzman, A.
2001. Reducing Social Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Models of Care and Their Impact in Resource-Poor Settings. AIDS Care 13(5):663-675.
Knowledge about HIV/AIDS does not ensure that one will take preventative measures. Structural factors also need to be taken into consideration by HIV prevention initiatives, especially for women in resource-poor settings, who are most vulnerable. De Guzman looks at several different models of prevention initiatives, including couple counseling, community participation, youth programs, and workshops to study their different goals and impacts on the groups for which they were meant. The article includes a chart organizing the various prevention models. While focusing on the positive outcomes, de Guzman does bring attention to the different effects of prevention models. He also argues that HIV prevention and care are intertwined. Care alone is draining resources from communities and placing heavier labor burdens on women. Without adequate drugs or counseling, many are unable to get the treatment they need. Prevention, also, must be sustained in order to be effective.

Doyal, Lesley
2001. Sex, Gender, and Health: The Need for a New Approach. British Medical Journal 323:1061-3.
The past two decades have seen considerable activism by women to improve the quality of their health and health care. Recently men too have begun to draw attention to the negative implications of 'maleness' for their health. There is an increasing danger that these campaigns could be drawn into conflict with each other as they compete for public sympathy and scarce resources. If conflict is to be avoided there needs to be a much clearer understanding of the impact of both sex and gender on health. This can then provide the foundation for gender sensitive policies that take seriously the needs of both women and men.

This website offers a wide range of information and resources on family planning, maternal/child health, men's health, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and sexuality and gender.

Farmer, Paul
1992. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley: University of California Press.
In this book Farmer situates the spread of HIV/AIDS in Haiti in a historical perspective, taking into account the biological and social effects. In charting both the social and biological movements of this virus, he attempts to set the record straight by correcting widely held misperceptions about AIDS and Haitians.

Farmer, Paul, Margaret Connors, and Janie Simmons
1996. Women, Poverty, and AIDS: Sex, Drugs, and Violence. Monroe: Common Courage Press. 
This book aims to fill the communication and knowledge gaps among women, poverty, and AIDS. In cities throughout the world and in rural areas, HIV complications have become the leading cause of death among young women. Poverty and gender inequality are two reasons why the fastest growing epidemics are among women, who in some regions of the world constitute the majority of those infected. Large-scale social factors - economic, political, and cultural - are now placing millions of women at increased risk for HIV infection. At the same time, these forces render many of these aforementioned scientific advances altogether irrelevant for most women at increased risk. As women living in poverty, they were already denied access to such goods and services before HIV came along to further complicate their lives.

Feldman, R., J. Manchester, and C. Maposhere
2002. Positive Women: Voices and Choices, Zimbabwe Report. International Community of Women Living with AIDS.
This project was initiated by HIV positive women in the International Community of Women living with HIV/AIDS (ICW). The project aimed to document the reproductive and sexual health experiences of HIV positive women. This was in order to provide information that HIV positive women and AIDS service organizations could use in advocacy for changes in policies and practices that would improve the reproductive and sexual health choices available to women living with HIV and AIDS. This report presents the findings from Zimbabwe, the first country involved in this research.

Foreman, M.
2000. What Makes a Man. SAfAIDS 8(2):2.
This article is a broad exploration of male identity and sexuality, with a global focus. Linking up with the UNAIDS theme for 2000 on male attitudes and responsibilities, it provides food for thought on men's role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and on factors that need serious consideration in policies and programs.

Gender and HIV/AIDS
UN Women (previously known as UNIFEM) and UNAIDS recently created "the first comprehensive gender and HIV/AIDS web portal." This site is committed to providing users with cutting-edge research, studies and surveys, training materials, multi-media advocacy tools, speeches and presentations, press releases and current news, best practices, email updates and newsletters, online discussion forums, and links to websites and databases.

Gielen, A.C., K.A. McDonnell, A.W. Wu, P. O'Campo, and R. Faden
2001. Quality of Life Among Women Living with HIV: The Importance of Violence, Social Support and Self Care Behaviours. Social Science and Medicine 52:315-322.
This paper describes the relationship between psychosocial factors and health related quality of life among 287 HIV-positive women using items from the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey to measure physical functioning, mental health, and overall quality of life. Multivariate models tested the relative importance of sociodemographic characteristics, HIV-related factors, and psychosocial variables in explaining these quality of life outcomes. A history of child sexual abuse and adult abuse, social support, and health promoting self-care behaviors were the psychosocial factors studied.

Gollub, Erica L.
2000. The Female Condom: Tool for Women's Empowerment. American Journal of Public Health 90(9):1377-1381.
In her article, Gollub focuses on four points regarding the female condom. First, it provides the opportunity for women to negotiate protection with male partners. Second, regulatory agencies are sometimes greater obstacles to female condom usage than are cultural norms. Women may benefit from the confidence, knowledge about their bodies, and control the female condom offers. Third, the Federal Food and Drug Administration needs to find ways to increase the speed in which female contraceptives are approved. Finally, Gollub works on questions regarding how the condom should be introduced into society at the community level.

Green, Gill and Elisa J. Sobo
2000. The Endangered Self: Managing the Social Risk of HIV. London: Routledge.
Green and Sobo look at the cultural construction of the HIV positive individual using ethnographic data from Northeast England, Central Scotland, and New Mexico. Using the themes of stigma, identity, and risk, the authors look at how infected individuals come to terms with their new social status, as well as whether they decide to make their health status public. The second half of the book focuses on the results of creating a new social identity, the mental and physical consequences, and the interactions of sharing one's HIV status in health and social situations. The book includes a bibliography as well as an index.

Human Rights Watch
2001. Scared At School: Sexual Violence Against Girls in South African Schools. New York: Human Rights Watch.
A central contention of this report is that sex discrimination in South African schools, as manifested by inadequate state response to sexual violence and harassment, impedes a girl's access to her internationally recognized human right to education on equal terms with her male classmates. Many of the problems faced by the current government, in responding to violence in schools, are not of its own making, yet they are nonetheless urgent. Human Rights Watch believes that educational institutions cannot fulfill their mission of strengthening respect for human rights when the basic bodily integrity of female students is not respected. Leadership at every level is vital to create an education system free of gender bias and sexual violence. This exploration of the situation in South African schools has relevance for schools in other countries around the world.

Kaler, Amy
2001. "It's Some Kind of Women's Empowerment": The Ambiguity of the Female Condom as a Marker of Female Empowerment. Social Science and Medicine 52:783-796.
While the female condom holds different meanings for men and women, as well as for stakeholders and for female condom users, Kaler, drawing from research in both Africa and the United States, observes that all groups use "empowerment" in reference to the female condom. Yet she also points out, "empowerment" is not a rigidly defined term and has different meanings for both individuals and groups. Using the structure of Maxine Molyneux's division of strategic and practical gender interests, Kaler looks at the types of empowerment each group envisions as potential outcomes in regards to gender relations, meeting practical responsibilities, and as a threat to current gender norms.

Lawday, A.
2002. HIV and Conflict: A Double Emergency. Save the Children, London.
A growing body of evidence links wars and mass displacement to the spread of HIV/AIDS. In war and related emergencies, the epidemic is fueled by sexual bartering - mainly rooted in poverty and powerlessness, sexual violence and exploitation, low awareness about HIV, and the breakdown in health and education services. These are not the only determinants of HIV transmission in conflict, but they are important dynamics that must be addressed in any response.

Long, Lynellyn D. and Lisa J. Messersmith
1998. Reconceptualizing Risk: A Feminist Analysis of HIV/AIDS. In Women in the Third World: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., pp. 157-164.
Long and Messersmith contextualize HIV/AIDS research within feminism. The article is divided into three parts and includes a bibliography. The first section, "Demographic, Epidemiological, and Sociocultural Factors," looks at the biological vulnerability of women to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well as how STDs facilitate HIV transmission. The authors then shift to focus on how sociocultural factors, i.e. poverty and social status, make women at risk for STDs and HIV/AIDS. Next, Long and Messersmith turn to "Programs and Policy Efforts to Prevent HIV/AIDS in Women" to explore benefits and consequences of certain efforts in education and counseling, condom negotiation, social and economic empowerment, control and prevention technologies, behavior change in men, and integrating HIV/STD prevention into other health sources. Finally, in "Integrating HIV/AIDS in Feminist Analysis," Long and Messersmith consider the theoretical standpoints of feminism with HIV/AIDS, the construction of the "Other" with the "Plague," and how research has shifted from solely the medical domain to also including social sciences. HIV/AIDS, they posit, may have been ignored by feminists attempting to separate women from the stigma of the disease, but the authors argue feminist theory, with social constructionism and materialist perspectives, in HIV/AIDS research is a way to unite women globally.

Marcus, T.
2001. Kissing the Cobra: Sexuality and High Risk in a Generalised Epidemic - A Case Study. African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1):25.
This paper explores the social factors that may account for the way the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unfolding in a racially segmented and socially differentiated society. As a sexually transmitted infectious disease that particularly infects adolescents and decimates young adults, there is an urgent need to critically assess assumptions about the influence of culture and social relations on differences in patterns and the scale of infection across racial groups in South Africa. The point of departure is the recognition that while nationally there is a generalised epidemic of gigantic proportions, the epidemic among young white adults is still nascent. Through a qualitative exploration of white student perceptions of risk, sexual networking and practices in an HIV/AIDS environment, this small study hopes to shed light on some of the social and cultural issues surrounding the epidemic.

Matlin, Stephen and Nancy Spence
2000. The Gender Aspects of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. World Health Organization, Division for the Advancement of Women. Presentation at an Expert Group Meeting on "The HIV/AIDS Pandemic and Its Gender Implications", Windhoek, Namibia.
Across the world, there has been a changing pattern of male/female infections. Early cases in many countries were concentrated in male homosexuals and intravenous drug users, but as the epidemic has spread there has been a progressive shift towards heterosexual transmission and increasing infection rates in females. The reality today is that, globally, more women than men are now dying of HIV/AIDS and the age patterns of infection are significantly different for the two sexes. Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS infections in male and female, reflecting differences in biology, sexual behavior, social attitudes and pressures, economic power, and vulnerability. In many ways, the inequity that women and girls suffer as a result of HIV/AIDS serves as a barometer of their general status in society and the discrimination they encounter in all fields, including health, education, and employment. It is for these reasons that HIV/AIDS is inherently a gender-based issue and needs to be seen in this light if it is to be addressed effectively. HIV/AIDS will only be conquered when the effort to achieve gender equity is successful.

Mill, Judy E. and John K. Anarfi
2002. HIV Risk Environment for Ghanaian Women: Challenges to Prevention. Social Science and Medicine 54:325-337.
Interviewing HIV positive Ghanaian women, Mill and Anarfi had two goals. First, they wanted to trace the life histories of the women to look for patterns of risk. Second, they wanted to consult the women as to what they think would work for HIV prevention. Women were vulnerable to HIV, broadly speaking, both economically and socially. Economically, women receive less education, which leads to higher levels of unemployment and poverty. Poverty results in a greater dependence on men for survival, which perpetuates the social subordination of women. In addition, cultural status for women stems from fertility and fidelity. Condoms prevent pregnancy and, socially, imply an unfaithful woman, not making them a useful HIV prevention tool. The women interviewed contend that increased public education, directed at both men and women, will help, as well as access to better health care and direction from traditional cultural leaders.

Miller, Norman and Richard C. Rockwell
1988. AIDS in Africa: The Social and Policy Impact. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Tolerance of gender-based violence in schools is a serious form of discriminatory treatment that compromises the learning environment and educational opportunities for girls. Girls are disproportionately the victims of physical and sexual abuse at school. Girls are raped, sexually assaulted, abused, and sexually harassed by their male classmates and even by their teachers. In South Africa, some girls have left school entirely as a result of their experiences with sexual violence. This volume brings together working papers and resource materials from authors in Africa, North America, and the United Kingdom. The writers are from both academic disciplines and operational organizations concerned with health and development. This diversity is both a strength and a limitation. No single thread weaves this collection of papers together, and no over-arching theme moves them towards a common conclusion. Rather these are position reports that begin to map the social science, policy, and health terrains of the disease. They are aimed not so much at the academic research world of African and international affairs, but at those who would teach about AIDS in Africa, and those African and non-African policy makers who might bring their existing expertise to bear on the problem. In this sense it is a recruiting volume, one that is produced in hopes of helping solve the dilemmas of HIV/AIDS. This book is divided into five parts: Epidemiology and Current Assessment; Historic and Ecological Implications; Issues of Management, Policy and Politics; Issues of Society and Education; Resource Material for the Study of AIDS in Africa.

Mwale, Genevieve and Philip Burnard
1992. Women and AIDS in Rural Africa: Rural Women's Views of AIDS in Africa. Avebury: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Much has been written about AIDS in Africa and elsewhere, however not much has been written about how women perceive HIV. This book offers direct views of HIV by women in Zambia through interview responses, illustrating how some women think and feel about AIDS.

Panos London
The Panos Network website lists several relevant publications for sale.
*Please note that this source may be difficult to find and access online*

Parker, Richard, Regina Maria Barbosa, and Peter Aggleton (eds.)
2002. Introduction: Framing the Sexual Subject. In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality and Power. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 1-25.
Parker, Barbosa, and Aggleton outline historical trends, current situations, and future issues in research on the sexual in "Introduction." Situating the start of sex culture research in 1960s, the authors look at the "demedicalization" of sex in the late 1970s. With the discovery of HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s, sex was remedicalized and brought into the realm of biomedicine, which focuses on individual behavioral intervention. Focusing only on individual behavior, however, is inadequate when addressing sexuality, which can have cultural, social, political, and economic aspects. The authors argue for using social constructionism, local classifications instead of Western terms, and the recognition of gendered power differentials in exploring sex culture research. After reviewing past research and current issues, Aggleton, et al., propose three research directions. First, in "Bodies, Cultures, and Identities," researchers focus on social constructionism in classifying and contextualizing sexual identities. In "Sex, Gender, and Power," sexual rights are argued for in both the context of feminism and human rights. Working global social movements, however, will require investigators to look at interactions at the international and local levels. Finally, in "Hegemony, Oppression, and Empowerment," researchers explore the many forms of sexual oppression, from the physical to the societal to the cultural to the economic. The "Introduction" theoretically embraces community-based research over focusing on the individual in research on the sexual.

Patterson, David
2000. HIV/AIDS, Human Rights, and Development. Development Bulletin 52:14-17.
This article looks at the 1998 United Nations statement that development includes a "broad rights based approach." Since HIV infection levels tend to be lower in areas where rights are respected and protected, addressing human rights is one way to speak to the structural violence that coexists with HIV/AIDS. First, looking at the AIDS Law Project in South Africa, an organization that counsels, researches, and fights for property rights, treatment, and equality for those living with AIDS, Patterson then lists similar organizations worldwide. These organizations address legal issues, monitoring HIV, women's rights, children's rights, as well as partnerships to help fight HIV with national governments.

Petchesky, Rosalind P.
2000. Sexual Rights: Inventing a Concept, Mapping an International Practice. In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality and Power, edited by Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa, and Peter Aggleton. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 81-103.
Petchesky delves into the international debates surrounding the inclusion of sexual rights into the women's rights and human rights discourses. Tracing the history of sexuality, including gay and lesbian, feminist, and heterosexuality, from Human Rights Conference discussions starting in 1993, she discusses the agendas of particular lobbyists, including religious groups and women's NGOs. The pattern that emerges from their debates is that it is more comfortable to assert that women are weak and need to be protected from abuse, rather than asserting women as autonomous individuals, capable of making decisions regarding sexuality. In addition, Petchesky argues that freedom from abuse does not guarantee freedom from the socioeconomic conditions that create a market for sex work. Therefore, freedom must be linked to conditions that make freedom of the sexual possible.

Pulerwitz, J., H. Amare, W. De Jong, S.L. Gortmaker, and R. Rudd
2002. Relationship Power, Condom Use and HIV Risk Among Women in the USA. AIDS Care 14(6):789-800.
Using data collected from a Massachusetts women's health clinic, Pulerwitz, et al., conducted an empirical study concerning power within a sexual relationship. They wanted to correlate each woman's level of power within a sexual relationship to condom usage by the couple. In order to measure power, the researchers created the SRPS, sexual relationship power scale, which draws from Robert Connell's theory of Gender and Power as well as Social Exchange Theory. Using factors such as education level, income, age, social status, and primary language, researchers found that those women assessed as possessing a high level of power were up to five times more likely to be using condoms regularly. Therefore, HIV prevention programs that focus on condoms should be aimed at individuals who possess a higher level of sexual relationship power than their partners in order to be effective.

Radlett, Marty and Olivia Bennett
1990. Triple Jeopardy: Women and AIDS. Paul & Co Pub Consortium.
This book focuses on how AIDS is much more than a medical issue. It raises many of the fundamental questions of equity between the sexes and between regions of the world at the heart of the development debate. This book illustrates the "triple jeopardy" that women face as individuals, mothers, and caregivers in the face of the pandemic. This report tells how and why, through social empowerment, women can take measures to prevent AIDS.

Roth, Nancy L. and Katie Hogan
1998. Gendered Epidemic: Representations of Women in the Age of AIDS. New York and London: Routledge.
This book portrays how and why women, due to class, ethnicity, and gendered power structures, have had a silenced position throughout the discussion of AIDS and, consequently, how they are at greater risk than men of contracting HIV. It is a compilation of essays that fall into a range of registers, from explicitly practical to explicitly theoretical. They engage the problems of identity politics, strategies of self-representation, and the concrete processes of moving knowledge across the invisible walls that divide the knowing from the known. This piece is divided into three sections: Gendered Habit; Gendered Abjection; and Gendered Silence.

Setel, Philip W.
1993. "Getting AIDS is Like Breaking Your Shaft in the Shamba." Energy, Disease, and Changing Concepts of Manhood in Kilimanjaro. Working Paper 168. Boston, MA: Boston University, African Studies Center.
In Tanzania, AIDS is seen to travel through the social world along networks of productive and reproductive relations. As a disorder of these normative relations the disease serves as a lens through which connections between productive and reproductive life can be examined. This provides a general analytical framework for what is primarily a descriptive account. This paper examines changes in ideas of male labor and sexuality among Chagga in northeast Tanzania. The paper presents a number of perspectives on productive adulthood and adult sexuality in connection with AIDS. The relevant themes are the inter-connections of work, money, and sexuality; the mechanism by which they are related; and different modes of expressing these issues among people of different generations, and among men and women.

Setel, Philip W.
1999. A Plague of Paradoxes: AIDS, Culture, and Demography in Northern Tanzania. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Setel approaches HIV/AIDS not as a health incident separate from culture, but one shaped by histories of politics, economies, cultural traditions, demography, and social practices. The book is divided into seven chapters, each emphasizing a particular aspect concerning AIDS in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. It is based on anthropological research conducted in the early 1990s. The first chapter introduces the themes of risk, sexuality, and modernization contextualized within a specific time and place. Setel, within the first chapter, also contextualizes himself within his own work. Next, Setel explores cultural histories pre- and post-colonialism. While colonialism had a significant impact on social patterns, Setel notes that social patterns were not immutable before it. In the third chapter, he studies what he terms "moral demographies," which are the ways in which people come to understand HIV/AIDS. He delves into concepts of desire and moral character, as well as the "inside the home" and "outside the home" view of risk. The concepts are explicated in the following chapter where Setel defines and explains different types of sexual relationships - the motivations and expectations of each partner. The fifth chapter takes a more in-depth look at the post-colonial situations of politics and economics. Setel also looks at social conceptualizations of prevention initiatives and contraceptives. In the next chapter, Setel reviews the history of AIDS in Tanzania as well as the biomedical discourse used from colonial times onward concerning AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Finally, Setel argues for more research about how disease is shaped by politics, economics, and social norms, including gender inequality.

Siegel, Karolynn and Eric W. Schrimshaw
2000. Perceiving Benefits in Adversity: Stress-Related Growth in Women Living with HIV/AIDS. Social Science and Medicine 51:1543-1554.
A diagnosis of HIV/AIDS is rarely described as a positive turning point in a woman's life. Yet Siegel and Schrimshaw note an overwhelming majority of New York women, across ethnicities, education levels, and economic backgrounds, point to some positive impact of living with AIDS. Using the themes of resiliency and adaptation seen in other stress-related growth situations such as Holocaust survivors as rape victims, Siegel and Schrimshaw investigate three categories of positive change: change in oneself, change in relationships with others, and changes in one's life philosophy. Now, recognizing that some changes may be coping strategies or just part of individual personality, the authors note that most stress-related growth takes place after a traumatic event has occurred and danger has passed. What is unique about the women interviewed is that their resiliency and adaptation is occurring while they still live under the physical threat of HIV/AIDS.

Susser, Ida and Zena Stein
2000. Culture, Sexuality, and Women's Agency in the Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. American Journal of Public Health 90(7):1042-48.
Focusing on women, gender, and HIV prevention, Susser and Stein conducted a five-site field study between 1992 and 1999 in Southern Africa. Interviewing not only women, but also men, public health officials, local leaders, students, and doctors, they explore the same topics in different communities in different countries. They argue that the majority of women are aware of how HIV is prevented, but lack access to the resources they wanted, such as the female condom, and that women are aware political action needs to be taken in order to obtain prevention resources. In addition, Susser and Stein posit that each community must be researched so as to contextualize prevention methodology within its place in space and time. Within the same country, communities differed in gender norms, education levels, and access to resources. No one solution can be applied to all communities affected by HIV/AIDS.

Tallis, Vicci
2002. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Overview Report. Bridge Publications.
Tallis gives an overview of HIV/AIDS in three areas. She first looks at gender and HIV/AIDS through a rights-based approach, focusing on both human and women's rights. Looking at issues of poverty, racism, sexism, and inequality as violations of rights places the perpetuation of the epidemic within a rights discourse. In the following section, Tallis looks at the effects of gender inequality, social, political, and economic forces on HIV/AIDS, as well as the epidemic's effect on them. In the final section, Tallis evaluates policy projects. There is review of gender-based approaches that focus solely on men, solely on women, and those that try and work with both.

Treichler, Paula A.
1999. How to Have Theory in An Epidemic: Cultural Chronicles of AIDS. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
"AIDS is more than an epidemic disease," Treichler writes. "It is an epidemic of meanings." Exploring how such meanings originate, proliferate, and take hold, her essays investigate how certain interpretations of the epidemic dominate while others are obscured. They also suggest ways to understand and choose between overlapping or competing discourses. In her coverage of roughly 15 years of the AIDS epidemic, Treichler addresses a range of key issues, from biomedical discourse and theories of pathogenesis to the mainstream media's depictions of the crisis in both developed and developing countries. She also examines representations of women and AIDS, treatment issues, and the role of activism in shaping the politics of the epidemic. Linking the AIDS tragedy to a uniquely broad spectrum of contemporary theory and culture, this collection concludes with an essay on the continued importance of theoretical thought for untangling the sociocultural phenomena of AIDS - and for tackling the disease itself.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2000. Men and AIDS: A Gendered Approach. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Produced for the 200 World AIDS Campaign, this thorough document maintains that women are at particular risk of HIV infection due to their "lack of power to determine where, when, and whether sex takes place." At the same time, the report underscores the need to establish a balance between acknowledging how the behavior of some men fuels the HIV/AIDS pandemic and inculcating -- thereby perhaps alienating -- all men. Men and AIDS also discusses in detail such topics as the impact on women, the roots of masculinity, reaching adolescent boys, men's relations with women, sex between men, preventing sexual transmission of HIV, violence and HIV, substance use, special settings (such as prisons, mines, the military, areas of migrant workers and long-distance truck drivers, and zones frequented by sex workers and people who live on the street), men's health needs and health-seeking behavior, and how men interact with their families. The document concludes with a series of points for action aimed at increasing gender awareness, improving sexual communication and negotiations, reducing violence and sexual violence, and promoting support and care.

Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO)
2003. Men, HIV and AIDS Conference Report. VSO Regional AIDS Initiative of Southern Africa (RAISA)/VSO.
This document reports on a conference held in Africa to address issues around men and HIV/AIDS. Its rationale was that twenty years into the pandemic, the bulk of studies and interventions have centered on women and girls. There is greater understanding of the gender dimensions of HIV/AIDS but little funding and effort has gone into working with men, especially young men. According to the report, many interventions fail because they do not take into account the identity constructions of the men who interact with women and girls as partners, husbands, fathers, teachers and so forth.
*Please note that this source may be difficult to find and access online*

Walker, L. and L. Gilbert
2002. HIV/AIDS: South African Women at Risk. African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1):75-85.
This paper engages some aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the complexities associated with it. It outlines the socio-epidemiological patterns of the epidemic and in doing so identifies the groups with the greatest and fastest growing rates of infection. The pattern of the epidemic in South Africa is as follows: it is primary a heterosexual one, the rates of infection in the general population are very high, and the percentage of HIV positive women is greater than men. An additional feature is the young age of onset of infection for women. These data demonstrate the need to focus our attention on young African women and the factors underpinning their predicament. In order to shed light on the position of women in the epidemic and the particular risks they face, we examine the long-standing relationship between gender and racial inequalities and health. Within the constraints of limited and flawed statistical data, the paper argues that a complex interaction of material, social, cultural, and behavioral factors shape the nature, process, and outcome of the epidemic in South Africa. It concludes with recommendations for the way forward.

Wallman, Sandra
2000. Risk, STD, and HIV Infection in Kampala. Health, Society, and Risk 2(2):189-203.
Using research from a parish in Kampala, Uganda, Wallman looks at two points regarding STDs and HIV infection. First, she explores risk assessment among six categories of citizens: pregnant women, women who brewed alcohol, male youths, female youths, adult men, and adult women. Second, Wallman looks at the factors influencing choice of health care among self-treatment, biomedical hospitals, and traditional treatments among the six categories of citizens. Realizing that people were well informed about the transmission of STDs as well as the effects of particular treatments, Wallman investigates the social reasons people choose certain behaviors and treatments, such as time costs, economic costs, and social counter-risks, like stigmatization.

Whelan, Daniel
1998. Human Rights Approaches to an Expanded Response to Address Women's Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Health and Human Rights 3(1):20-37.
Whelan argues that both individual vulnerability and societal vulnerability to HIV should be combined to create an expanded response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The expanded response Whelan puts forth has two objectives. One, the response should reform existing prevention initiatives to address gender sensitivity and accessibility issues. Two, the expanded response should look to contextualize societal issues within a human rights discourse. Whelan then studies the texts of four human rights documents - the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child - and posits that neglecting prevention and treatment violates human rights doctrines.

Wingwood, Gina M. and Ralph DiClemente
2000. Application of the Theory of Gender and Power to Examine HIV-Related Exposures, Risk Factors, and Effective Interventions for Women. Health Education and Behavior 27(5):539-565.
Wingwood and DiClemente detail why gender inequalities produce higher risk for women regarding HIV/AIDS. Starting with the three structures of Robert Connell's theory of gender and power - sexual division of labor, sexual division of power, and structure of cathexis - Wingwood and DiClemente expand the theory in the context of HIV/AIDS to show how each creates economic, physical, social, and personal exposures to HIV/AIDS. First, the sexual division of labor creates inequalities in education, employment, job control, homelessness, and health insurance access, as well as gender and age status. The sexual division of power generates inequalities because of the effects of abuse, a partner's power in a relationship, a partner's ability to have affairs, pornography, access to education and treatment, and lacking the ability to negotiate the use of contraception. Lastly, cathexis, or affective attachments, effects power in that inequalities may arise from having an older partner, desiring to conceive, familial influence, mistrust of the medical system, or adhering to culturally conservative gender roles. The authors briefly explore women's physiological vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The article also considers intervention practices that address each gendered power structure. It includes charts that organize points that may get lost in only reading, as well as a bibliography. Overall, the use of Connell's theory helps orient and outline a gendered approach to the study of HIV/AIDS risk.

Wojcicki, Janet Maia
2002. "She Drank His Money": Survival Sex and the Problems of Violence in Taverns in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16(3):267-293.
As well as having HIV prevalence at 22.4 percent among women, with women under 30 at the greatest risk, South Africa also has the highest number of reported rapes for a country not at war. Using research from Gauteng Province, Wojcicki examines links between gendered violence and HIV vulnerability. Beginning with apartheid history and patriarchal structures, she looks at how those ideologies affect the lives of women, specifically those who trade sex for resources. She also compares local opinions on the differences between survival sex workers and commercial sex workers. While arguing that gendered violence is propelling the AIDS epidemic and that women need protection from such violence, Wojcicki is careful to note that these protections should not reinforce negative stereotypes about women.

Women, Gender and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific
UN Women's Asia and the Pacific division focusing on HIV/AIDS.

Masculinity in a Global Perspective

Masculinity in a Global Perspective
Compiled by Drew Yamanishi; Updated by Kevin Penzien (2003), and Erin Drummond (2007)

While attention to the status of women in developing countries has improved in recent years, the efforts of most major development organizations to improve women's status and access to resources have largely been characterized as an "add women and stir" approach. Because gender relations are a fundamental dynamic of all societal change, pro-women policies directed towards "women's issues" have not been enough to improve the lives of women across the globe. Recently a shift has occurred away from a focus solely on women to an approach centering on gender relations and critical analyses of men and masculinities. This bibliography contains a collection of resources that addresses masculinities in the context of international development, including books, journal articles, research monographs, and Internet resources. The theoretical, empirical, and political research offered here holds significant policy implications for development efforts aimed at improving the status and well-being of women.

Key Volumes

Abbott, Franklin
1998. Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
This anthology chronicles the transition from boyhood to manhood, with contributions by authors from around the globe, including Nigeria and the Philippines. Entries include personal narratives and poems, exploring subjects that range from growing up gay to experiencing war as a child.

Archetti, Eduardo P.
1998. Masculinities: Football, Polo and the Tango in Argentina. London: Berg Publishing.
In this book, Archetti questions the assumption that male concepts of courage and virility are at the core of nationalism. He advances the debate through an empirical analysis of masculinity in the context of same-sex (football and polo) and cross-sex (tango) relations. The discussion in this book poses important comparative questions and theoretical issues, such as the interplay of morality and ritual, and the comparison between the popular and the aristocratic.

Banerjee, Sikata
2005. Make Me a Man! Masculinity, Hinduism, and Nationalism in India. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Make Me a Man! argues that ideas about manhood play a key role in building and sustaining the modern nation. It examines a particular expression of nation and manliness: masculine Hinduism. This ideal, which emerged from India's experience of British imperialism, is characterized by martial prowess, muscular strength, moral fortitude, and a readiness to go to battle. Embodied in the images of the Hindu soldier and the warrior monk, masculine Hinduism is rooted in a rigid "us versus them" view of nation that becomes implicated in violence and intolerance. Masculine Hinduism also has important connotations for women, whose roles in this environment consist of the heroic mother, chaste wife, and celibate, masculinized warrior. All of these roles shore up the "us versus them" dichotomy and constrict women's lives by imposing particular norms and encouraging limits on women's freedom.

Bledsoe, Caroline, Susana Lerner and Jane I. Guyer, Editors
2000. Fertility and Male Life Cycle in the Era of Fertility Decline. London: Oxford University Press.
Traditionally, women have been the sole focus of fertility studies. Ranging broadly over ethnographies, national surveys, and historical texts, this volume breaks imaginative new ground in grappling with immense variation in male reproduction across the world.

Brandes, Stanley
2002. Staying Sober in Mexico City. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Staying sober is a daily struggle for many men living in Mexico City, one of the world's largest, grittiest urban centers. In this engaging study, Brandes focuses on a common therapeutic response to alcoholism, Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.), which boasts an enormous following throughout Mexico and much of Latin America. Over several years, Brandes observed and participated in an all-men's chapter of A.A. located in a working class district of Mexico City. Employing richly textured ethnography, he analyzes the group's social dynamics, therapeutic effectiveness, and ritual and spiritual life. Brandes demonstrates how recovering alcoholics in Mexico redefine gender roles in order to preserve masculine identity. He also explains how an organization rooted historically in evangelical Protestantism has been able to flourish in Roman Catholic Latin America.
1980. Metaphors of Masculinity: Sex and Status in Andalusian Folklore. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Brandes demonstrates the ways in which Andalusian male masculinities are formed in relation to and through local folklore. With anthropological methods, he shows how folklore reinforces and teaches the local notions of masculinity.

Brod, Harry and Michael Kaufman, Editors
1994. Theorizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
A compilation of works from a variety of disciplines exploring theoretical approaches to the study of masculinity. The editors attempt to integrate new areas of diversity into the field of men's studies with work concerning masculinities and their relation to areas of theory like sexuality, class, or race.

Brownell, Susan and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Editors
2002. Chinese Femininities/Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
The past two centuries have witnessed tremendous upheavals in every aspect of Chinese culture and society. At the level of everyday life, some of the most remarkable transformations have occurred in the realm of gender. Chinese Femininities/Chinese Masculinities is a mix of illuminating historical and ethnographic studies of gender from the 1700s to the present. The essays in this highly creative collection are organized in pairs that alternate in focus between femininity and masculinity, between subjects traditionally associated with feminism (such as family life) and those rarely considered from a gendered point of view (like banditry). The chapters provide a wealth of interesting detail on such varied topics as court cases involving widows and homosexuals; ideal spouses of early-twentieth-century radicals; changing images of prostitutes; the masculinity of qigong masters; sexuality in the era of reform; and the eroticization of minorities. While most of the essays were specifically written for this volume, a few are reprinted as a testament to their enduring value.

Brusco, Elizabeth E. 
1995. The Reformation of Machismo: Evangelical Conversion and Gender in Colombia. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
A study documenting the effects of conversion to evangelical Protestantism on Columbian society, Brusco argues that the religious changes act as a movement to empower women and destabilize Colombian male hegemony. She describes how the process of conversion is somewhat "a domestication of men."

Bujra, Janet
2000. Serving Class: Masculinity and the Feminisation of Domestic Service in Tanzania. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
In colonial Tanganyika, when housework was transformed into wage labor, the only available labor force was predominantly male, so men became domestic servants and even nursemaids to babies. Paradoxically there were also militant domestics, in an occupation usually characterized by passivity and inability to organize. Exploring the institution of domestic service, the author discloses processes of postcolonial class formation both as exploitation and cultural elaboration.

Carrier, Joseph
1995. De Los Otros. New York: Columbia University Press.
Anthropologist Carrier summarizes the socio-cultural background of sex roles, family life and homosexuality among Mexican men, and chroniclizes male/male eroticism and complex social and sexual relations.

Carver, Terrell
2002. "Men and IR/Men in IR." In Gendering the International, edited by Louiza Odysseos and Hakan Seckinelgin. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
In this essay, Carver echoes the charges of fellow feminists in international relations (IR) that the field is dominated professionally and conceptually by men, and that traditional approaches have considered gender relations and inequalities irrelevant. More specifically, this chapter presents a response to the non-feminist, hyper-reductionist approach to gendered international relations (IR) as seen in Adam Jones's work on 'gendercide', the gendered aspects of mass killings. Carver asserts that reducing gender to a synonym of sex will not contribute to our understanding of men as gendered agents in the field of IR. The author advocates a more accurate approach to men in IR that conceptualizes gender as a socially and sexually constructed identity, gender as a power structure rather than a biological ordering.

Clatterbaugh, Kenneth
1990. Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In this accessible introduction to masculinity studies, the author outlines and compares differing standpoints on gender relations, including conservative, profeminist, men's rights, spiritual, socialist, and group-specific (gays, blacks) perspectives on masculinities. This book presents an objective and balanced presentation of a scope of conservative and progressive perspectives on men and masculinity, while acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The book concludes with the author's predictions for the future of each perspective, as well as expected coalitions and conflicts between camps.

Cleaver, Frances, Editor
2003. Masculinities Matter!: Men, Gender and Development. London: Zed Books.
This book provides a collection of policy-oriented case studies of masculinities in both development theory and practice. The contributors present an interesting assortment of geographical cases from Vietnam to Namibia, as well as various thematic areas such as education, sexual health, nationalism, and the intersections between masculinities, race, and class. From these diverse case studies, the book presents a coherent argument on why and how to include men as strategic partners in development.

Clements, Barbara Evans, Rebecca Friedman and Dan Healey, Editors
2002. Russian Masculinities in History and Culture. Houndmills, NY: Palgrave.
This collection takes as its subject the conceptualizations of masculinity in Russian history, the ways in which these ideas were expressed in the behavior of Russian men and women, and the ways in which they affected and were affected by social change. The contributors cover the years from Muscovy through to the Soviet period, but their main concentration is on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Connell, R.W.
2000. The Men and the Boys. London: Polity Press.
In recent years, questions about men and boys have aroused remarkable media interest, public concern and controversy. Across the world, health services are noticing the relevance of men's gender to problems as diverse as road accidents, diet, and sexually transmitted disease. Teachers are increasingly preoccupied with the poor educational performance of boys, and criminologists have begun to explore why men and boys continue to dominate the crime statistics. In this timely new volume, Connell helps explain these developments, and make sense of the multiplying issues about men and boys. Five years on from the publication of his seminal study, Masculinities, Connell reflects on the growing social scientific research in this area. He assesses its strengths and weaknesses and explores its implications for contemporary problems from boys' education and men's health to international peacemaking.
1995. Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Connell analyzes how notions of masculinity have evolved in psychoanalysis, social science, and history in the creation of a global economy. The author also seeks to counteract the recent ascendance of masculinity-related pop psychology, which has provided a cover for conservative factions to challenge the recent advancements of women and gay men. The three sections of the book address the history of masculinity in social science and political movements, the author's field studies of four groups of men, and the global history of masculinities in comparison to modern gender relations in the West. The author concludes by integrating social science, feminist theory, gay theory, and psychoanalysis to develop a new theory of masculinity politics.

Cornwall, Andrea and Nancy Lindisfarne, Editors
1994. Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London and New York: Routledge.
This book brings together a critical set of papers on men and masculinities that raise important new questions on gender studies. In a sustained cross-cultural enquiry, local experiences of "hegemonic masculinity" are deconstructed to reveal the complexities of gendering and gendered difference. In both the theoretical and ethnographic chapters, the contributors – through a discussion of embodiment, agency, and subordinate masculinities – challenge essentialist and constructionist arguments, which underwrite dominant ideologies of masculinity.

Correia, Maria C. and Ian Bannon, Editors
2006. The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This book is an attempt to bring the gender and development debate full circle, from a much-needed focus on empowering women to a more comprehensive gender framework that considers gender as a system that affects both women and men. The chapters in this book explore definitions of masculinity and male identities in a variety of social contexts, drawing from experiences in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. It draws on a slowly emerging realization that attaining the vision of gender equality will be difficult, if not impossible, without changing the ways in which masculinities are defined and acted upon. Although changing male gender norms will be a difficult and slow process, we must begin by understanding how versions of masculinities are defined and acted upon.

de la Mora, Sergio
2006. Cinemachismo: Masculinities and Sexuality in Mexican Film. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
In this book, de la Mora offers the first extended analysis of how Mexican cinema has represented masculinities and sexualities and their relationship to national identity from 1950 to 2004. He focuses on three traditional genres (the revolutionary melodrama, the cabaretera prostitution melodrama, and the musical comedy "buddy movie") and one subgenre (the fichera brothel-cabaret comedy) of classic and contemporary cinema. By concentrating on the changing conventions of these genres, de la Mora reveals how Mexican films have both supported and subverted traditional heterosexual norms of Mexican national identity. In particular, his analyses of Mexican cinematic icons Pedro Infante and Gael García Bernal and of Arturo Ripstein's cult film El lugar sin límites illuminate cinema's role in fostering distinct figurations of masculinity, queer spectatorship, and gay male representations. De la Mora completes this exciting interdisciplinary study with an in-depth look at how the Mexican state brought about structural changes in the film industry between 1989 and 1994 through the work of the Mexican Film Institute (IMCINE), paving the way for a renaissance in the national cinema.

Derne, Steve
2000. Movies, Masculinity, and Modernity: An Ethnography of Men's Filmgoing in India. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Men in India are attracted to Hindi films partly because of their attraction to depictions of "modern" lifestyles. Derne argues that films help men handle their ambivalence about modernity by rooting their sense of "Indianness" in women's acceptance of traditional food habits, clothing, and gender subordination. The book is one of the first ethnographic studies of filmgoing and one of the first to focus on mainstream male audiences.
1995. Culture in Action: Family Life, Emotion, and Male Dominance in Banaras, India. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Derne explores the interconnections between male dominance, joint-family living, Indian emotional life, and a cultural focus on pressure groups. Derne's suggestion that Indian men's cultural focus on the group limits men's and women's strategies for breaking cultural norms offers a new approach to understanding their experiences.

Dudink, Stefan, Josh Tosh and Karen Hagemann, Editors
2004. Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
In this collection, a group of historians explores the role of masculinity in the modern history of politics and war. Building on three decades of research in women's and gender history, the book opens up new avenues in the history of masculinity. The essays by social, political, and cultural historians therefore map masculinity's part in making revolution, waging war, building nations, and constructing welfare states. Although the masculinity of modern politics and war is now generally acknowledged, few studies have traced the emergence and development of politics and war as masculine domains in the way this book does. Covering the period from the American Revolution to the Second World War and ranging over five continents, the essays in this book bring to light the many "masculinities" that shaped ― and were shaped by ― political and military modernity.

Dunbar Moodie, T.
1994. Going for Gold: Men, Mines, and Migration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
This book tells the story of the lives of migrant black African men who work in the South African gold mines, told from their own point of view and, as much as possible, in their own words. Moodie examines the operation of local power structures and resistances, changes in production techniques, the limits and successes of unionization, and the nature of ethnic conflicts at different periods and on different terrains of struggle. He treats his subject thematically and historically, examining how notions of integrity, manhood, sexuality, work, power, solidarity, and violence have all changed over time, especially with the shift to a proletarianized work force in the mines in the 1970s. Moodie integrates analyses of individual life-strategies with theories of social change, illuminating the ways in which these play off each other in historically significant ways. He shows how human beings (in this case, African men) build integrity and construct their own social order, even in situations of apparent total repression.

Elson, Diane, Editor
1995. Male Bias in the Development Process. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This book offers an exploration of sexism in the process of development, but departs from the traditional WID approach in favor of a focus on 'gender relations.' This theoretical framework draws attention to the structures that perpetuate male advantage, rather than viewing 'women' as an agent easily incorporated into the development process. This strategy allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the ways women experience gender, which varies significantly as the result of differences in class, race, or sexual preference. Following an introductory chapter on this theoretical paradigm, the book includes a variety of case studies that examine male advantage in development, and concludes with strategies to contest male bias.

Friedman, Rebecca
2005. Masculinity, Autocracy and the Russian University, 1804-1863. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
This is the first book-length study of masculinity in Imperial Russia. By looking at official and unofficial life at universities across the Russian empire, this project offers a picture of the complex processes through which gender ideologies were forged and negotiated in the nineteenth century.

Gardiner, Judith Kegan, Editor
2002. Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions. New York: Columbia University Press.
This book is a broad and intensive review of one of the recent debates in contemporary gender studies. The compilation contributes new facets to our understanding of gender relations by examining the role of masculinities in art, spirituality, pedagogy, and race. The included essays accurately present masculinity studies not as anti-feminist backlash, but as a derivative of and ally to feminist theory.

Geng, Song
2004. The Fragile Scholar: Power and Masculinity in Chinese Culture. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
The Fragile Scholar examines the pre-modern construction of Chinese masculinity from the popular image of the fragile scholar (caizi) in late imperial Chinese fiction and drama. The book is an original contribution to the study of the construction of masculinity in the Chinese context from a comparative perspective. Its central thesis is that the concept of "masculinity" in pre-modern China was conceived in the network of hierarchical social and political power in a homosocial context rather than in opposition to "woman." In other words, gender discourse was more power-based than sex-based in pre-modern China, and Chinese masculinity was androgynous in nature. The author explains how the caizi discourse embodied the mediation between elite culture and popular culture by giving voice to the desire, fantasy, wants, and tastes of urbanites.

Ghoussoub, Mai and Emma Sinclair-Webb, Editors
2006. Imagined Masculinities: Male Identities and Culture in the Modern Middle East. London: Saqi Books.
Writings on gender in the Middle East have tended to focus overwhelmingly on the status of women, on the rise of Islamist politics and veiling, and on the social construction of female identity. In the process issues of male identity in a region which has seen enormous social transformations over the past thirty years have been somewhat neglected. This book looks at the process by which stereotypical male identities get constructed, reproduced, and contested in different parts of the Middle East.

Gilmore, David D.
1990. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. London and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gilmore presents a cross-cultural comparative collection of ethnographic work dealing with cultural conceptions of manhood. The author deals with the question of what a "real man" is through a sampling of various cultures.

Gutmann, Matthew C.
1996. The Meaning of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
An in-depth ethnography of machismo and men in Mexico, Gutmann provides a broad look at Mexican men's lives that attempts to debunk many stereotypes. Gutmann touches on several aspects of life, including social conditions, sex and sexuality, fatherhood, and violence.

Gutmann, Matthew C., Editor
2003. Changing Men and Masculinities in Latin America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
This recently published anthology articulates the similarities and differences of dynamic masculinities in Latin American societies. The authors avoid blind regurgitation of the stereotypes of the "Latin male," and instead attempt to outline recent changes in traditional gender relations and the hegemonic notion of masculinity. Despite its focus on men and masculinity, the book's professed objective remains a pro-feminist critique of social inequality between women and men in Latin America.

Hatty, Suzanne E.
2000. Masculinities, Violence and Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This unique analysis links the growing sociological and psychological literature on masculinity with contemporary criminological research. Hatty critically examines the major biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological models of masculinity and violence and formulates an integrated theoretical approach to the relationship between violence and masculinity.

Haynes, John
2003. New Soviet Man: Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This is the first full-length study of masculinity in Stalinist Soviet cinema. A detailed analysis of Stalinist discourse examines the imagined relationship between the patriarch Stalin and his "model sons" in the key genre cycles of the era: from the capital to the collective farms, and ultimately to the very borders of the Soviet state. Informed by contemporary and present day debates over the social and cultural significance of cinema and masculinity, this book draws on a range of theoretical and comparative material to produce engaging and accessible readings accounting for both the appeal of ― and the inherent potential for subversion within ― films produced by the Stalinist culture industry.

Heald, Suzette
1999. Manhood and Morality: Sex, Violence and Ritual in Gisu Society. London and New York: Routledge.
Manhood and Morality explores issues of male identity among the Gisu of Uganda in the context of the moral dilemma faced by men who define themselves in terms of their capacity for violence. Drawing extensively on twenty years of fieldwork experience and informed by psychological theory, Heald's discussion encompasses circumcision, Oedipal feelings, witchcraft, deviance, joking, sexuality, and ethnicity. In examining the power of masculinity to set the moral agenda, this ethnographic study challenges our preconceptions of manhood, especially African virility, inviting a wider re-evaluation of masculinity. The book comprises self-contained sections in which the narrative is contextualized within contemporary debate, providing an engaging and highly readable text.

Herdt, Gilbert H.
1994. Guardians of the Flutes, Volume I: Idioms of Masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
In the first systematic documentation of New Guinea rituals of manhood, Herdt places the homosexual customs of the Sambia in their ecological and ideological contexts while exploring what they mean to the individuals who practice them. Raising a host of issues concerning gender identity, hostility between the sexes, and the relationships between myth, culture, and personal experience, Herdt provides a vivid and convincing portrait of how Sambia men experience their sexual development.
1993. "Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea." In Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, edited by Caroline B. Brettell and Carolyn F. Sargent. Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall, Inc.
This chapter deals with the Sambia people of Papua New Guinea and their practice of male initiation. Herdt gives an ethnographic description of the cultural concept of manhood as being earned or imparted, and the rituals surrounding this process.

Hobson, Barbara, Editor
2002. Making Men into Fathers: Men, Masculinities, and the Social Politics of Fatherhood. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Fatherhood is on the political agenda in many countries, often cast in terms of crisis. One side of the policy debate focuses on fathers as deadbeat dads who do not provide financial support and care for their children. The other revolves around making men into active and engaged fathers. However, these policies are often at odds with the employers' reluctance to accommodate work schedules to fathers' needs. In Making Men into Fathers, prominent scholars in gender studies and the critical studies of men consider how varied institutional settings and policy logics around cash and care contour the possibilities and constraints for new models of fatherhood, determining the choices open to men. From different historical and societal perspectives, the authors provide new insights into the studies of men as gendered subjects, including the role of transnational and global issues of fatherhood, and the emergence of men's movements, contesting and reimaging fatherhood.

Hofstede, Geert, Editor
1998. Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Regarding the concept that nations have many psychological dimensions, this compilation of works examines the somewhat controversial dimension of nations as masculine or feminine. A cross-cultural work in psychology, the contributors apply the masculine/feminine dimension as it applies to "Culture's Consequences." Besides a definition and validation of the dimension, the contributors relate it to issues like gender roles and relations, and to rarely touched areas like religion and sexuality.

Hooper, Charlotte
2000. Manly States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hooper explores how the theory and practice of international relations produces and sustains masculine identities and masculine rivalries. This volume asserts that international politics shapes multiple masculinities rather than one static masculinity, positing an interplay between a hegemonic masculinity and other subordinated, feminized masculinities.

Huang, Martin W.
2006. Negotiating Masculinities in Late Imperial China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Why did traditional Chinese literati so often identify themselves with women in their writing? What can this tell us about how they viewed themselves as men and how they understood masculinity? How did their attitudes in turn shape the martial heroes and other masculine models they constructed? Huang attempts to answer these questions in this valuable work on manhood in late imperial China. He focuses on the ambivalent and often paradoxical role played by women and the feminine in the intricate negotiating process of male gender identity in late imperial cultural discourses. Two common strategies for constructing and negotiating masculinity were adopted in many of the works examined here. The first, what Huang calls the strategy of analogy, constructs masculinity in close association with the feminine; the second, the strategy of differentiation, defines it in sharp contrast to the feminine. In both cases women bear the burden as the defining "other." In this study, "feminine" is a rather broad concept denoting a wide range of gender phenomena associated with women, from the politically and socially destabilizing to the exemplary wives and daughters celebrated in Confucian chastity discourse.

Hudson, Valerie M. and Andrea M. den Boer
2004. Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia's Surplus Male Population. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
In this provocative book, Hudson and den Boer argue that, historically, high male-to-female ratios often trigger domestic and international violence. Most violent crime is committed by young unmarried males who lack stable social bonds. Although there is not always a direct cause-and-effect relationship, these surplus men often play a crucial role in making violence prevalent within society. Countries with high male-to-female ratios also tend to develop authoritarian political systems. Hudson and den Boer suggest that the sex ratios of many Asian countries, particularly China and India ― which represent almost 40 percent of the world's population ― are being skewed in favor of males on a scale that may be unprecedented in human history. Through offspring sex selection (often in the form of sex-selective abortion and female infanticide), these countries are acquiring a disproportionate number of low-status young adult males, called "bare branches" by the Chinese. Hudson and den Boer argue that this surplus male population in Asia's largest countries threatens domestic stability and international security. The prospects for peace and democracy are dimmed by the growth of bare branches in China and India, and, they maintain, the sex ratios of these countries will have global implications in the twenty-first century.

Huggins, Martha K. and Mika Haritos-Fatouros
1998. "Bureaucratizing Masculinities Among Brazilian Torturers and Murderers." In Masculinities and Violence, edited by Lee H. Bowker. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Huggins and Haritos-Fatouros explore two different constructions of masculinity found among former torturers and murderers from Brazil's authoritarian military state, from 1964-1985. The 'lone-wolf' masculinity was typical of the early days of military rule among the police forces, where the officer acted as an individual with a commitment to what he was doing, independent of bureaucracy. In contrast, the 'institutional functionary' masculinity was found in the later years of military rule. These men mostly hailed from the military, and were loyal to the organization and its bureaucracy at the cost of their individuality. Huggins and Haritos-Fatouros show how each of these masculinities were able to commit horrible acts of violence, but for very different reasons. The lone-wolf believed he was doing what was right; the institutional functionary was following orders. The authors show that the institutional functionary was preferred during military rule as they were easier to control and could be subordinated to the state's interests, whereas the lone wolf obeyed his own conscience. Interestingly, upon the return to ostensible democracy, the number of lone wolf officers increased once again.

Irwin, Robert McKee
2003. Mexican Masculinities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
This book traces literary representations of masculinity in Mexico from independence in 1810 to the 1960s, and shows how these intersect with the constructions of nation and nationality. The rhetoric of "Mexicanness" makes constant use of images of masculinity, though it does so in shifting and often contradictory ways. Irwin's work follows these shifts from the male homosocial bonding that was central to notions of national integration in the nineteenth century, to questioning of gender norms stirred by science and scandals at the turn of the century, to the virulent reaction against gender chaos after the Mexican revolution, to the association of Mexicanness with machismo and homophobia in the literature of the 1940s and 1950s ― even as male homosexuality was established as an integral part of national culture. As the first historical study of how masculinity and, particularly, homosexuality were understood in Mexico in the national era, this book not only provides "queer readings" of most major canonical texts of the period in question, but also uncovers a variety of unknown texts from queer Mexican history.

Jackson, Cecile
2001. Men at Work: Labour, Masculinities, Development. London and New York: Routledge.
Gender analysis of development focuses on gender relations, rather than women and men as separate gender categories, but it has necessarily been women-orientated in its concerns with subordination. This work moves gender analysis towards a fuller understanding of men's diverse gendered identities, and how these are implicated in their everyday working lives in developing country contexts. The questions addressed in the papers range from conceptual and methodological issues of definitions and measurement of men's work, to case studies of working men in specific settings, but all are concerned with the recognition of gendered vulnerabilities of (some) men as men, as well as with a re-thinking of gender relations in the light of consideration of the subjectivities of specific groups of men.

Jackson, Peter A.
1996. Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand. Bangkok and San Francisco: Bua Luang Publishing Company.
Jackson's book analyzes a unique corpus of texts, and provides a series of insights into a society that has hardly been analyzed in relation to homosexuality. This is a rare book that discusses sexual orientation and gender identification in a positive manner outside of a Western context, and gives a historical perspective of positive homosexuality outside of ancient Greece.

Jerome, Roy
2001. Conceptions of Postwar German Masculinity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
This book examines the issue of masculinity and masculine identity in German culture, society, and literature from 1945 to present. Utilizing men's studies theories, feminism, historicism, psychoanalysis, and literary studies, the book provides a resource for understanding how masculinity informs homosocial, male-female, and adult-child relations.

Jones, Adam, Editor
2006. Men of the Global South: A Reader. London: Zed Books.
This Reader is designed to fill a glaring gap in the proliferating literature on gender and development, gender and international political economy, and gender and conflict. While there is now a broad and sophisticated feminist literature on the lives and experiences of Third World women and their role in development, there has been a tendency either to ignore men as gendered subjects, or to consign them to negative and stereotypical gender roles, often as victimizers and exploiters of Third World women. While it is vital not to overlook men's roles in crime, exploitation, and violence, it is obvious that a more nuanced and empathetic portrait of Third World men remains to be painted. This perspective makes this Reader a genuinely original intervention into the study of both gender and development.

Kimmel, Michael S., Jeff Hearn and R.W. Connell, Editors
2004. Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This handbook is an interdisciplinary and international culmination of the growth of men's studies that also offers insight about future directions for the field. The Handbook provides a broad view of masculinities primarily across the social sciences, with the inclusion of important debates in some areas of the humanities and natural sciences. The various approaches presented in this text range across different disciplines, theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and conceptualizations in relation to the topic of men. The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities examines the construction of masculinities in four different frames: the social organization of masculinities in their global and regional iterations; the institutional reproduction and articulation of masculinities; the ways in which masculinities are organized and practiced within a context of gender relations; and the ways in which individual men express and understand their gendered identities. The Handbook is organized in a way that moves from the larger, global, and institutional articulations of masculinities, to the more intimate and personal expressions.

Klein, Laura F.
2004. Women and Men in World Cultures. New York: McGraw Hill.
This book provides students a comprehensive and coherent anthropological perspective on gender relations. The introductory chapters of the book present a highly detailed yet accessible review of gender theory. The next section examines the place of men and women in a variety of contexts, using multinational case studies. The third section looks at the role of gender in power, family, and religion. The book's final chapters map out the gendered aspects of colonialization, globalization, and contemporary identity.

Knauss, Peter R.
1987. The Persistence of Patriarchy: Class, Gender, and Ideology in Twentieth Century Algeria. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Knauss presents a political science look at the system of patriarchy as it exists in post-revolution Algeria after 1962. With an extensive historical background, Knauss argues that nationalist Algerian reaction to French cultural and political domination resulted in a renewed emphasis on hegemonic patriarchy.

Lancaster, Roger N.
1992. Life is Hard: Machismo, Danger and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lancaster provides an ethnography of post-Sandinista Revolutionary Nicaragua that follows the lives of three families. He pays particular attention to an idea of multiple systems of power (such as machismo or U.S. imperialism), which affect the lives and hardship of Nicaraguans. This is done in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of poverty, injustice, and powerlessness in Nicaragua.

Lindsay, Lisa and Stephan F. Miescher
2003. Men and Masculinities in Modern Africa. Sandton, South Africa: Heinemann.
This collection is the first to analyze the concepts and issues involved in exploring African men and the constructions of masculinity in sub-Saharan Africa.

Louie, Kam
2003.Asian Masculinities: The Meaning and Practice of Manhood in China and Japan. London and New York: Routledge.
This book shows how East Asian masculinities are being formed and transformed as Asia becomes increasingly globalized. The gender roles performed by Chinese and Japanese men are examined not just as they are lived in Asia, but also in the West. The essays collected here enhance current understandings of East Asian identities and cultures as well as Western conceptions of gender and sexuality. While basic issues such as masculine ideals in China and Japan are examined, the book also addresses issues including homosexuality, women's perceptions of men, the role of sport and food, and Asian men in the Chinese diaspora.
2002. Theorising Chinese Masculinity: Society and Gender in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
This book attempts to establish a theoretical framework on Chinese masculinity in order to replace inaccurate Western interpretations of Asian men and sexuality. The author does this through the theorization of masculinity using the concepts of wen (cultural attainment) and wu (martial valour), the mental and physical ideals of Chinese manhood. Chinese masculinity has traditionally been associated with a more cerebral and sensitive ideal male, which has been considered effeminate and neutered from the standard Western and macho perspective on masculinity. Louie also proposes an alternative to the common yin-yang gender theory, which is too fluid and dynamic to realistically represent the male-only aspects of Chinese men. The overall argument provides an important reminder that masculinity is not universal, but culturally and historically defined.

Lumsden, Ian
1995. Machos, Maricones, and Gays: Cuba and Homosexuality. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
This remarkable account of gays in Cuba links the treatment of male homosexuality under Castro with prejudices and preconceptions prevalent in Cuban society before the Revolution. Lumsden argues that much of the present discussion does not acknowledge the significant improvements that have occurred in the last decade. Lumsden explores the historic roots of the oppression of homosexuals through such issues as race, religion, and gender. He considers the cultural history and current erosion of traditional "machismo," the correlation between traditional women's roles and the relationships between gay men, and homosexuality as defined by the law and as presented in typical sexual education. He addresses the international controversy over state-imposed sanatoriums for HIV/AIDS patients, and details the social scene, the varying ideals among different generations of gay Cubans, gay life and family ties, and the difference between being publicly and privately gay in Cuba.

MacInnes, John
1998. The End of Masculinity: The Confusion of Sexual Genesis and Sexual Differences in Modern Society. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
This text seeks to explain why commentators have found it impossible to define masculinity. MacInnes asserts that this is because no such thing exists and challenges established ways of thinking about sex, gender, and masculinity within the social sciences, history, and philosophy.

Marsigilio, William
1995. Fatherhood: Contemporary Theory, Research and Social Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers theoretical analysis and empirical research from a number of social sciences on what it means to be a father in times of changing families and gender roles at work and society at large. The essays include race and poverty, life-course patterns, and comparisons between perceptions towards fathers' roles.

Mellström, Ulf
2003. Masculinity, Power and Technology: A Malaysian Ethnography. Hampshire, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Drawing on fieldwork carried out among male motor mechanics in the Chinese diaspora of Penang, Malaysia, this informative volume explores the links between technology and the masculinization of power. Malaysia shares an obsession with modernity by way of technological development and a "can do" entrepreneurial spirit where technology is held in high esteem. Technology holds such positive connotations in Malaysian society that it is therefore a source of individual and national empowerment. Technology and modernity are therefore important factors when understanding contemporary Malaysian society. Just as there is very much a masculine ethos pervading Malaysia's spirit and belief in modernity and progress, this insightful and rewarding book focuses on technology and machines in relation to masculinity to provide an innovative, anthropological perspective of Malaysian society and the Chinese diaspora.

Mirande, Alfredo
1997. Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This book provides an ethnographic look at Latino and Mexican masculinity and concepts of "macho" and "machismo." Mirande attempts to reexamine traditional societal and social science characterizations of Latino machismo and masculinity as a "pathological" or "dysfunctional" system.

Morrell, Robert
2001. From Boys to Gentleman: Settler Masculinity in Colonial Natal, 1880-1920. Pretoria, South Africa: UNISA Press.
A century ago there was a small white settler population in the colony of Natal. This book looks at that section concentrated around the capital, Pietermaritzburg, where they developed into a tight-knit community. At its centre was the idealized unit called the 'Old Natal Family,' with a white man at the helm. This book is the first on South African history to focus on the concept of masculinity which catalogues and explores the significance of the political and public dominance of white men. It argues that a particular type of masculinity, settler masculinity, was constructed and became dominant as a prescription for proper male behavior. It excluded and silenced rival interpretations of 'being a man' and promoted the development of a closed and racially exclusive colonial society. This book examines how the forces of race and class were expressed in gendered ways, and how children were raised to learn to embrace their roles.

Morrell, Robert, Editor
2001. Changing Men in South Africa. London: Zed Books.
The political transition from apartheid to democracy disturbed the established gender order of South Africa. This book looks at the way in which men, under apartheid and in the transition period responded to, were affected by and themselves contributed to the transitions in Southern Africa. The book examines different forms of masculinity, highlighting the importance of race and class. The contributors explore how the position of men has changed.

Mosse, George
1998. The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. London: Oxford University Press.
Mosse provides an historical account of the masculine stereotype, tracking the evolution of the idea of manliness to reveal how it came to embody physical beauty, courage, moral restraint, and a strong will. He finds that the manly ideal incorporated mixed elements from the past, the aristocracy, and newer sciences like anthropology and sexology. Mosse also discusses how the masculine image is being challenged today.

O'Donnell, Katherine and Michael O'Rourke 
2006. Queer Masculinities, 1550-1800. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
This book offers the most up to the minute snapshot of scholarship on queer/gay historiographies in a number of geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. It features the work of the most established scholars in the field of the history of same-sex desire and promises to take the study of same-sex relations in the early modern period in radical new directions.

Oetomo, Dédé
2000. "Masculinity in Indonesia: Genders, Sexualities and Identities in a Changing Society." In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality and Power, edited by Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa and Peter Aggleton. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Oetomo discusses the various constructions of masculinity in Indonesia, focusing on the banci and waria, constructed 'third genders' within Indonesian society. In discussing the relation between and among these third genders and men, Oetomo reveals the power differentials that dominate sexual relations in Indonesian society, as well as create and define sexual identities and preferences.

Osella, Filippo and Caroline Osella
2006. Men and Masculinities in India. London, New York, and Delhi: Anthem Press.
Men and Masculinities in India aims to increase understanding of gender within South Asia, and especially South Asian masculinities, a topic whose analysis and ethnographizing in the region has had a very sketchy beginning and is ripe for more thorough examination. This ground-breaking study covers a range of areas including work, cross-sex relationships, sexuality, men's friendships, religious practices, and leisure. This book is especially concerned with issues arising from debates which broadly argue over the differences and merits of approaches to gender ― more broadly, identity ― rooted in essentialism versus performativity. The authors present a range of original ethnography and explore the tensions between different types of theoretical stance and competing local discourses on gender and how it is made.

Osella, Filippo, Caroline Osella and Radhika Chopra, Editors
2004. South Asian Masculinities: Context of Change, Sites of Continuity. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
What it means to be a man ― in word, flesh, deed, and affect ― in the various arenas of social life in South Asian societies is the thread that runs through the essays in this volume, the first of its kind on masculinity. These essays deal with different planes of experience, and various modes of expression: films, national history, ethnography, and literature are examined within a range of methodological and theoretical orientations. Regional differences as well as similarities between the societies of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka are carefully observed and analyzed.

Ouzgane, Lahoucine, Editor
2006. Islamic Masculinities. London: Zed Books.
This innovative book outlines the great complexity, variety, and difference of male identities in Islamic societies. From the Taliban orphanages of Afghanistan to the cafés of Morocco, from the experience of couples at infertility clinics in Egypt to that of Iraqi conscripts, it shows how the masculine gender is constructed and negotiated in the Islamic Ummah. It goes far beyond the traditional notion that Islamic masculinities are inseparable from the control of women, and shows how the relationship between spirituality and masculinity is experienced quite differently from the prevailing Western norms. Drawing on sources ranging from modern Arabic literature to discussions of Muhammad's virility and Abraham's paternity, it portrays ways of being in the world that intertwine with non-Western conceptions of duty to the family, the state, and the divine.

Ouzgane, Lahoucine and Robert Morrell, Editors
2005. African Masculinities: Men in Africa from the Late 19th Century to the Present. Houndsmill, NY: Palgrave.
With African Masculinities, Ouzgane and Morrell have secured solid ground for the emerging field of critical men's studies in Africa. The chapters they have selected for this volume provide the latest multidisciplinary research on African men and masculinities from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. This book is necessary reading for anyone interested in understanding gender politics and practices as they have emerged in Africa during the postcolonial era. The chapters thoughtfully address key issues such as the reconfiguration of masculinities resulting from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the negotiations of gay African masculinities, and the impact of globalization on masculine practices from historical, sociological, literary, economic, and political perspectives.

Pease, Bob and Keith Pringle, Editors
2001. A Man's World?: Changing Men's Practices in a Globalized World. London: Zed Books.
This book approaches the study of gender relations through an examination of men's gender roles and practices. It provides a comparative analysis of the dynamics of men's practices in diverse socio-cultural contexts, incorporating case studies from South Africa and India to Western democracies. Additionally, special emphasis is placed on how transnational interactions are changing men's practices in a variety of ways. While this collection of essays demonstrates some commonalities of male gender roles across borders and time, it avoids asserting broad generalizations without supporting evidence.

Ramirez, Rafael, Peter Guarnaccia and Rosa Casper
1999. What It Means to Be a Man: Reflections on Puerto Rican Masculinity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Ramirez critically reviews anthropological and social science literature on masculinity and male sexualities. He practices cultural reflexivity and suggests new approaches to understanding masculinity in Puerto Rico and more widely.

Reddock, Rhoda E., Editor
2004. Interrogating Caribbean Masculinities: Theoretical and Empirical Analyses. Kingston, Jamaica: University Press of the West Indies.
This anthology of new Caribbean scholarship on masculinities establishes masculinity studies as an important new area of research and theorizing in the Caribbean. The content of this volume reflects a range of disciplinary approaches, including anthropology, history, international relations, literary criticism, and art and installation. Special attention is paid to the interaction of power and sexuality in the construction of masculine identities. To understand how men express and exert power, it is necessary to include the analysis of power in the context of structural relationships: the class system, political and economic inequalities, racism, colonialism, homophobia, and other systems of oppression and exclusion.

Richter, Linda and Robert Morrell
2006. Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council.
Authors from a range of backgrounds and disciplines break new ground in this collection of essays exploring the centrality of fatherhood in the lives of men and the experiences of children. The book is separated into sections that address different ways that the presence or absence of a father affects both the man and the family, from the conceptual questions of fatherhood to historical perspectives — including the input of class and race issues — to the portrayal of fathers in the media. By turning attention to aspects of fatherhood, each study illuminates the role of the male parent, making the ultimate argument that the contribution of men to their families can be a positive force for change in society as a whole.

Roberson, James and Nobue Suzuki
2002. Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Beyond the Urban Salaryman Model. London and New York: Routledge.
This book is the first comprehensive account of the changing role of men and the construction of masculinity in contemporary Japan. The book moves beyond the stereotype of the Japanese white-collar businessman to explore the diversity of identities and experiences that may be found among men in contemporary Japan, including those versions of masculinity which are marginalized and subversive. The book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of contemporary Japanese society and identity.

Ruxton, Sandy, Editor
2004. Gender Equality and Men: Learning From Practice. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
In international debates on gender equality there is a growing emphasis on men, not only as holders of privileges or as perpetrators of violence, but also as potential and actual contributors to gender equality. The conclusions of the 48th session of the UN commission on the Status of Women in 2004 urged key stakeholders to promote action at all levels in fields such as education, health services, training, media, and the workplace to increase the contribution of men and boys to furthering gender equality. Based on examples of interventions in five fields (reproductive and sexual health, fatherhood, gender-based violence, livelihoods, and work with young men) from a range of countries, Gender Equality and Men aims to provide a critical account of practical experience of work with men for gender equality and to share knowledge and expertise gained from programs run by Oxfam GB and other organizations.

Sabo, Donald and David F. Gordon, Editors
1995. Men's Health and Illness: Gender, Power and the Body. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Contributors from the social, medical, and biological sciences draw on both qualitative and quantitative research to demonstrate that gender is a key factor for understanding the pattern of men's health risks, the ways men perceive and use their bodies, and their psychological adjustment to illness.

Schade-Poulsen, Marc
1999. Men and Popular Music in Algeria: The Social Significance of Raï. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Raï music is often called the voice of the voiceless in Algeria, a society currently swept by tragic conflict. Raï is the voice of young Algerian men caught between generations and classes, in political strife, and in economic inequality. In a ground-breaking study, anthropologist Schade-Poulsen uses this popular music genre as a lens through which he views Algerian society, particularly male society. He situates raï within Algerian family life, moral codes, and broader power relations. The lyrics deal with male-female relationships but also with generational relationships and the problems of youth, as they struggle to find a place in a conflicted society. The study, in its innovative approach to music as a template of society, helps the reader understand the two major movements among today's Algerian youth: one toward the mosque and the other toward the West.

Schmitt, Arno and Jehoeda Sofer, Editors
1992. Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.
Until now there has existed a lack of solid information about sexuality in Islamic society, but this volume portrays very clearly the relationship between same-sex eroticism and the ideal of the man as penetrator. As a result, Sexuality and Eroticism illuminates not only homosexuality but the whole sexual culture and role of gender in the Muslim world. Despite its occurrence in this region of the world, sex between males is not considered to be "homosexuality" by most men ― a concept that is reiterated in chapter after chapter. In addition to major differences in the attitudes toward homosexual acts in Muslim countries and the West, this enlightening book also shows great differences among the Muslim countries themselves, depending upon the degree to which Islamic law is enforced, the impact of different Western colonial influences and legal systems, and the sheer impact of cultural variation within so vast a geographic area.

Seidler, Victor J.
2006. Young Men and Masculinities: Global Cultures and Intimate Lives. London: Zed Books.
The lives of young men in a globalized world are influenced by the mass circulation of images of men's bodies, desires and sexualities, and the cultural masculinities of particular histories, cultures, and traditions. Questioning universalist theories of 'hegemonic masculinities,' Young Men and Masculinities argues that young men often feel caught between prevailing masculinities and how they want to define themselves. It explores how the idea of men as 'the First Sex' has been established within the West and how young men affirm their male identities in different cultures and societies. It draws on the experience of young men in different continents in creating their own male identities and establishing more equal relationships within a world of intense inequalities.

Silverman, Eric Kline
2001. Masculinity, Motherhood, and Mockery: Psychoanalyzing Culture and the Iatmul Naven Rite in New Guinea. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
This book analyzes the relationship between masculinity and motherhood in an Eastern Iatmul village along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea. It focuses on a metaphorical dialogue between two countervailing images of the body, dubbed by literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin as the "moral" and the "grotesque." Throughout this work, Silverman details the dialogics of mothering and manhood throughout Eastern Iatmul culture, including in his analysis cosmology and myth; food and childraising; architecture and canoes; ethnophysiology and sexuality; shame and hygiene; marriage and kinship; and perhaps most significantly, a ceremonial locus classicus in anthropology: the famous Iatmul naven rite. This book provides the first sustained examination of naven since Bateson, presenting new data and interpretations that are based entirely on original, first-hand ethnographic research.

Sinha, Mrinalini
1995. Colonial Masculinity: The 'Manly Englishman' and the 'Effeminate Bengali' in the Late Nineteenth Century. New York: Manchester University Press.
This text explores how the British resisted Bengali empowerment through stereotyping them as effeminate, and therefore unable to wield power in colonial India. Sinha explores Bengali resistance through historical deconstruction of four controversies that took place in British colonized India in the 1880s.

Smith, Richard
2005. Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of National Consciousness. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This groundbreaking study explores the dynamics of race and masculinity to provide fresh historical insight into the First World War and its imperial dimensions, by examining the experiences of Jamaicans who served in British regiments. Despite their exclusion from the battlefield, the author shows that the experience of war was invaluable in allowing veterans to appropriate codes of heroism, sacrifice, and citizenship in order to wage their own battles for independence on their return home, culminating in the nationalist upsurge of the late 1930s.

Sparke, Matthew
1996. "Displacing the Field in Fieldwork: Masculinity, Metaphor and Space." In Bodyspace: Dislocating Geographies of Gender and Sexuality, edited by Nancy Duncan. London and New York: Routledge.
A critique of the "heroic masculinity of the spatial practice of fieldwork," Sparke notes how metaphors and conceptualizations of the field in masculinist terms need to be destabilized for future geographical research. He argues in favor of a more progressive form of fieldwork based on the "space of between-ness."

Srivastava, Sanjay
2004. Sexual Sites, Seminal Attitudes: Sexualities, Masculinities, and Culture in South Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book situates current research into the sexual cultures of South Asia within a cross-cultural perspective. The book argues that in societies undergoing rapid social and cultural change, the construction of sexuality and the discourses that gather around it have a fundamental connection with an entire range of processes ― social, cultural, economic, political and global ― with which people must engage. The contributors have studied sexuality as a site around which social and cultural ideas may be expressed.

Streets, Heather
2005. Martial Races: The Military, Race and Masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857-1914. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This book explores how and why Scottish Highlanders, Punjabi Sikhs, and Nepalese Gurkhas became identified as the British Empire's fiercest soldiers in nineteenth century discourse. As "martial races" these men were believed to possess a biological or cultural disposition to the racial and masculine qualities necessary for the arts of war. Because of this, they were used as icons to promote recruitment in British and Indian armies ― a phenomenon with important social and political effects in India, in Britain, and in the armies of the Empire.

Sweetman, Caroline, Editor
2003. Gender, Development and Marriage. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Marriage is now acknowledged as an institution of key relevance to development policy, practice, and research. Yet marriage experienced by men is very different from marriage for women. This is because marriage is, in all male-dominated societies, an institution imbued with inequality, in which husbands and fathers rule the roost. The collection of articles traces the economic and social impact of inequality in marriage on women, men, and wider society, and considers its implications for development. Topics include child marriage; the link between women's economic contribution and equality within marriage; NGO responses to domestic violence; and the need to understand particular forms of marriage as prerequisite for appropriate development policy.
2001. Men's Involvement in Gender and Development Policy and Practice: Beyond Rhetoric. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
This study presents several papers that explore the ways in which development organizations have addressed gender and development in the past, the problems they have faced, and possible ways of working which will take account of future concerns. The two key questions addressed are: In what sectors should gender and development work involve men as beneficiaries? What issues face men who work in activities which have a commitment to gender equality and feminist perspectives?
1997. Men and Masculinity. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
Over the last decade, researchers from many different disciplines have taken an increasing interest in studying men's gender identity and role. This collection of articles by development practitioners and theorists explores new ground by considering the implications of male gender identities for the rights of both men and women, and for gender-equitable development. The authors examine the concept of masculinity, drawing on experiences from Trinidad, South Africa, and around the world.

Taggart, James M.
1997. The Bear and His Sons: Masculinity in Spanish and Mexican Folktales. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
James Taggart contrasts how two men ― a Spaniard and an Aztec-speaking Mexican ― tell such tales as "The Bear's Son." He explores how their stories present different ways of being a man in their respective cultures. He also focuses on how fathers reproduce different forms of masculinity in their sons, showing how fathers who care for their infant sons teach them a relational masculinity based on a connected view of human relationships.

Tuzin, Donald
1997. The Cassowary's Revenge: The Life and Death of Masculinity in a New Guinea Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tuzin spent time in the New Guinea village of Ilahita during the aftermath of a startling event: the village's men voluntarily destroyed their secret cult that had allowed them to dominate women for centuries. The book is an account of how Ilahita's men and women think, emote, dream, and explain themselves. Tuzin also explores how the death of masculinity in a remote society raises implications for gender relations in our own society.

Vale de Almeida, Miguel
1996. The Hegemonic Male: Masculinity in a Portuguese Town. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Vale de Almeida examines the cultural construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity ― straight, white, and patriarchal ― in the context of the Alentejo region in southern Portugal. His goal is to show how hegemonic masculinity is constituted and reproduced through a series of different social relations and symbolic constructs, and he describes and analyses how masculinity is rooted in social processes of work and leisure.

Waetjen, Thembisa
2004. Workers and Warriors: Masculinity and the Struggle for Nation in South Africa. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
In this compact, powerful new study, Waetjen explores how gender structured the mobilization of Zulu nationalism in South Africa as anti-apartheid efforts gained force during the 1980s. Undercutting assumptions of male power and nationalism as monolithic, Workers and Warriors demonstrates the ways that masculinities may be plural, conflict-ridden, and crucial not only to the formation of loyalty but also to why some nationalisms fail.

Whitehead, Stephen and Frank J. Barrett, Editors
2001. The Masculinities Reader. London: Polity Press.
The Masculinities Reader provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the key debates informing the study of masculinity. Structured in an accessible format, the book makes available in a single text some of the most important work on a range of subjects including male power; patriarchy; management and organizations; sexualities; gay friendships; sport; intimacy; identity; hegemonic masculinity; violence; schooling; language; homophobia; Black, Latino and Chicano masculinities; families; media; postmodernism; and subjectivity. The book opens with a substantive introductory chapter that looks at masculinity in crisis, post-feminism, men's power, changing men, nature/nurture debates, and concepts of identity. Recognizing the global dimensions of gender change, the book draws on research from many corners of the world.

Zalewski, Marysia and Jane Parpart, Editors
1998. The "Man" Question in International Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This book compiles a diverse body of works to deal with gender issues in international relations. The theme is to specifically problematize men and masculinities in order to solve the theoretical question of whether gendering international relations studies is best done with modernist or post-modernist feminist theory.

Zarkov, Dubravka and Cynthia Cockburn, Editors
2002. The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities, and International Peacekeeping. London: Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.
This feminist analysis of the postwar movement in Bosnia argues that a crucial but often overlooked factor in the successful reconstruction of societies after conflict is the level of importance accorded to transforming gender power relations. Focusing on two countries, Bosnia and the Netherlands, linked through a "peacekeeping operation," the contributors illuminate the many ways in which processes of demilitarization and peacekeeping are structured by notions of masculinity and femininity. Several chapters also analyze the self-questioning provoked in the Netherlands after the Dutch contingent of the UN peacekeeping forces was widely held responsible for failing to prevent the Srebrenica massacre; these provide a rich source of insights into relationships between soldiering and masculinities, war-fighting, and peacekeeping.

Zhong, Xueping
2000. Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the Late Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
In Masculinity Besieged, Zhong looks at Chinese literature and films produced during the 1980s to examine male subjectivities in contemporary China. Reading through a feminist psychoanalytic lens, Zhong argues that understanding the nature of male subjectivities as portrayed in literature and film is crucial to understanding China's ongoing quest for modernity.


Abraham, Janaki
2006. "The Stain of White: Liaisons, Memories, and White Men as Relatives." Men and Masculinities, 9(2):131-151.
During British colonial rule some matrilineal Thiyya women in North Kerala, India, had liaisons with British men. While the response of the caste to these liaisons shifted over time, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century many women who had liaisons and their families were excommunicated. A "white connection" became a stain and kinship with the white man was denied or shrouded. This article looks at the ways in which both the liaisons and the denial of the white man as father or relative were located within practices of matrilineal kinship. Furthermore, this article seeks to understand how these liaisons are remembered today and how the presence of the white man as a relative is layered over by processes of forgetting and remembering.

Agadjanian, Victor
2002. "Men Doing 'Women's Work': Masculinity and Gender Relations Among Street Vendors in Maputo, Mozambique." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):329-342.
Gender inequality in sub-Saharan urban settings is perpetuated through the differences in men's and women's positions in the labor market. However, rising unemployment and increasing informalization of the economy that result from both the demographic structure and the structural adjustment reforms undermine men's economic advantage by pushing them into low-income and low-prestige "women's" occupations, such as street commerce. Men's entry into such niches of the labor market leads to both de-gendering and re-gendering of the workplace, which in turns questions the broader gender hierarchy and stereotypes and transforms gender relations. The author analyzes these occupational dynamics and their profound implications for gender identity and relations drawing primarily on in-depth interviews conducted with men street vendors in Greater Maputo, Mozambique, in 1999.

Ahmed, S.M.F.
2006. "Making Beautiful: Male Workers in Beauty Parlors." Men and Masculinities, 9(2):168-185.
Many competing sociological debates intersect in the world of beauty parlors. There is an increasing proliferation of male or "gents" parlors — a space where a new formation of the male self is being produced and established through new cultures of care and work. Because "work" has always been understood as central to the lives of men, a major basis of their identity, it is often seen as being identified with masculinity. "Beauty" and "caring," on the other hand, are often viewed as something intrinsically feminine. This article weeds out such notions by presenting life histories of men in "beauty work" and argues that just as different work situations produce different models of masculinities, the same work situation also may prove an arena of a variety of masculinities. The article also explores the possibilities and potentials of understanding gender relations in South Asia that will prove helpful in making comparisons with other masculinity studies.

Allen, Michael
1998. "Male Cults Revisited: The Politics of Blood Versus Semen." Oceania, 68(3):189-200.
Allen focuses on the differential emphasis that was placed on blood-letting as against semen-ingesting as the key means whereby boys were believed to be transformed into men in Melanesia.

Allison, Edward and Janet Seeley
2004. "HIV and AIDS Among Fisherfolk: A Threat to 'Responsible Fisheries'?" Fish and Fisheries, 5(3):215-234.
Fishing communities are often among the highest-risk groups in countries with high overall rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS stems from complex, interacting causes that may include the mobility of many fisherfolk, the time fishermen spend away from home, their access to daily cash income in an overall context of poverty and vulnerability, their demographic profile, the ready availability of commercial sex in fishing ports, and the subcultures of risk taking and hypermasculinity among some fishermen. HIV/AIDS in fishing communities was first dealt with as a public health issue, and most projects were conducted by health sector agencies and NGOs, focusing on education and health care provision. More recently, as the social and economic impacts of the epidemic have become evident, wider social service provision and economic support have been added.

Alméras, Diane
2000. "Equitable Social Practices and Masculine Personal History: A Santiago Study." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):139-156.
The issue of shared family responsibilities is central to the actual process of rethinking gender relations because it is one of the main expressions of the sexual division of labor which still rules the organization of most human groups. In all patriarchal societies, the attribution of the private domain to women and the hegemony of men on the public space have reciprocally generated and strengthened themselves in a vicious circle. In most Latin American societies, the uneven distribution of roles inside the household is becoming the main obstacle to women's equality of opportunities in social life. While problems of formal access to areas of social participation such as education and work are confronted with growing success, it is now the quality of this integration which remains unsolved ― and this is a question which is closely related both to the mechanics of the sexual division of labor and to its role in the construction of gender identities.

Alter, Joseph S.
2004. "Indian Clubs and Colonialism: Hindu Masculinity and Muscular Christianity." Comparative Studies in Society and History, 46(3):497-534.
Following Edward Said's Orientalism, there has been considerable interest in studying gender images and engendered practices that emerged out of colonialism, both during the era of colonialism and subsequently. Many of these studies have shown how colonized women were subject to the gendered and often sexualized gaze of Western men, and how colonized men were often regarded as either effeminate or 'martial' by virtue of their birth into a particular group. Arguably, the latent ambiguity of regarding all colonized men as effete, and yet categorizing some colonized men as strong and aggressively virile, points to one of the many complex contradictions manifest in the cultural politics of colonialism. A similar point could be made with regard to nationalism, wherein women, and the image men want women to present of themselves, reflects masculine ambivalence about modernity. In any case, even when colonial discourse essentializes the virile masculinity of various subject groups ― in particular the so-called martial castes of South Asia ― the putative masculinity of these groups is ascribed to breeding and latent 'savagery,' and is rarely, if ever, conceived of as an achieved status, much less something an individual from some other group might achieve on the basis of training or practice.
1997. "Seminal Truth: A Modern Science of Male Celibacy in Northern India." Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 11(3):275-298.
Many scholars have noted that brahmacharya (celibacy) is an important concept in Hindu notions of male identity. Although the psychological basis of this concept has been studied, there is very little in the literature on the "medical mechanics" of becoming and being a brahmachari. Nor is there a comprehensive account of the precise relationship between sex and the meaning of physical health in modern urban India. Through an examination of the popular Hindi literature on brahmacharya, interpreted within the context of therapeutic celibacy as put in practice by a modern yoga society, this article shows how a discourse about sex, semen, and health is conceived of in terms of embodied truth. Using Foucault's critique of Western sexuality as a contrasting frame of reference, the author argues that the "truth" about sex in modern North India is worked out in somatic rather than psychological terms, in which morality is problematically defined by male physiology and gendered conceptions of good health.

Andrade, Xavier
2001. "Machismo and Politics in Ecuador: The Case of Pancho Jaime." Men and Masculinities, 3(3):299-315.
This article explores the political uses of machismo and dominant notions of masculinity as tools for constructing agendas for popular redemption in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The focus is on the life and work of Pancho Jaime (1946-1989), the most controversial and widely known independent journalist in Guayaquil. Between 1984 and his assassination in 1989, Jaime illegally produced political magazines using gossip, pornographic caricatures, and obscene language to comment on the corruption of politicians and oligarchs. Jaime's strategy was to make connections between the conduct of powerful figures in public office and the "deviant" sexuality of these same individuals. This large body of cultural material is interpreted as part of a politics of masculinity historically linked to everyday life and local populist traditions. Analyzing images and audience responses to Jaime's grotesque visual and aggressive textual discourses, ethnographic findings are discussed in relation to concepts of vulgarity, the performance of masculinity in the public sphere, and carnivalesque inversions of power.

Attwood, Lynne
1995. "Men, Machine Guns, and the Mafia: Post-Soviet Cinema as a Discourse on Gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 18(5-6):513-521.
Recent Russian cinema has been dominated by representations of the mafia, a catch-all term embracing anyone involved in organized crime, protection racketeering, etc. A number of Russian film critics have offered a symbolic reading of such films, arguing that the mafia represents the political chaos and the breakdown in public order in post-Soviet society. This essay suggests an alternative reading: that these films can be understood as a discourse on gender. Analyzing six recent films, the author seeks to demonstrate that although they do no overtly applaud the actions of the mafia, they do celebrate traditional conceptions of masculinity, and they can be said to accord with the perception, widespread in post-Soviet Russia, that the move to the market ― with its resurrection of individualism, entrepreneurship, risk-taking, and ruthlessness ― is releasing men from decades of feminization wrought by the 'nanny state.'

Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella
2004. "The Struggle for Mapuche Shaman's Masculinity: Colonial Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Southern Chile." Ethnohistory, 51(3):489-533.
Bacigalupo questions Western notions of sexual and gender identity as dichotomous and unchanging by analyzing the differences in conceptions of gender identity between the native Mapuche and colonial Spaniards. While Spanish gender norms viewed men and women as fixed and distinct categories with little overlap, the Mapuche accepted 'co-gendered' identities and a more fluid conception of gender norms. The author relates Spanish views on gender norms to their systems of gendered power, justifying Spanish oppression of the Mapuche by their failure to internalize Spanish masculinity and thus capitalize on masculine privilege.

Bahsin, Kamla
1997. "Gender Workshops with Men: Experiences and Reflections." Gender and Development, 5(2):55-61.
This article describes the experiences of gender trainers that organized gender-sensitivity workshops with male decision-makers in several South Asian development NGOs. Their unique program combined theoretical discussion about sex, gender, and patriarchy with personal reflection. Also included were analyses of various development policies and programs. Although the workshops sessions had mixed results, reactions from men were usually positive and helped introduce them to issues of gender inequality.

Bandyopadhyay, Mahuya
2006. "Competing Masculinities in a Prison." Men and Masculinities, 9(2):186-203.
This article draws on fieldwork conducted in a central prison in Kolkata, India, which is an overwhelmingly male space. This ethnographic material demonstrates the nature of the male space and the practices through which male identities were made and defined within this space. The author argues that the experience of the prison and incarceration is one in which the dominant norms of maleness are challenged. Through the processes of divestiture of rights implicit in imprisonment, the image of a man as an independent agent of his destiny, as protector of his family, as a worker and bread earner, or even as a strong and influential man in the neighborhood are displaced. This article explores the ways male prisoners deal with this "less than a man" image within the prison. The gendered nature of the prison as an organization emerges when examining contexts in which male identities are enacted and made.

Banerjee, Sikata
2006. "Armed Masculinity, Hindu Nationalism and Female Political Participation in India: Heroic Mothers, Chaste Wives, and Celibate Warriors."International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1):62-83.
Male and female bodies as well as societal ideas defining cultural interpretations of masculinities and feminities are potent metaphors for expressing nation. This article examines two cultural expressions of nation and manliness ― the Hindu soldier and warrior monk ― disseminated in Hindu nationalist organizations in India. These images, among others, emerged from India's experience of British imperialism and are defined by values of martial prowess, muscular strength, a readiness to go to battle and moral fortitude. This article argues that this masculinized vision of nation carries important implications for women. Women enter this masculine environment through roles such as heroic mother, chaste wife, and celibate warrior. Although divergent in their articulation at the grassroots, all three models of female behavior articulate two social themes. One, women's bodies represent national honor, and two, this embodiment only works if women are chaste and virtuous. Indian feminists view such feminine activism with suspicion because the considerable empowerment women may derive from Hindu nationalist politics ultimately does not challenge the gendered power imbalances within the patriarchal Hindu family.

Barker, Gary
2001. "'Cool Your Head, Man': Preventing Gender Based Violence in Favelas." Development, 44(3):94-98.
Barker presents results from an action-research project that sought to identify more gender-equitable young men in a low income setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where violence against women was common. The research identified factors that may have contributed to the young men's alternative values and were incorporated into a community intervention that seeks to change young men's attitudes toward women.

Battaglia, Debbora
1985. "'We Feed Our Father': Paternal Nuture Among the Sabarl of Papua New Guinea." American Ethnologist, volume 12, number 3, pp. 427-441.
Among matrilineal peoples in Papua New Guinea, power symmetries and asymmetries, with their bases in indigenous models of gender and generation-based relations, are often revealed in the way paternal nurture is conceptualized and the way people act in relation to it. In the case of the Sabarl, these relations are marked in "paths" of symbolic action and embodied concretely in the movement of ritual foods and objects featured in affinal exchanges. The ritual action and exchange scene is especially elaborate and circumscribing at death, when the contribution of males to the reproductive process is formally acknowledged. The position of males within the matrilineal system is examined here in relation to the larger theme of societal and cultural continuity.

Beattie, Peter M.
2002. "Beyond Machismos: Recent Examinations of Masculinities in Latin America." Men and Masculinities, 4(3):303-308.
This article is an overview of recent literature examining Latin American masculinities, drawing from both literary criticism and anthropology.

Boellstorff, Tom
2004. "The Emergence of Political Homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and National Belonging." Ethnos, 69(4):465-486.
This article explores an unprecedented series of violent acts against 'gay' Indonesians beginning in September 1999. Indonesia is often characterized as being 'tolerant' of homosexuality. This is a false belief, but one containing a grain of truth. To identify this grain of truth the author distinguishes between 'heterosexism' and 'homophobia,' noting that Indonesia has been marked by a predominance of heterosexism over homophobia. The author examines the emergence of a political homophobia directed at public events where gay men stake a claim to Indonesia's troubled civil society. That such violence is seen as the properly masculine response to these events indicates how the nation may be gaining a new masculinist cast. In the new Indonesia, male-male desire can increasingly be construed as a threat to normative masculinity, and thus to the nation itself.

Bracewell, Wendy
2000. "Rape in Kosovo: Masculinity and Serbian Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism, 6(4):563-590.
Accusations of Albanian rape of Serbs in Kosovo became a highly charged political factor in the development of Serbian nationalism in the 1980s. Discussions of rape were used to link perceptions of national victimization and a crisis of masculinity, and to legitimate a militant Serbian nationalism, ultimately contributing to the violent break-up of Yugoslavia. The article argues for attention to the ways that nationalist projects have been structured with reference to ideals of masculinity, the specific political and cultural contexts that have influenced these processes, and the consequent implications for gender relations as well as for nationalist politics. Such an approach helps explain the appeal of Milošević's nationalism; at the same time it highlights the divisions and conflicts that lie behind hegemonic gender and national identities constructed around difference.

Brison, Karen
1995. "Changing Constructions of Masculinity in a Sepik Society." Ethnology, 34(3):155-175.
Changing conceptions of person and community among the eastern Kwanga of the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea are analyzed to examine the "politics of identity." Experiences under the colonial system and now in the independent nation of Papua New Guinea have caused the Kwanga to view male strength in a more negative light than they once did.

Brown, Jill, James Sorrell and Marcela Raffaelli
2005. "An Exploratory Study of Constructions of Masculinity, Sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Namibia, South Africa." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(6):585-598.
The goal of the current study was to explore notions of masculinity and their linkages to HIV/AIDS among Owambo men and women in Namibia, where an estimated one-fifth of 15–49 year-olds have acquired HIV. Thirteen open-ended interviews and three focus groups were conducted with 50 male and female participants aged 19–50 in rural and urban Namibia. Qualitative analysis revealed six central themes: the evolving meanings of masculinity, power dynamics between men and women, women as active agents, the tension between formal and informal education and HIV transmission, alcohol and masculinity, and the blending of masculinity and explanations of HIV and AIDS. The findings suggest both direct and indirect linkages between notions of masculinity and AIDS, and highlight the need for prevention efforts that focus on providing alternative avenues for attaining culturally recognized markers of masculinity.

Brown, Matthew
2005. "Adventurers, Foreign Women and Masculinity in the Colombian Wars of Independence." Feminist Review, 79(1):36-51.
This paper examines changing conceptions of honor and masculinity during the Colombian Wars of Independence in the early 19th century. It explores the position of the foreign women who accompanied British and Irish expeditions to join the war against Spanish rule, and shows how colonial, imperial, and republican conceptions of masculinity were affected by the role that women played in these volunteer expeditions and in the wars in general. The paper considers women's experiences during war and peace, and examines their experiences in the light of changing conceptions of masculinity at home, in the British empire and in Hispanic America in the early nineteenth century. The social mobility of the Wars of Independence shifted the ground on which these concepts rested for all groups involved. The participation of foreign women alongside male adventurers was a further ingredient in this disorientating period.

Campbell, C.
1997. "Migrancy, Masculine Identities and AIDS: The Psychosocial Context of HIV Transmission on the South African Gold Mines." Social Science and Medicine, 45(2):273-281.
Levels of HIV infection are particularly high amongst migrant workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a case study of one such vulnerable group of migrants ― underground workers on the South African gold mines ― and highlights the psychosocial context of HIV transmission in the mining setting. On the assumption that social identities serve as an important influence on peoples' sexual behavior, the study examines the way in which miners construct their social identities within the parameters of their particular living and working conditions. It also identifies some of the key narratives used by miners to make sense of their experience in the realms of health, ill-health, HIV, and sexuality. Masculinity emerged as a leading narrative in informants' accounts of their working life, health, and sexuality, and the paper examines the way in which the construction of masculine identities renders miners particularly vulnerable to HIV. The implications of these findings for HIV educational interventions are discussed.

Carter, Marion and Ilene S. Speizer
2005. "Pregnancy Intentions among Salvadoran Fathers: Results from the 2003 National Male Reproductive Health Survey." International Family Planning Perspectives, 31(4):179-182.
In El Salvador, fathers less commonly say that pregnancies are unintended than mothers do. However, men's pregnancy intentions are not understood as well as women's. Data from 425 fathers participating in the 2003 National Male Reproductive Health Survey of El Salvador were analyzed to examine their intentions in regard to partner's pregnancies that had ended in a live birth in the last five years. They were asked whether they had been trying to avoid pregnancy at the time of conception, whether they had been trying to get their partner pregnant, how they felt about the pregnancy, and what they thought their partner's pregnancy intentions had been. A quarter of the pregnancies had been unintended from the men's perspective ― 13% had been mistimed, and 11% had been unwanted. Almost half of unintended pregnancies had been conceived when the father was trying to avoid pregnancy. However, 36% of men reporting an unintended pregnancy said they had been happy when they found out about it. For 20% of all pregnancies, men perceived that their partner's pregnancy intentions differed from their own. Thus, family planning services in El Salvador need improvement, and services and outreach should target men. Men's experiences with unintended pregnancies ― in particular, contraceptive failures and discordance within couples about pregnancy intentions ― are complex and merit further investigation.

Carter, T.
2001. "Baseball Arguments: Aficionismo and Masculinity at the Core of Cubanidad." International Journal of the History of Sport, 18(3):117-138.
Baseball has been the national sport of Cuba since it struggled for independence from Spain in the nineteenth century. The links between baseball and the nation provide Cubans with definitive ideals of masculinity displayed in their passion for the sport of baseball. Rather than focusing on baseball players as the embodiment of Cuban masculinity, however, this article examines one current group of baseball fans' constructions of their own masculinity and Cubanness. Through their passions for their sport, fans forge social links on an individual basis and larger group identities, in this instance gender and national identities. Such constructions are based on individual articulateness, memory, and location, all of which are determined by a particular set of historical circumstances.

Chant, Sylvia
2000. "From 'Woman-blind' to 'Man-kind': Should Men Have More Space in Gender and Development?" IDS Bulletin, 31(2):7-17.
This article considers a series of conceptual, practical, and strategic reasons why gender and development policy and planning might benefit from incorporating men to a greater degree than has been the case thus far. The article is divided into three main sections. The first sketches some of the background to the emergence of interest in 'men in GAD.' The second outlines some of the main problems associated with the exclusion of men from gender planning at institutional and grassroots levels. The third identifies how a more active and overt incorporation of men as gendered and engendering beings in gender policy and planning has the potential of expanding the scope of gender and development interventions, and of furthering struggles to achieve greater and more sustained equality between men and women.
2000. "Men in Crisis? Reflections on Masculinities, Work and Family in North-West Costa Rica." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):199-218.
Based on interviews conducted with 80 low-income men in the province of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica, this paper explores men's relationships with work and family. The discussion highlights the causes of an emergent 'crisis of masculinity' among men in the region, and its interconnections with employment, gender, and conjugal relationships. The main argument of the paper is that while the 'family' in Guanacaste has always been an unstable entity to some degree and a source of stress for women and children, this is presently becoming a problem for men as well, whose traditional bases of power and identity in family units are being undermined by changes in the labor market and legislative/policy initiatives in women's interests. Men's current 'crisis' in Guanacaste is strongly tied to their loss of power within families rather than the break-up of family units per se, and to the fact that decisions within and about households are increasingly being taken out of their own hands. The paper concludes with pointers to the need for social policy to assist in creating space for new familial masculinities and more egalitarian and cooperative relations between men and women.

Chapman, Kris
2004. "Ossu! Sporting Masculinities in a Japanese Karate Dojo." Japan Forum, 16(2):315-335.
By taking the ethnographic example of a Tokyo karate dojo (training hall), this article explores the social construction of gendered identities in sporting contexts. Describing the masculine hegemony that prevails in the dojo and more generally in sporting environments both within and beyond Japan, the extent to which masculine ideals are embedded in sporting culture is acknowledged and problematized. The 'naturalness' of male physical superiority is not questioned through a physiological comparison of male and female sporting capabilities. Instead, it is suggested that masculine hegemony in sport is contingent rather than inherent, and the dialectic between hegemonic cultural constructions of masculinity and personal expressions of gendered performance forms the central analytical theme of this paper. Exploring the potential for the subversion of the traditional masculine hegemony through individual agency, the author suggests the possibility for types of involvement in sports which, rather than being gender-free, are non-gender-specific and thus equally open to participants whatever their sex.

Charsley, Katherine
2005. "Unhappy Husbands: Masculinity and Migration in Transnational Pakistani Marriages." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1):85-105.
This article, based on fieldwork in the Pakistani Punjab and with predominantly Punjabi families in Bristol, is concerned with the common practice of British Pakistanis marrying Pakistani nationals. Informants stress the risks that such marriages hold for women, but this research highlights the social, cultural, and economic difficulties faced by migrant husbands, comparing their position to that of the ghar damad (house son-in-law). Whilst women are instructed from a young age on the adjustments the move to their husband's household will entail, male migrants are often unprepared for this situation. A lack of local kin support can combine with the culturally unusual proximity of the wife's family to restructure gendered household relations of power. Frustrations experienced by such men may help to explain instances where such marriages have ended in the husband's violence, desertion, or taking a second wife, but the model of the unhappy ghar damad is also significant in understanding the experiences of many other migrant men and their British wives.

Chopra, Radhika
2006. "Invisible Men: Masculinity, Sexuality, and Male Domestic Labor." Men and Masculinities, 9(2):152-167.
This article addresses the issue of gendering the veil in the Middle East and North Africa and argues that veiling must expand beyond the primary focus on clothing and must be viewed as a system that frames bodily styles, speech forms, and the language of gestures. Veiling has feminine and masculine forms but evokes different things for men and women and is experienced in dual-gendered ways. The ethnography focuses on the lives of male domestic workers who are liminal and incomplete members of contemporary urban households to address the issue of the performance of maleness and male veiling practices by the partial members of social units such as households to argue that we must understand veiling as a way of undoing gender. The intersections of class, sexuality, and gender within interior spaces of domesticity reconfigure relations of gender. Work as a site within which masculinity, identity, and power are constituted enables us to view male veiling beyond the shame and honor discourse to address the bodies and dispositions of men who labor.

Clark, Marshall
2004. "Men, Masculinities and Symbolic Violence in Recent Indonesian Cinema." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(1):113-131.
This article investigates images of men and masculinities in post-New Order Indonesian popular culture, focusing on a recent and path-breaking Indonesian film, Kuldesak. The theoretical sociology of Pierre Bourdieu is utilized to suggest that if Indonesian women are to be assisted in their efforts to resist the gender inequality of Indonesia's patriarchal gender regime, then the social gendering of men and masculinity must also be understood.

Cleaver, Frances
2000. "Analysing Gender Roles in Community Natural Resource Management: Negotiation, Life Courses and Social Inclusion." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):60-67.
This article considers the absence of convincing analyses of gender roles in thinking about community-based natural resource management. It suggests that policies and approaches are inadequately gendered and particularly omit the relational nature of gender. Such approaches are further criticized for promoting women's development to the neglect of men, for perpetuating normative generalizations about men and women, and for an excessive focus on public manifestations of gendered participation and decision making. This results in policies which overlook the changing and negotiated nature of gender roles, the intersection of productive and reproductive concerns in gendered decision making, and the costs to women and men of inclusion in and exclusion from public life. This article draws on examples of gendered decision-making and negotiation over the management of land, livestock, and water in Zimbabwe. It argues for a more sophisticated conceptualization of the roles of men and women which takes account of their capacities as individual agents as well as the different structural constraints operating on them. The article suggests areas where further analysis is urgently required.

Connell, R.W.
2003. "Masculinities, Change and Conflict in Global Society: Thinking About the Future of Men's Studies." The Journal of Men's Studies, 11(3):249-266.
Contemporary men's studies arises from a history of debates about gender relations, men, and masculinities, yet represents a new departure based on social analysis of gender and close-focus empirical work. This approach is now becoming world-wide, and has found important practical applications in areas such as education and health. Problems are increasingly recognized in the field, including dilemmas of research method and debates about ways of theorizing masculinities. New approaches emphasize discursive and situational analysis and demand a clearer recognition of global forces. Gender relations have a global dimension that shapes contemporary masculinities, for instance emerging patterns of business masculinity. The connection between violence and masculinity is a key contemporary issue. Recent research shows both institutional bases and situational triggers of gendered violence, which are important in understanding contemporary global conflict and developing strategies for peace.

Conway-Long, Don
2002. "Sexism and Rape Culture in Moroccan Social Discourse." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):361-371.
In March 1993, Hajj Mustapha Tabit was arrested in Morocco for abusing his power as a police commissioner by abducting and sexually assaulting hundreds of women over a period of 13 years. The reaction in the local Moroccan press is examined here, demonstrating a structure of discourse that blamed female victims, elevated the male offender to a kind of cult status, and generally contributed to the perpetuation of a sexist subjectivity in a nation that was only beginning to deal with crimes against women in any organized manner. The specifics of the case study are placed in the general context of women's struggle for emancipation in Morocco.

Cornwall, Andrea
2000. "Missing Men? Reflections on Men, Masculinities and Gender in GAD." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):18-27.
This article explores the implications of missing men for gender and development. Men, in all their diversity, are largely missing from representations of 'gender issues' and 'gender relations' in GAD. Mainstream development purveys its own set of stereotypical images of men, serving equally to miss the variety of men who occupy other, more marginal, positions in households and communities. Men remain residual and are often missing from institutionalized efforts to tackle gender inequity. Portrayed and engaged with only in relation to women, men are presumed to be powerful and are represented as problematic obstacles to equitable development. Men's experiences of powerlessness remain outside the frame of GAD, so threatening is the idea of marginal man. Amidst widespread agreement that changing men, as well as women, is crucial if GAD is to make a difference, new strategies are needed. This article suggests that rather than simply 'bringing men in,' the issues raised by reflecting on men, masculinities, and gender in GAD require a more radical questioning of the analytical categories used in GAD, and a revised politics of engagement.
1997. "Men, Masculinity and Gender in Development." Gender and Development, 5(2):8-13.
This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity.

Derné, Steve
2002. "Globalization and the Reconstitution of Local Gender Arrangements." Men and Masculinities, 5(2):144-164.
This article explores how globalization shapes the construction of masculinity among nationalist Indian men, filmgoing men in India, and diasporic Indian men in Fiji. These men are often attracted to transnational media depictions of male violence as the basis of male identity. But bureaucratic transnational forms and transnational media celebrations of cosmopolitan lifestyles also engender anxieties about national identity. Men often handle these anxieties by rooting their own national identity in women's acceptance of food habits, clothing, and gender subordination that men regard as traditional. Although partcipation in bureaucratic economies is an important source of men's anxieties about globalization, men address these anxieties in the realm of interpersonal gender relations over which they have some control.

Doss, D.B. and J.R. Hopkins
1998. "The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale: Validation from Three Cultural Perspectives." Sex Roles, 38(9-10):719-741.
The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (MMIS) measures an individual's adaptation and internalization of a culture's norms about how men should act. This study extends previous research on masculinity ideology by generating a scale representing multiple cultural perspectives using 190 Chilean, 283 Anglo-American, and 296 African-American undergraduates. Two components consistent across cultures emerged: Hypermasculine Posturing and Achievement. In addition, there were culturally-specific components: Toughness, Pose, and Responsibility among Chileans; Sensitivity among Anglo-Americans; and Sexual Responsibility among African-Americans. Results indicate that the MMIS can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to culture and masculinity.

Downes, Aviston
2005. "From Boys to Men: Colonial Education, Cricket and Masculinity in the Caribbean, 1870-c.1920." The International Journal of the History of Sport, 22(1):3-21.
This article contends that elite middle-class schools established in the Caribbean from the latter half of the nineteenth century played a central role in masculine identity formation in the region. Like the English public schools after which they were modelled, sport, especially cricket, reinforced by popular juvenile literature and paramilitarism was at the core of the creation of this masculine identity. Boys were taught that the sports field and the battlefield were arenas for proving their manhood. Although the elite schools catered primarily to the white elite and a selected few from the non-white middle class, the masculine games ethos assumed a hegemony across Caribbean societies. Black men in the Caribbean, like their white counterparts at home and across the empire, enthusiastically embraced the sporting codes and enlisted to defend imperial interests in the First World War. Racial discrimination, however, fragmented any notion of a common British transatlantic manhood. The emergence of 'bodyline' bowling in West Indian cricket from the 1920s reflected a challenge to entrenched notions of white colonial and imperial masculinities.

Duncan, J.S.
2000. "The Struggle to be Temperate: Climate and 'Moral Masculinity' in Mid-Nineteenth Century Ceylon." Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 21(1):34-37.
This paper examines a particular type of imperial literature, the writing of the plantation in mid-nineteenth century Ceylon. These writings, by and for the male planting community, were written to recruit, instruct, and entertain, and drew upon discourses of tropicality and moral masculinity. But discourses are constrained by the material conditions under which they are put into practice. Consequently, writings about a place such as highland Ceylon recognised the divergence of this place from the archetypal tropics. Accounts, nevertheless, remained within the conceptual grid that Livingstone has termed the "morality of climate." These texts were also pervaded by the discourse of moral masculinity. More particularly, the narrative structure of these writings was inflected by the masculinist adventure novel, which was cross-cut by concerns of race, class, religion, and nationality. The tropical highlands were represented as an adversary that presented a moral test of the planters' manhood, race, and class.

Duwury, Nata and Madhabika B. Nayak
2003. "The Role of Men in Addressing Domestic Violence: Insights From India." Development, 46(2):45-50.
The authors outline a broad framework for understanding domestic violence and masculinity based on emerging data from an ongoing multi-site project in India. They highlight the links between norms and practices of masculinity and violence and the affects of socio-cultural, political, and economic processes.

Ehrenreich, Nancy
2004. "Disguising Empire: Racialized Masculinity and the 'Civilizing' of Iraq." Cleveland State Law Review, 52:131-138.
The author explores the gender-based messages conveyed by current popular discourse on the recent American invasion of Iraq. The author argues that this discourse on war and terrorism enacts and reinforces an image of masculinity as nationalistic, racially aggressive, homophobic, and sexist. Yet this discourse also disguises these negative attributes by presenting masculinity as principled, civilizing, and beneficient. Media coverage in particular has expressed and reinforced this construction of masculinity, disguising American imperialism as noble expressions of manly, civilizing power.

Elliston, Deborah
2004. "A Passion for the Nation: Masculinity, Modernity, and Nationalist Struggle." American Ethnologist, 31(4):606-630.
In the mid-1990s, young Polynesian men emerged at the frontlines of pro-independence sentiment and mobilization in the Society Islands of France's overseas territory, French Polynesia. In this article, the author asks why. In purusing that question, she argues for the theoretical and empirical productivity of shifting the associations between masculinity and nationalist struggle out of the realm of common sense and into that of the sociological; that is, of moving away from the analytics of gender foundationalism and into interrogations of the very social processes through which gender differences, masculinities more specifically, are produced. Through ethnographic analysis of gendered labor practices and their mediation by and through households, the author tracks how young men's positioning within most local arenas of social action shaped their engagements with competing local formulations of 'tradition,' 'modernity,' and, through those engagements, their commitments to large-scale nationalist struggle.

Engle, Patrice L.
1997. "The Role of Men in Families: Achieving Gender Equity and Supporting Children." Gender and Development, 5(2):31-40.
This article surveys the role of fathers in development initiatives designed to increase the wellbeing of wives and children. The author argues that while much of the development literature and projects stress the importance of women in the lives of children, more effective interventions need to recognize the unique roles of men in families.

Epprecht, Marc
2005. "Black Skin, 'Cowboy Masculinity': A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(3):253-266.
This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe's anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the 'cowboy' culture of white Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.
2002. "Male-Male Sexuality in Lesotho: Two Conversations." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):373-389.
Lesotho has an assertively heteronormative and 'macho' culture. Indeed, Basotho men have long possessed a reputation in southern Africa for being among the fiercest gangsters, toughest workers, and most incorrigible womanizers of all the African peoples of the region. In 1907 an official enquiry into 'unnatural vice' at the South African mines exonerated the Basotho of homosexual behavior. Yet by 1941 another report found that the Basotho were not only enthusiastically participating in inkotshane (male-male sexual relationships) but also public cross-dressing and same-sex marriage ceremonies. Given that Lesotho was almost entirely lacking in industrial development and any significant white or Asian immigration and tourism during the colonial era, it makes an interesting test case regarding the 'spreadability' of modern homosexual relations in African societies. This article examines the changes to Basotho male sexuality that took place in relation to the migrant labor system. It assesses whether, and why, male-male sexual relations were as 'contagious' as some people today fear.
1998. "The 'Unsaying' of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity." Journal of Southern African Studies, 24(4):631-651.
Many black Zimbabweans believe that homosexuality was introduced to the country by white settlers and is now mainly propagated by 'the West'. The denial of indigenous homosexual behaviors and identities is often so strong that critics have been quick with accusations of homophobia. Yet those critics unfairly impose a rather crude and ultimately unhelpful analysis. Without denying that violent forms of homophobia do exist in Zimbabwe, the invisibility of indigenous homosexualities has more complex origins. This article examines the many, overlapping discourses that are constructed into the dominant ideology of masculinity and that contrive to 'unsay' indigenous male-to-male sexualities. It seeks in that way to gain insight into the overdetermination of assertively masculinist behavior among Zimbabwean men today. It also draws lessons for researchers on the importance of interrogating the silences around masculinity.

Falabella, Gonzalo
1997. "New Masculinity: A Different Route." Gender and Development, 5(2):62-64.
This article formed part of a presentation made by the Chilean sociologist Gonzalo Falabella at the First Citizens' Forum for Tolerance and Non-Discrimination, which took place in Santiago de Chile in March 1995. The subject arose out of the experiences and conversations of a group of professional men, who were searching for a new identity.

Färnsveden, Ulf and Anders Rönquist
2000. "Why Men? A Pilot Study of Existing Attitudes Among SIDA's Staff Toward Male Participation in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Development."IDS Bulletin, 31(2):79-85.
There is today a call for a broader view on gender relations and there are also some signs that men are becoming increasingly involved in the promotion of gender equality. An important principle of SIDA's policy for working to promote equality between women and men is the need for a gender approach that focuses on both women and men and the relationships between them rather than an exclusive focus on women. To what extent is this stated objective reflected in the attitudes and practices of SIDA employees towards male participation in gender work? Although we believe that the threats and risks with having more men in GAD have to be taken into serious consideration, our findings suggest support among colleagues for our own belief that male participation is indeed positive for the strengthening of equal rights and opportunities. There seems to be a general belief that gender equality concerns everyone, men as well as women. Our respondents have stated that men must be participating actively if real changes in gender relations are to be brought about. Finally, it was our impression from our talks with SIDA's employees that the organization's staff felt that the organization's work with promoting gender equality would be further reinforced by active male participation.

Figueroa, Mark
2000. "Making Sense of the Male Experience: The Case of Academic Underachievement in the English-speaking Caribbean." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):68-74.
During the twentieth century, gender achievement in education has undergone a major transformation in the English-speaking Caribbean. Males are now the underachievers on global indicators, especially at the higher levels of the system. Yet males still overachieve in many fields where they have traditionally dominated. Although females' achievement in formerly male-dominated areas gets a lot of attention, the failure of males to make any headway in fields traditionally dominated by females has been ignored. The current situation is best understood as differential gender achievement connected to an underlying historic male privileging rather than male underachievement due to some form of male marginalization. This proposition is explored drawing on a wide range of Caribbean research. A dynamic analysis is presented on how socio-economic change has impacted on academic achievement through factors operating at the level of the household and community, in school and at the workplace. Implications for policy are also discussed indicating the different approach adopted by the competing perspectives on gender and educational achievement.

Fonseca, Claudia
2001. "Philanderers, Cuckolds, and Wily Women." Men and Masculinities, 3(3):261-277.
In this essay on working-class families in an urban Brazilian neighborhood, it is considered how, through jokes and gossip about sexual transgression, men and women use and are affected by culturally accepted definitions of masculinity. Focusing on spontaneous speech events and placing the husband-wife relationship within a social context in which mothers and sisters exert enormous influence over their male relatives, new dimensions of male-female power relations are glimpsed that might be overlooked by methodologies more centered on hegemonic norms. The observations suggest that particular economic and political circumstances have contributed to a situation in which images of masculine honor, although ostensibly reinforcing male privilege, are wielded by women as effective weapons against their husbands as well as against female rivals.

Fox, Diana J.
1999. "Masculinity and Fatherhood Reexamined: An Ethnographic Account of the Contradictions of Manhood in a Rural Jamaican Town." Men and Masculinities, 2(1):66-86.
This article examines contradictory perspectives on fatherhood in an agricultural community in Jamaica. In recent years, scholars of the Caribbean family have focused on fatherhood as part of a general island-wide concern over the development of positive male images. To date, studies of rural Jamaica have focused on female-headed households, generating some fairly stereotypical profiles of Caribbean men as irresponsible fathers and unfaithful, abusive partners, on the margins of family life. The article revisits this image, reflecting on gender roles and relationships through an ethnographic case study of one particular father. Richard, a hatter with three children, lives in a common-law marriage. At the time of research, he was at the center of community controversy which challenged his responsibility as a father. A study of the controversy reveals that fatherhood is contested terrain where an emerging cultural disposition toward nurturing fathers competes with conventional notions of the aloof disciplinarian.

Fuller, Norma
2001. "The Social Construction of Gender Identity Among Peruvian Men." Men and Masculinities, 3(3):316-331.
Through analysis of 120 in-depth interviews carried out among men from the middle-class and popular sectors, this article reconstructs the representations of masculinity of a sample of men living in three cities in Peru. The central question posed is how men reaffirm and constitute their gender identities in a context in which, despite the fact that men continue to maintain a monopoly over the political and economic life of the country as well as authority within the family, some qualities and roles traditionally assigned to them have lost their legitimacy as a result of the democratization of values, changes in family structure and the status of women, and the emergence of new discourses of masculinity and gender relations. Two additional issues are also analyzed: the way that discourses regarding masculinity intersect with regional, class, and generational identities, and how gender identity is linked to macrosocial processes.
2000. "Work and Masculinity Among Peruvian Men." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):93-114.
This article analyzes the representations of masculinity and work that characterize the contemporary urban culture of men in Peru. The central question is how men constitute their gender identities in the context of a diminishing monopoly of the labor market, due to changing gender relations and neoliberal economic reforms which have thrown men out of their jobs and forced large numbers of women to enter the job market. To this end, the author interviewed 120 men living in three Peruvian cities. Her results show that, among Peruvian men, work is the key dimension of masculine identity and is represented as a masculine space. While paid labor remains a sphere of gender relations that has undergone dramatic changes during the last decades, this has not brought about an elimination of the close association between masculine identity and work. Now, working and middle-class men have become underemployed workers who need the contribution of each family member, male or female, in order to subsist. Although these changes have profound consequences that affect their self-esteem, they have not led Peruvian men to question the hegemonic model of masculinity.

Garda, Robert
2001. "'I Want to Recover Those Things I Damaged': The Experience of Men's Groups Working to Stop Violence in Mexico." Development, 44(3):104-106.
The author describes his work with the Colectivo de Hombres por Relaciones Igualitarias, an NGO that works with men who are violent in the home. With the Colegio de México, this group is sensitizing health personnel to the issues of masculinity, working with four men's groups in four cities in Mexico. The author explores how the construction of masculinity can lead to men's violence in the home and some of the issues that have arisen in the running of men's groups. He argues that it is important to listen to men's experiences as they open up to new viewpoints and hence to the need to change.

George, Annie
2006. "Reinventing Honorable Masculinity: Discourses From a Working-Class Indian Community." Men and Masculinities, 9(1):35-52.
This article argues that, contrary to received notions in Indian communities about women's bodies and actions being the primary sites of male honor, women, too, hold men responsible for male honor and that men's honor is also shaped by women's discourses on men's actions. Additionally, the forms of masculinities men seek to shape have to be considered contemporaneously with the forms of femininities that are at work around them. Traditional male authority, which rested on the axes of men's economic provisioning, control over wives, and violence against women, is eroding in newer social conditions in which women are more autonomous. In this fluid situation, men and women, respectively, use concepts of sexual control and understanding to describe and normalize an emerging form of masculinity that allows for men to claim honor when practicing nontraditional gendered actions.

Gerami, Shahin
2003. "Mullahs, Martyrs, and Men: Conceptualizing Masculinity in the Islamic Republic of Iran." Men and Masculinities, 5(3):257-274.
A core component of the Islamic Revolution's ideology was reformulation of gender discourse wrapped around an Islamic hypermasculinity. Attention has been focused on women's roles and rights in the Islamic Republic, and men are assumed to universally have benefited from the regime's policies. This hypermasculinity of the Republic has revised pre-revolutionary ideals promoting new ideals of manhood. Mullahs are the sage interpreters of the Qur'an and Shari'at. The young men who bide the dictates of the Mullahs and sacrifice themselves for the Republic are martyrs. Then there are the ordinary men. The Shari'at favors them at the level of the family and civil society, but such a blanket vision ignores the costs paid by all men depending on their social class. High unemployment, inflation, oppression, and rampant drug use assails all men. They all pay for gender discrimination against all women in general and women in their social group in particular.

Gill, Lesley
1997. "Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia." Cultural Anthropology, 12(4):527-550.
In this article, Gill examines the connections between the construction of masculinity and military service in Bolivia. She argues that through compulsory military service, these men shape a positive sense of masculine identity that is linked to collusion with their own subordination and tied to other gendered patterns of social degradation.

Goldsmith, Meredith
2002. "Of Masks, Mimicry, Misogyny, and Miscegenation: Forging Black South African Masculinity in Bloke Modisane's Blame Me on History." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):291-307.
This essay analyzes the dilemma of black male South African intellectuals of the 1950s, of whom autobiographer Bloke Modisane was a pivotal example. Exiled in the aftermath of the harsh apartheid laws of the 1960s, these artists were trapped on a precarious divide between the white artistic world and the black political milieu, never fully belonging to either. Modisane uses the strategies of masking to reclaim a sense of masculinity erased by racist and colonialist exploitation; simultaneously, however, he displaces his own anxieties about acceptance by whites through misogyny, particularly toward black women. I theorize my work on Modisane through recourse to the work of Martinican psychoanalyst Frantz Fanon, who analyzes the results of a racist gaze on black male identity formation, and postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha, who posits mimicry as a mode of partial self-affirmation for colonized subjects.

González-López, Gloria
2004. "Fathering Latina Sexualities: Mexican Men and the Virginity of their Daughters." Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5):1118-1130.
Mexican men have been traditionally misrepresented in or omitted from fatherhood scholarship, sexuality and reproductive health-related research, and immigration studies. Based on in-depth tape-recorded interviews with 20 immigrant men living in Los Angeles, this study examined Mexican fathers' views of virginity as they educate their daughters in the United States. Results indicate that fathers' perceptions of a daughter's virginity are shaped by regional expressions of patriarchy and masculinity, and the socioeconomic segregation of inner-city barrios. Protecting their daughters from a sexually dangerous society and improving their socioeconomic future is of greater concern to these men than preserving virginity per se. These men's narratives challenge stereotypical images and archetypes of the Latino macho father.

Gosine, Andil
2007. "Marginalization Myths and the Complexity of 'Men': Engaging Critical Conversations about Irish and Caribbean Masculinities." Men and Masculinities, 9(3):337-357.
This article considers conversations about men and masculinity being pursued in the English-speaking Caribbean and the Republic of Ireland. The author engages structural-materialist analysis to evaluate claims circulating in both contexts that suggest men are being marginalized because of their sex-gender and employs cultural analysis to examine the representation of men's experiences in dominant discursive frameworks. Through reference to two programs that have attempted responses that address the alleged 'crisis of masculinity' ― Ireland's Exploring Masculinities program and Saint Lucia's Men's Resources Centre ― the author identifies some of the implications of a limited analysis and also discusses some of the ways in which these programs provide potential opportunities for a more critical conversation about the situation of men and the production of masculinities.

Greene, Margaret E.
2000. "Changing Women and Avoiding Men: Gender Stereotypes and Reproductive Health Programmes." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):49-59.
Health care researchers have documented that in many settings male social prerogatives powerfully condition women's relationship to health care systems. Particularly in the area of reproductive health care, the decision-making privileges enjoyed by men fundamentally affect women's health status. Yet population policy and reproductive health programming has been slow to respond to this insight. Unrecognized or unacknowledged assumptions about women's 'natural' responsibility for child-bearing and child-rearing, coupled with an acceptance of the rights of men to make family health care decisions, have impeded policy responses to these research findings. By accepting these static characterizations of men rather than assuming that gender relations are dynamic and that men are as capable of change as women, research and programs have often implicitly accepted men's power and women's subordination. Effective reproductive health care programming needs to recruit men's support and participation in creative ways.

Greig, Alan
2000. "The Spectacle of Men Fighting." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):28-32.
The meaning of male violence should be a central concern of Gender and Development (GAD) discourse and practice. Explanations of the nature, and limits, of men's responsibility for such violence increasingly center on their socialization into a masculine identity. By counter-posing the 'individual' and the 'social,' attention becomes fixed on identity as the surface that connects these two realities on which is inscribed the masculinity of men. The task of responding to the spectacle of men fighting then appears to be one of re-inscribing a new non-violent masculine identity. This paper argues that GAD practitioners should be wary of this kind of politics of identity. Focusing on identification as relation, rather than identity as boundary, clarifies the violent politics of difference at the heart of masculinity. Addressing violence means approaching a new politics of difference. This is a politics of alliance and coalition, a transgressing of sectoral and institutional boundaries in recognition of the common bases of oppression and their plural manifestations in women's and men's lives. GAD can address the politics of identification(s) by approaching questions of responsibility for and complicity in male violence as personal-communal issues. Depending on what they choose to fight for, the spectacle of men fighting can be a sight, and site, of real political potency.

Gutmann, Matthew C.
1997. "The Ethnographic (G)ambit: Women and the Negotiation of Masculinity in Mexico City." American Ethnologist, 24(4):833-855.
How should we conceive, in a nontrivial manner, the cultural relation that women have to the construction of masculinities? Ethnographic fieldwork on how male identities are developed and transformed by men and women in a colonia popular of Mexico City is contrasted to other conceptual and methodological approaches employed by anthropologists to study manhood. Examining men as engendered and engendering is presented, not as a complement to the study of women, but rather as integral to understanding the ambiguities of gender differences.
1997. "Trafficking in Men: The Anthropology of Masculinity." Annual Review of Anthropology, 26:385-409.
This article explores how anthropologists understand, utilize, and debate the category of masculinity by reviewing recent examinations of men as engendered and engendering subjects. This article lists the four distinct ways anthropologists define and use the concept of masculinity and provides information that disapproves masculinity and femininity as being inherent. It also shows how imperative it is to provide a balance of both women's and men's point of views when looking at masculinity.

Hammill, Jan
2001. "The Culture of Masculinity in an Australian Indigenous Community." Development, 44(3):21-24.
Hammill relates the evolution of undisciplined masculinity in a former Australian Aboriginal reserve. Decades of suppression and oppression have resoluted in a contemporary social environment where violence in many forms is endemic and normalized. An intervention to encourage father/child interactions, although not successful in its intent, had positive repercussions for the young people of the community.

Haque, Md. Mozammel, and Kyoko Kusakabe
2005. "Retrenched Men Workers in Bangladesh: A Crisis of Masculinities?" Gender, Technology and Development, 9(2):185-208.
This study explores changing masculine identities and gender relations in households, taking the case of men workers retrenched by a state-owned newsprint paper mill in Bangladesh. It analyzes their post-retrenchment condition characterized by considerable income loss and its wider ramifications by comparing men in stable income-earning occupations and in unstable income-earning occupations. This study argues that although men at different levels define their masculine identity differently in response to their personal crises, they are all determined to maintain that identity. Two types of masculinities are identified: public masculinity ― socializing with other men and acting smart in teashops, and household masculinity ― their status as family providers. In a situation with limited resources, men give up the former and uphold the latter. The men's retrenchment does not always provide empowerment opportunities for their female partners through their participation in gainful paid work.

Hardin, Michael,
2002. "Altering Masculinities: The Spanish Conquest and the Evolution of the Latin America Machismo." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 7(1):1-22.
Machismo, a stereotype that emphasizes hypermasculinity and associated with the Latin American male, was a legacy of the Conquest of the Spanish conquistadores and their interpretation of and reaction to the indigenous two-spirit. It was the product of the rape of indigenous women, the response to indigenous imperial ritual, and the sublimation of indigenous male sexuality. It was a response to social and religious control of the male body. As such, it is not something that is easily eradicated. Through an understanding of the complex roots of this variant of masculinity, however, it may be possible to filter out some of the negative traits and highlight the more positive. This essay examines the interactions between the Spaniards and indigenous peoples of the Americas and the interpretations of indigenous sexualities, genders, and social roles by the Spanish authorities, and how it all participates in the construction of the Latin American machismo.

Harrison, Elizabeth
2000. "Men, Women and Work in Rural Zambia." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):53-71.
This paper is concerned with time allocation of men and women in the Luapula Province of Zambia. It discusses the discrepancies between a detailed quantitative survey and the more qualitative information gained through diaries. The paper focuses in particular on the diary kept by one individual, and argues for a nuanced picture of the social relations behind time allocation practices. This means understanding the conditions which shape the choices, values, and subjective meanings attached to different activities. It is argued that Zambian men are not simply idle and that considerable time devoted to social activities should not be dismissed as 'leisure.' On the other hand, the individual benefits from investments in what could be characterized as social reproduction cannot be neatly read off as household benefits. Male social activity enables men to better engage in particular discourses of development which may be of eventual benefit to them, materially or symbolically. The differential impacts of such activity reflect gendered differences in the ability to act and make choices.

Hassan, Waïl S.
2003. "Gender (and) Imperialism: Structures of Masculinity in Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration to the North." Men and Masculinities, 5(3):309-324.
The seamless continuity between racism, colonialism, and patriarchy makes it imperative for postcolonial criticism to question the foundational category of gender. As Judith Butler argues, gender postulates a normative masculinity poised against a femininity construed as lack or deviation. This normative masculinity asserts itself in colonial discourse, which, as Edward Said observes, represents a masculine Europe dominating a feminized Orient. At the same time, racial discourse represents African men as hypermasculine, as Frantz Fanon and Cornel West, among others, have observed. Thus, the African man occupies at once masculine and feminine subject positions and, likewise, the European woman figures ambivalently as both masculine and feminine. Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration to the North depicts such ambivalent spaces that enable a critique of patriarchal and colonial notions of gender.

Henfry, Lee-Anne
2006. "Macho Minority: Masculinity and Ethnicity on the Edge of Tibet." Modern China, 32(2):251-272.
This article explores the role of masculinity in articulating ethnic Tibetan identity in China. Based on interviews with Tibetans and Han Chinese in a Tibetan autonomous prefecture in China's southwest and on an examination of recent Chinese publications, the study explores the dialogue between Tibetans' own perceptions of their ethnic identity and public representations of that identity. While previous scholarship has highlighted the role that ethnic minorities play in constructing a Chinese national identity, the author demonstrates that minorities, too, construct their ethnic identities in contradistinction to a majority Other. This process is integral to the production of a local knowledge and history that runs parallel to state-sponsored discourses of the nation and its composite.

Hill, Kim et al.
1985. "Men's Time Allocation to Subsistence Work Among the Ache of Eastern Paraguay." Human Ecology, 13(1):29-47.
Quantitative data on men's time allocation among the Ache of Paraguay are presented in this article. The data indicate that Ache men work almost 7 hours daily in direct food acquisition, which is the major daily activity. The amount of time Ache men work is compared with the amount reported for other modern hunter-gatherers and tribal horticulturalists. The characteriztion of hunter-gatherers as the "original affluent society" does not agree with currently available data. The results show high variance across societies, both hunting and horticultural, and suggest that time spent in subsistence work is not simply a function of food "needs." The authors propose that the value of time spent in potential alternative activities must be considered in order to predict time spent in subsistence tasks.

Hodgson, Dorothy
1999. "'Once Intrepid Warriors': Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities." Ethnology, 38(2):121-150.
This article analyzes the historical articulation of modernity with the shifting production of Maasai masculinities in Tanzania. Combing ethnographic and historical sources, Hodgson explores the shifting meanings, referents, and experience of two Maasai masculinities which refract the modern/traditional dichotomy imposed and sustained during the colonial and postcolonial periods.

Hokowhitu, Brendan
2004. "Tackling Māori Masculinity: A Colonial Genealogy of Masculinity and Sport." The Contemporary Pacific, 16(2):259-284.
The primary aim of this paper is to deconstruct one of the dominant discourses surrounding Māori men ― a discourse that was constructed to limit, homogenize, and reproduce an acceptable and imagined Māori masculinity, and one that has also gained hegemonic consent from many tāne(Māori men). The author uses a genealogical approach to outline the historical underpinnings of the image of the Māori man as naturally physical, and the mechanisms, including the confiscation of land and a racist state education system, which served to propound and perpetuate this construction. The contemporary portrayal of the natural Māori sportsman has evolved from these historical roots in what has become a largely subconscious but no less insidious pattern of subjugation through positively framed sporting images.

Hunter, Mark
2005. "Cultural Politics and Masculinities: Multiple-partners in Historical Perspective in KwaZulu-Natal." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(4):389-403.
Drawing from ethnographic, archival, and secondary research, this article examines multiple-sexual partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal, a South Africa province where one in three people are thought to be HIV positive. Research on masculinities, multiple-partners, and AIDS has been predominantly directed towards the present day. This paper stresses the importance of unraveling the antecedents of contemporary masculinities, particularly the gendered cultural politics through which they have been produced. Arguing against dominant conceptions of African masculinity as being innate or static, it charts the rise and fall of the isoka, the Zulu man with multiple-sexual partners, over the last century. Showing how the isoka developed through changing conditions occasioned by capitalism, migrant labour, and Christianity, it contends that an important turning point took place from the 1970s when high unemployment threatened previous expressions of manliness, notably marriage, setting up an independent household and becoming umnumzana (a household head). The high value placed on men seeking multiple-partners increasingly filled the void left by men's inability to become men through previous means. Turning to the contemporary period, the article argues that, shaken by the huge AIDS deaths, men are betraying increasing doubts about the isoka masculinity.

Inhorn, Marcia C.
2006. "'He Won't Be My Son': Middle Eastern Muslim Men's Discourses of Adoption and Gamete Donation." Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(1):94-120.
In the Sunni Muslim world, religious mandates prohibit both adoption and gamete donation as solutions to infertility, including in the aftermath of in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures. However, both of these options are now available in two Middle Eastern countries with significant Shi'ite Muslim populations (Iran and Lebanon). On the basis of fieldwork in multisectarian Lebanon, the author examines the attitudes toward both adoption and gamete donation among childless Muslim men who are undertaking IVF with their wives. No matter the religious sect, most Muslim men in Lebanon continue to resist both adoption and gamete donation, arguing that such a child 'won't be my son.' However, against all odds, some Muslim men are considering and undertaking these alternatives to family formation as ways to preserve their loving marriages, satisfy their fatherhood desires, and challenge religious dictates, which they view as out of step with new developments in science and technology. Thus, in this article the author examines the complicated intersections of religion, technology, marriage, and parenthood in a part of the world that is both poorly understood and negatively stereotyped.
2004. "Middle Eastern Masculinites in the Age of New Reproductive Technologies: Male Infertility and Stigma in Egypt and Lebanon." Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 18(2):162-182.
Worldwide, male infertility contributes to more than half of all cases of childlessness; yet it is a reproductive health problem that is poorly studied and understood. This article examines the problem of male infertility in two Middle Eastern locales, Cairo, Egypt, and Beirut, Lebanon, where men may be at increased risk of male infertility because of environmental and behavioral factors. It is argued that male infertility may be particularly problematic for Middle Eastern men in their pronatalist societies; there, both virility and fertility are typically tied to manhood. Thus, male infertility is a potentially emasculating condition, surrounded by secrecy and stigma. Furthermore, the new reproductive technology called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), designed specifically to overcome male infertility, may paradoxically create additional layers of stigma and secrecy, due to the complex moral and marital dilemmas associated with Islamic restrictions on third-party donation of gametes.
2003. "The Worms Are Weak: Male Infertility and Patriarchal Paradoxes in Egypt." Men and Masculinities, 5(3):236-256.
Male infertility is a major global reproductive health problem, contributing to more than half of all cases of infertility worldwide. Yet women typically bear the social burden of childlessness when their husbands are infertile. This article explores the four major patriarchal paradoxes surrounding male infertility in the Muslim Middle Eastern country of Egypt. There, women in childless marriages typically experience procreative blame, even when male infertility (glossed as 'weak worms') is socially acknowledged. In addition, Egyptian women married to infertile men experience diminished gender identity and threats of male-initiated divorce. Ironically, the introduction of new reproductive technologies to overcome male infertility has only served to increase this divorce potential. Although male infertility also presents a crisis of masculinity for Egyptian men, this crisis often redounds in multiple ways on the lives of women, who ultimately pay the price for male infertility under conditions of Middle Eastern patriarchy.
2002. "Sexuality, Masculinity, and Infertility in Egypt: Potent Troubles in the Marital and Medical Encounters." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):343-359.
In Africa, high rates of infertility are due to infection and many other factors. This article explores male sexual dysfunction as both a cause and consequence of infertility in Egypt. Because sexual dysfunction is profoundly emasculating in a country where hegemonic masculinities are competitive, sexually troubled men in childless marriages do not routinely seek treatment from male physicians, leaving their wives to seek treatment for purported 'infertility.' However, the medical encounter between elite male physicians and poor women patients is characterized by a "don't ask, don't tell" policy, rendering sexual problems invisible. Furthermore, women are culturally prohibited from initiating sex, but infertility therapies often require them to do so. Marital difficulties in both the performance of sex and gender are the result. The article concludes with speculations on the future of male sexual dysfunction in the era of expanding sex education, sex therapy, Viagra, and new reproductive technologies.

Jackson, Cecile
2000. "Men at Work." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):1-22.
This introductory essay argues that a consideration of gender divisions of labor with a focus on men might move gender analysis in a direction which delivers greater attention to the relational, a more animated and agentic approach to those processes which produce divisions of labor, and a broadening of temporal frames and notions of reciprocity, as the context within which perceptions of gender equity are embedded. It argues that class variation is absolutely critical to the linkages between employment and gender power experienced by men, and that money management is key to successful achievement of adult manliness, but beset with contradictory messages. The paper makes a number of methodological points: that invisibility might also afflict some kinds of male work, that work definitions manifest exclusions, and that embodied understandings of work are as relevant to men's as women's work, before going on to raise questions about the meaning and value of provider identities.
1999. "Men's Work, Masculinities and the Gender Divisions of Labour." The Journal of Development Studies, 36(1):89-108.
This article argues for a greater conceptual emphasis, in studies of gender divisions of labor, on embodied subjectivities, agency, and the complexity of gender domination, and for further methodological critique of definitions and measurements of work. Through a discussion of mainly south Asian examples it is suggested that specific groups of men experience well-being threats as a consequence of high work intensity.

Janey, Bradley A. et al.
2006. "Masculinity Ideology in Russian Society: Factor Structure and Validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale." The Journal of Men's Studies, 14(1):93-108.
This study explores the factor structure and evaluates the validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (Doss & Hopkins, 1998) using a sample of Russian students (N = 207) from two large public universities. Oblique rotation revealed four factors: Achievement Pose, Emotional Availability/Stability, Composed Sexuality, and Dedicated Provider. Validity indicators were mixed, with Achievement Pose and Dedicated Provider demonstrating the strongest psychometric properties. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Joshi, Chitra
2002. "On 'De-industrialization' and the Crisis of Male Identities." International Review of Social History, 47:159-175.
The last two decades in India have seen the decline of traditional factory industries and a growing process of informalization and casualization of labor. The crisis of industries like textiles and steel has meant a virtual decimation of a working class in old industrial centers. This article looks at the phenomenon of de-industrialization and its implications for a laboring population whose lives were intimately connected with industrial work.

Kama, Amit
2005. "An Unrelenting Mental Press: Israeli Gay Men's Ontological Duality and Its Discontent." The Journal of Men's Studies, 13(2):169-184.
This study explores the linkages among 45 Israeli gay men's social circumstances and their intra- and inter-personal communication patterns and media use. The study focused on these gay men's life stories. One of the most striking themes uncovered in these autobiographies was the common thread of ontological duality: the dichotomous split between "normal" and "abnormal."

Kanaaneh, Rhoda
2005. "Boys or men? Duped or 'made'? Palestinian Soldiers in the Israeli Military." American Ethnologist, 32(2):260-275.
Several thousand Palestinian citizens of Israel currently volunteer to serve in various branches of the Israeli security apparatus. Members of this small group of mostly men are commonly perceived by other Palestinians as traitors to their people and are socially marginalized. Even soldiers who strain and sometimes break the limits of social acceptance, however, relate to their communities in dominant gendered terms. The critiques, explanations, and, occasionally, defenses of soldiering represent much larger concerns about the relationship of Palestinian citizens to the Israeli state, particularly concerns about 'Israelization,' but are measured in relation to a family-centered provider of masculinity. What the state offers or withholds from Arab soldiers plays a powerful role in shaping Palestinian discourses on masculinity and citizenship.

Kempf, Wolfgang
2002. "The Politics of Incorporation: Masculinity, Spatiality and Modernity Among the Ngaing of Papua New Guinea." Oceania, 73(1):56-77.
In this paper, the author argues that the way in which masculinity and spatiality are reconstituted among the Ngaing men of Madang Province (Papua New Guinea) is pivotally implicated in how they articulate their ongoing claim to incorporation in modernity. The manner in which they strive for progress is indicative of identifications coupling Christianity and whiteness with the hope of redemption from a condition of blackness, inferiority, and marginality. With the help of recent discourses and secret ritual practices in which Christian components combine with local cultural patterns, the men make clear that indigenous participation in modernity is prefigured on the inside of external manifestations of body and space. This discursive and ritual empowerment of the men rests on a culturally specific construction of the inside and the outside in which the knowledge, power, and mobility possessed by whites are construed as an integral part of the local world.

Kitiarsa, Pattana
2005. "'Lives of Hunting Dogs': Muai Thai and the Politics of Thai Masculinities." South East Asia Research, 13(1):57-90.
In this article, the author uses case studies of muai Thai (Thai boxing) to engage critically with the current trend of gender studies in Thailand. The article argues that muai Thai, with its historical and cultural prominence, presents itself as an ideal candidate for Thai studies practitioners and students to rethink the culture of Thai men as well as to challenge pre-existing knowledge and understanding of male identities and masculinities in contemporary Thailand. Muai Thai offers itself as a promising cultural space to explore the ideas of 'hegemonic masculinity' or 'masculine domination' and its ramifications in a postmodern world. Through the narratives of young Thai boxers from the countryside, who have been widely perceived in Thai society as the 'hunting dogs' in the world of Thai boxing, the author contends that the forms and practices of masculinity in Thailand are plural, fluid, highly contested and contingent upon specific historical and cultural contexts. Indeed, there hardly exists an uncontested singular, fixed, overgeneralized, negative, or oppressive Thai masculinity, as claimed by many specialists and students of Thai gender and sexuality. Muai Thai construes the culturally negotiated ideology and disciplinary practices of 'technologies of the self,' which encourage men to work or perform their manly duties.

Klein, Uta
1999. "'Our Best Boys': The Gendered Nature of Civil-Military Relations in Israel." Men and Masculinities, 2(1):47-65.
Several scholars view the military to be a most forceful institution in constructing images of masculinity for society at large. Usually, military service can be described as a rite of passage to male adulthood, teaching toughness, and trying to eliminate what is regarded to be effeminate. Israel serves as an interesting case study to investigate the connections between gender and the military. Although participation in the military is compulsory for men and women and motivation to serve in the military is high, meaning that the military socializes most Jewish Israelis, this national duty is highly gendered. The author discusses the historical background of the Jewish Israeli ideal of manliness, its reinforcement by times of conflict and war, and its impact on the private and public sphere.

Koblitz, Ann Hibner
2006. "Male Bonding Around the Campfire: Constructing Myths of Hohokam Militarism." Men and Masculinities, 9(1):95-107.
The Hohokam people of central Arizona and their neighbors have long been of interest to archaeologists of the Southwest. The prevailing image of them has varied significantly over time. Lately there has been a shift among some scholars toward viewing the Hohokamas as constantly embroiled in warfare. This article analyzes this trend in archaeological writing in terms of the modern American culture of aggressive masculinity. The author argues that testosterone-driven fantasies appear to have influenced the theory formation of a significant group of archeologists. On the basis of scant evidence, they have created a story of war and militarism that harmonizes well with early twenty-first century U.S. political culture. Whether this warlike image has much bearing on the actual lives and pursuits of indigenous Southwest populations of the eleventh through fifteenth centuries is, however, open to doubt.

Kronja, Ivana
2006. "The Aesthetics of Violence in Recent Serbian Cinema: Masculinity in Crisis." Film Criticism, 30(3):17-38.
The honest treatment of the story of ordinary people trapped in hopelessness and violence, fine psychological nuancing of characters, creative use of genre cinema elements and popular iconography of the period, and considerate construction of suffering, deprived masculinity as a powerful metaphor for decaying society set Serbian films apart as some of the most challenging responses to the issue of violence in Serbian cinema of the decade. During the 1990s Serbian society faced difficult historical circumstances: the disintegration of their state and bloody civil war characterized by genocide, ethnic cleansings and war atrocities, economic and cultural sanctions and isolation, stigmatization of their country, the Kosovo conflict and NATO bombing in 1999, the oppression of Milosevic's authoritarian regime, and the extreme criminalization of ordinary life.

Kwon, Insook
2001. "A Feminist Exploration of Military Conscription: The Gendering of the Connections Between Nationalism, Militarism and Citizenship in South Korea." International Feminist Journal of Politics, 3(1):26-54.
Despite its political, cultural, and personal saliences, military conscription in South Korea has attracted surprisingly little social research. Mainly, such research has been left to military institutions. Also, few South Korean feminist analysts, until recently, have tried to fill this notable gap in political analysis. Without understanding the subtle gendering of conscription, we will not be able to make adequate sense of the persistence of a culture of militarism today, even after the end of the cold war, even after a pro-democracy movement pushed the military out of power. Therefore, the author seeks to demonstrate how male military conscription lies at the core of what most members of society believe it means to be an 'authentic' South Korean in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Kwon shows that compulsory male military service has played a crucial role in constructing citizenship, nationhood, masculinity, femininity, motherhood and fatherhood, and in creating the essential 'glue' that binds each of these six potent ideas to the concept of the nation-state in contemporary South Korea. In addition, Kwon reveals how employing a feminist analysis to explore the meaning and consequence of military conscription in present day South Korean society can have potential value for those researchers investigating the dynamics of political culture in other societies, past and present.

Kynoch, Gary
2001. "'A Man Among Men': Gender, Identity and Power in South Africa's Marashea Gangs." Gender & History, 13(2):249-272.
This article explores gender and power relations in a South African criminal society through an examination of the legend surrounding a prominent leader. Tseule Tsilo achieved a degree of notoriety in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s. Tsilo's legend lives on in the lore of the Marashea, the criminal organization to which he belonged. However, rather than being embraced by the entire Marashea, Tsilo is a hero only to men. The legend was created, and is sustained, by men and for men, a discursive development that mirrors the gendered nature of power within the Marashea.

Lane, Jennifer M. and Michael E. Addis
2005. "Male Gender Role Conflict and Patterns of Help Seeking in Costa Rica and the United States." Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(3):155-168.
This study examined the relationship between male gender role conflict and willingness to seek help for depression and substance abuse from a variety of potential helpers in a sample of U.S. and Costa Rican men. Results revealed variability in men's willingness to seek help across both culture and type of helper. Restrictive emotionality and restrictive affectionate behavior between men were related to decreased willingness to seek help from several helpers, whereas success, power, and competition were positively related to help-seeking ratings for some targets (Internet, mothers) and negatively related to ratings for male friends. These results suggest that the relationship between masculine gender socialization and help-seeking behaviors may depend on a variety of factors surrounding different problems and help-seeking opportunities.

Large, Judith
1997. "Disintegration Conflicts and the Restructuring of Masculinity." Gender and Development, 5(2):23-30.
Much of the literature on gender and armed conflict implies that men control decision-making relating to armed conflict and that fighting is an exclusively male domain, while women are portrayed as victims. This article asserts that this depiction oversimplifies men's and women's roles in violent conflicts. The author claims that gender analysis and conflict resolution policies will need to reflect issues of male gender identity.

Laurie, Nina
2005. "Establishing Development Orthodoxy: Negotiating Masculinities in the Water Sector." Development and Change, 36(3):527-549.
Despite important work in development studies on the 'male bias in the development process,' it is generally recognized that gender and development analyses have been slow to engage with masculinities. Focusing attention on the nexus between identity and globalizing development discourses, this article explores the relationship between masculinities and development through an analysis of the gendering of water paradigms. By analyzing the example of the recent Cochabamba water wars in Bolivia, and placing them in historical context, the author explores how gendered representations and language are used to downplay and upgrade particular understandings of modernity as they relate to water management, and examines the mechanisms through which specific gendered identities become associated with the most successful versions of 'modern' development.

Lee, Romeo
2006. "Filipino Experience of Ritual Male Circumcision: Knowledge and Insights for Anti-Circumcision Advocacy." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 8(3):225-234.
Male circumcision is a well-publicised phenomenon, but much of what is known at the international level concerns neonatal medical circumcision in some Western countries and ritual circumcision among young men entering into adulthood in certain countries in Africa. This paper aims to add to this understanding by focusing on Filipino men's experience of ritual circumcision. Data were derived from a 2002 Philippine circumcision study ― a component in a Southeast Asian research study of genital enhancement practices with an advocacy purpose. As part of the study, interviews were conducted with 114 circumcised Filipino males, of varying ages, who were selected purposively. The report highlights the important links in this context between circumcision, masculinity, and male identity. It points too the role of the broader community in sustaining such practices and the challenges that must be faced by anti-circumcision campaigners in making their efforts culturally appropriate.
2004. "Filipino Men's Familial Roles and Domestic Violence: Implications and Strategies for Community-Based Intervention." Health & Social Care in the Community, 12(5):422-429.
Men's gender roles have contributed to family violence, but the ramifications of these roles in the development of community-based programmes for men have not been given much attention. A small-scale qualitative examination of the familial context of Filipino men's positions and roles, and their domestic violence experiences and attitudes was carried out using eight discussion groups. Discussants saw themselves as being at the helm of their families. Men were knowledgeable of and took responsibility for their gender roles exerting control over the focus and direction of all their family affairs, including the gender roles of their wives/partners. This control demonstrated facets of their hegemonic masculinity such as sexual objectification and dominance. Men in this society come from a traditional position of power, dominance, and privilege. They will be particularly sensitive to interventions aimed at reducing violence against women which will enquire into their private lives. In their view, such interventions were both a direct challenge to their family leadership and a basis for 'losing face'. Strategies for positive interventions include the need for male-sensitive and male-centred approaches which avoid demonizing or stereotyping men.
Lemon, J.
1995. "Masculinity in Crisis?" Agenda, 25:61-71.
Socio-historical overview of the rise of the crisis of masculinity theory in the 1960s and 1970s. Critically examines the underlying assumptions of the theory and questions its validity and relevance in patriarchal societies.

Levant, Ronald et al.
2003. "Masculinity Ideology Among Russian and U.S. Young Men and Women and Its Relationship to Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Among Young Russian Men." Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(1):26-36.
One aim of this study was to further investigate the empirical support for the social constructionist perspective on gender roles. A second aim was to explore the relationship between Russian men's endorsement of traditional masculine ideology and their engagement in behaviors that may put their health at risk. Russian respondents endorsed traditional masculine ideology, developed for a U.S. sample, to a higher degree than did their American counterparts. Overall, women endorsed a less traditional perspective of masculine ideology for men; however, this result was more pronounced amoung U.S. participants. Using a modification of the Susceptibility to Stress Scale, results yielded one variable associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits among Russian men: lower socioeconomic status.

Levy, Caren, Nadia Taher and Claudy Vouhé
2000. "Addressing Men and Masculinities in GAD." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):86-96.
The GAD approach in both concept and practice has been inconsistent in its treatment of men and masculinities. In their work on mainstreaming gender in policy and planning, the authors have tried to confront these inconsistencies in a number of ways. This article reviews the way men and masculinities have been addressed in GAD, drawing primarily on the Development Planning Unit (DPU), University College London's academic, training, and advisory work in this field. This article is structured around four main areas. The first places the DPU's approach in the wider WID/GAD debates of the 1990s, and discusses the rationale for incorporating men and masculinities into a transformative view of GAD. The next section discusses the ways in which men and masculinities have been incorporated into the concepts and tools which make up the DPU's gender mainstreaming methodology. Taking the example of training, the third section focuses on men and masculinities through the experience of working with women and men as trainees and trainers. In conclusion, the authors summarize their view of the dangers and positive reasons for the incorporation of men and masculinities into gender mainstreaming methodologies.

Lim, David
2006. "Cruising Mat Moto: Malay Biker Masculinity and Queer Desire in/through KL Menjerit." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 7(1):62-80.
This paper examines the construction of working-class Mat Motor (Malay biker) masculinity and queer desire in/through KL Menjerit, a commercial biker film that exudes the unmistakably aura of working-class kejantanan (masculinity). Specifically, the author focus on how the film ― or more precisely the 'queer moments' it contains ― resonates in ways that are not necessarily obvious to the disinterested heterosexual public eye. The discussion takes into account both filmic elements and the sexual geography of Kuala Lumpur (KL), where shifting biker spaces sometimes intersect with homosexual cruising sites. Lim's argument is that the film's representation of the Mat Motor protagonist as unbendingly straight and heterosexually jantan ― while imaginably gratifying to the core audience of Mat Motors ― actually belies the opposite reality of KL's 'forgotten' underside, where gender and sexuality are much more fluid and malleable than is sanctioned by society and the state.

Lipset, David
2004. "Modernity Without Romance? Masculinity and Desire in Courtship Stories Told by Young Papua New Guinean Men." American Ethnologist, 31(2):205-224.
Romance has been theoretically associated with the estrangements created by modern individualism. As demonstrated in courtship stories told by young men from the Murik Lakes in Papua New Guinea, the relationship of Murik culture to modernity has not resulted in narratives that privilege a construction of courtship in which the self merges with the beloved. Desire is not defined in terms of romantic love but is set amid events that are scrupulously fixed in the foregrounds of specific times and exact locations. In these tales, representations of personhood are organized by a Homeric chronotope rather than by a romantic one. Although masculinity in Murik culture has undergone important transformations in the 20th century, its sociology has not given way to the discourse of modern individualism.

Liu, Jenny X. and Kyung Choi
2006. "Experiences of Social Discrimination Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai, China." AIDS and Behavior, 10:25-33.
In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increasingly high risk for HIV. However, prevention efforts targeting this population may be hindered because of the stigma associated with homosexuality in traditional Chinese culture. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Shanghai to better understand the types and sources of stigma and discrimination and how MSM respond to them. The stigma associated with homosexuality can be traced back to four culturally based factors: social status and relationships, the value of family, perceptions of immorality and abnormality, and gender stereotypes of masculinity. In particular, the centrality of the family and the importance of maintaining key relationships caused stress and anxiety, contributing to more frequent encounters with felt stigma. In response, MSM often evaded the scrutiny of family members through various tactics, even prompting some to leave their rural homes. Implications of these findings on HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed.

Louie, Kam
2000. "Constructing Chinese Masculinity for the Modern World: with Particular Reference to Lao She's The Two Mas." China Quarterly, 164:1062-1078.
In the first comprehensive analysis of Chinese masculinity in the Western world, Louie uses the concepts of wen (cultural attainment) and wu (martial valour) to explain attitudes to masculinity. This revises most Western analyses of Asian masculinity that rely on the yin-yang binary.
1999. "Sexuality, Masculinity and Politics in Chinese Culture: The Case of the 'Sanguo' Hero Guan Yu." Modern Asian Studies, 33(4):835-859.
This paper examines the sexual composition of the hero (yingxiong) in traditional China and how this sexuality is projected onto the political plane. Existing scholarship on the Chinese hero has provided Sinology with excellent material on a number of issues, from those which link the hero with Chinese concepts of chivalry, to those which discuss the hero as 'revolutionary' and 'mass-based.' One of the major lacunae in all of these studies, however, has been an analysis of the importance of sexuality to the successful construction of a 'hero.' Before Chinese studies drew on more recent methodologies, such as those developed by feminist criticism, the yingxiong's sexuality was casually dismissed. It was asserted that, in contrast to Western chivalric romances, where love is often the most important inspiration for heroic deeds, love (and by implication sex) in traditional Chinese chivalric tales 'plays no such important part.'

Luyt, Russell
2005. "The Male Attitude Norms Inventory – II: A Measure of Masculinity Ideology in South Africa." Men and Masculinities, 8(2):208-229.
This article describes the development of the Male Attitude Norms Inventory – II (MANI-II). Empirical findings and theoretical debate contributed toward the development of a measure of South African masculinity ideology. 339 male participants, drawn from universities across greater Cape Town, were included in the study. Exploratory factor analysis rendered a three-factor model of traditional masculinity. This accounted for 31.44 percent of total item variance. Results informed the development of a total scale (α = 0.90) as well as three subscale measures (Toughness, α = 0.81; Control, α = 0.82; and Sexuality, α = 0.85). The MANI-II displayed satisfactory convergent validity with the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI) (r = 0.84; p < 0.001). The MANI-II and MRNI subscales were also meaningfully interrelated. The MANI-II offers a contextually sensitive and multidimensional measure of masculinities. Further research should include a representative sample, establish test-retest reliability, and further examine total and subscale construct validity.

Magazine, Roger
2004. "Both Husbands and Banda (Gang) Members: Conceptualizing Marital Conflict and Instability among Young Rural Migrants in Mexico City." Men and Masculinities, 7(2):144-165.
In this article, the author suggests a novel approach to the conceptualization of marital conflict and instability among rural migrants in Mexican cities. In previous studies, authors have attributed conjugal strife to men's efforts to express their independence and dominate their wives. Using ethnographic data collected among a specific category of young migrants in Mexico City, the author posits that their marital dynamics as well as husbands' attempts at domination can be better understood by employing a unity of analysis that extends beyond the household itself to include husbands' relationships to other men in groups they call bandas (gangs). In the banda, men try to obligate each other to spend time and resources that could otherwise be directed toward conjugal relationships. When wives make demands on the same limited resources and husbands refuse, making claims to a dominant and independent masculinity, they are responding to, while also obscuring, their obligations to other men.

Mager, Anne
2005. "'One Beer, One Goal, One Nation, One Soul': South African Breweries, Heritage, Masculinity and Nationalism 1960-1999." Past and Present, 188:163-194.
This article explores how South African beer advertising has reflected changing conceptions of (and has in turn helped to change) masculinity and gender norms in the move from apartheid to inclusive democracy. From using sporting imagery, popular among both European and African man, to sell beer in the early days of mass advertising, the industry eventually became more sophisticated to sell not just beer, but to manufacture an image and identity. Mager suggests that the multi-racial image that emerged in late 20th century beer advertising mirrored and cemented the move away from apartheid as consumers internalized the images they saw in their favorite brand of beer ads.

Magubane, Zine
2002. "Mines, Minstrels, and Masculinity: Race, Class, Gender, and the Formation of the South African Working Class, 1870-1900." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):271-289.
This paper argues that the discovery of diamonds in South Africa in the late 19th century facilitated the rapid growth of Kimberley as an urban center where Black and White males were forced into close and unpredictable proximity, and where they forged relationships that alternated between mutual cooperation and dependence and fierce rivalry and competition. The rapidity with which economic relations changed threw conventional class and social relationships into upheaval and resulted in a tremendous amount of class-based anxiety and insecurity on the part of European males. These anxieties and insecurities were not only caused by the presence of Black men as sources of economic competition but were also projected onto them in the form of fantasies about hyper-sentient Black male bodies. The figure of the "Dandy," a trope from the American blackface minstrelsy tradition, became a cultural symbol for expressing and managing class and race insecurity.

Mahalik, James R., Hugh D. Lagan and Jay A. Morrison
2006. "Health Behaviors and Masculinity in Kenyan and U.S. Male College Students." Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 7(4):191-202.
Approaching men's health behaviors from a gender socialization framework, the authors hypothesized that (a) men's health behaviors would significantly relate to their conformity to traditional masculine norms, (b) these behaviors would significantly differ as a function of their nationality, and (c) masculinity and nationality would significantly interact to predict men's health behaviors. 546 male college students (384 Kenyan men, 162 U.S. men) completed the Health Behavior Inventory and the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. ANCOVA results indicated that 30 of 52 health behaviors were associated with traditional masculinity, nationality, or their interaction. The discussion focuses on masculinity's relationship to harmful health behaviors. In addition, limitations and potential interventions to improve men's health behaviors are discussed.

Malam, Linda
2004. "Performing Masculinity on the Thai Beach Scene." Tourism Geographies, 6(4):455-471.
This paper presents a new framework for researching the identities and power relationships between locals and tourists in developing countries. Moving away from conceptualizing identities as tied into binary frameworks, this paper conceptualizes identities as fluid, multiple, and context-specific. Based on ethnographic fieldwork from 1999 to 2001, this research explores the everyday lived experiences of Thai men working in the bars and bungalows of Had Rin peninsula on Koh Phangan island in southern Thailand. In this paper Malam maps the ways that the identities of these men shift and change as they move between the different social geographies that overlie their everyday lived spaces on Had Rin peninsula. In highlighting the ways that the men's identities shift as they move through space Malam argues for the importance of space and context in theorizing identities, demonstrating that dualistic representations of identity are inadequate attempts to capture identities which are actually very complex, multiple, and subject to change.

Massad, Joseph
1995. "Conceiving the Masculine: Gender and Palestinian Nationalism." The Middle East Journal, 49(3):467.
A case study of Palestinian nationalism, this article examines how masculinity as a colonial model is figured into nationalist discourse. Nationalist agency is constituted through performances that are said to be its results, and nationalist masculinity is a new type of masculinity available to men.

McGuire, Meredith
2003. "Masculinity, Bollywood-Ishtyle." India Currents, 17(1):28-29.
The Bollywood hero is not just a Momma's boy; he's in willing bondage to her apron strings, whether he's playing Romeo or a tough-as-nails commando. Americans raised on Lethal Weapon and Die Hard expect their action heros to have dysfunctional family histories and bottles of whiskey stashed beneath their beds. In turn, Bollywood offers gun-toting teetotalers who fire away in Momma's name. The Bollywood hero is emotionally open, deeply passionate, and when he is in love, he admits it, often in breathtaking verse. When the Bollywood hero cries openly, we don't think he's a sissy. We cry with him. It's an entirely different brand of masculinity, and it works because the Bollywood hero's demeanor leaves no room for allegations of effeminacy; rather, he brazenly flaunts his maleness. Suggestive dance moves, tight leather pants and see-through shirts, arm-baring vests and shirtless strutting invite ― nay, demand ― that the female audience ogle them. Emotions are on display, but male sexuality joins them in the front window.

Mehta, Deepak
2006. "Collective Violence, Public Spaces, and the Unmaking of Men." Men and Masculinities, 9(2):204-225.
Drawing from fieldwork in a shantytown called Dharavi in Bombay, this article considers the effects of communal violence between Hindus and Muslims in December, 1993, and January, 1994. The effects of violence are charted through narrative accounts of residents of Dharavi. The article argues that collective violence brings together the nation, the neighborhood, and bodies of participants. The intersection of these three shows the procedures by which Muslim men are denuded of their masculinity.

Meintjes, Louise
2004. "Shoot the Sergeant, Shatter the Mountain: The Production of Masculinity in Zulu Ngoma Song and Dance in Post-Apartheid South Africa."Ethnomusicology Forum, 13(2):173-201.
The paper situates Zulu ngoma song and dance within the related worlds of state and gender politics in post-apartheid South Africa. It poses as its problem the difficulty of retaining the presence of individualized expression and stylized body movement in an analysis that also situates "the body" politically and theorizes it phenomenologically. In the midst of unemployment, an AIDS epidemic, and a history of violence in rural KwaZulu-Natal,ngoma is a critical means to attaining responsible manhood.

Mellström, Ulf
2002. "Patriarchal Machines and Masculine Embodiment." Science, Technology, & Human Values, 27(4):460-478.
Hegemonic masculinity is a concept that has been of central concern in gender research on different masculinities. However, with the exception of the pioneering work of Wajcman, it has not been widely discussed in relation to studies of science and technology. In this article, which mainly draws on anthropological fieldwork among car and motor mechanics in Penang, Malaysia, a certain form of hegemonic masculinity, based on an intimate embodied interaction with machines, is discussed. Such a masculinity is furthermore founded on an anthropomorphization of the man-machine relationship in which the machines are transformed into subjects in what might be termed a masculine technical sociability. In such a sociability, machines are understood as a means of a performative and embodied communication enabling masculine homosocial bonding linkages.

Mirembe, R. and L. Davies
2001. "Is Schooling a Risk? Gender, Power Relations, and School Culture in Uganda." Gender and Education, 13(4):401-416.
This article relates a study of AIDS education in Uganda which used an ethnography of school culture to explore the contradictions in curriculum intervention. The school was found to be a site of an extensive set of gendered practices which constituted a risk in themselves in terms of sexual health. Four forms of control are examined in this article: hegemonic masculinity, gendered discipline patterns, sexual harassment, and 'compulsory' heterosexuality. Male domination and power imbalances in the school encouraged attitudes and practices with regard to sexual relationships which negated the official messages of the AIDS curriculum.

Moon, Seungsook
2005. "Trouble with Conscription, Entertaining Soldiers: Popular Culture and the Politics of Militarized Masculinity in South Korea." Men and Masculinities, 8(1):64-92.
Gender and military studies focus on Western post-conscription societies, overlooking the significance of military service to the gender order in the larger society. Concerned with the military's changing form in industrial and democratic society, military sociology literature argues for the broad trend toward the decline of the conscription-based military and highlights not only economic factors but also geopolitical factors influencing this trend. Yet this literature overlooks the significance of gender in interpreting such geopolitical factors. Focusing on the problem of equity in conscription in contemporary South Korea and on one popular cultural response to that problem, this article examines the importance of men's conscription to the organization of meanings and practices of masculinity (and femininity) in larger society and argues that the geopolitical reality in Korea that justifies militarized national security and the existence of conscription is embedded in the gendered interpretation of what is being threatened and what is to be protected.

Morrell, Robert
2002. "Men, Movements, and Gender Transformation in South Africa." The Journal of Men's Studies, 10(3):309-327.
In the last decade, South Africa has undergone a major political transformation. The ending of apartheid and the installation of a democratically elected, black majority government has had major implications for gender policy and gender relations in the country. This paper examines how men collectively have responded to these changes. It identifies a number of different men's movements and locates them in terms of their relationship to the goal of gender equity being pursued by government. It draws on the work of Messner to suggest what contributions these movements might, or might not, make to gender transformation in the country. Finally, it examines the importance of race and the apartheid past to suggest that any analysis of men and gender politics should be sensitive to different understandings of gender and location within the current gender order.
1997. "Masculinity in South African History: Towards a Gendered Approach to the Past: Colloquium Report." South African Historical Journal, 37:167-177.
This article reports on a colloquium on masculinities in Southern Africa which was held at the University of Natal, Durban, from 2 to 4 July 1997. The colloquium was not the curiosity that the public wanted, yet it raised key issues and suggested new ways of thinking about South African history. This article sketches the theoretical literature which has expanded the ambit of gender studies to include the study of masculinity.

Murray, David A.B.
1999. "Laws of Desire? Race, Sexuality, and Power in Male Martinican Sexual Narratives." American Ethnologist, 26(1):160-172.
In Martinique, both homosexual and heterosexual narratives of sexual desire reveal the centrality of an orthodox masculinity as a hegemonic force in public articulations about social relations and identity. Race also figures prominently in these narratives, but no straightforward correlative relations exist between race and other sociological categories such as class or education. In this article, Murray argues for the necessity of recognizing the influence of Martinique's neocolonial relationship with France. This relationship continues to affect cultural and political ideologies. The author also demonstrates the influence of context in determining identity choices in narrative constructions.

Myrttinen, Henri
2005. "Masculinities, Violence and Power in Timor Leste." Lusotopie, 12(1-2):233-244.
This article sketches some of the manifestations of violent masculinities which were visible in the Timor Leste conflict from 1975 to 1999. While concentrating on Timorese actors, it points out that this does not in any way mean that Timorese men are inherently more violent than others. In fact, the vast majority of the acts of violence during the conflict were committed by members of the occupying Indonesian security forces. After a brief thematic and historical introduction, the article examines manifestations of violent masculinities within the pro-independence Falintil guerrilla, the pro-Indonesian militias, and the civilian population. As the end of the conflict has not meant an end to, but a "domestication" of violence with extremely high rates of domestic and gender-based sexual violence, the article further examines the impact of the post-conflict situation on violent manifestations of masculinity.

Nagel, J.
1998. "Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations." Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(2):242-269.
This article explores the intimate historical and modern connection between manhood and nationhood: through the construction of patriotic manhood and exalted motherhood as icons of nationalist ideology; through the designation of gendered 'places' for men and women in national politics; through the domination of masculine interests and ideology in nationalist movements; through the interplay between masculine microcultures and nationalist ideology; through sexualized militarism including the construction of simultaneously over-sexed and under-sexed 'enemy'men (rapists and wimps) and promiscuous 'enemy' women (sluts and whores). Three 'puzzles' are partially solved by exposing the connection between masculinity and nationalism: why are many men so desperate to defend masculine, monoracial, and heterosexual institutional preserves, such as military organizations and academies; why do men go to war; and the 'gender gap,' that is, why do men and women appear to have very different goals and agendas for the 'nation'?

Niehaus, Isak
2000. "Towards a Dubious Liberation: Masculinity, Sexuality and Power in South African Lowveld Schools, 1953-1999." Journal of Southern African Studies, 26(3):387-407.
This article investigates how masculine sexuality featured as a political issue during the liberation struggle in Impalahoek, a village on the South African lowveld. The starting point of analysis is the repressive regime in primary and high schools during the period of Bantu Education, from 1953 to 1986. The author shows that while teachers strictly prohibited and harshly punished all forms of sexuality between students, male teachers freely engaged in sexual liaisons with schoolgirls. The revolt by Comrades in the schools between 1986 and 1992 was inspired in part by students' discontent about sexuality. Comrades demanded an end to corporal punishment, expelled teachers who engaged in sex with schoolgirls, and celebrated their own sexual virility in a local campaign to 'build soldiers.' Since 1994, the management of sexuality by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government has not inaugurated sexual liberation. Rather, sex education and new medical discourses about sexuality in the era of AIDS have generated new forms of surveillance and contestation. Such historical experiences inform the links between democratization and changing notions of sexuality in South Africa.

Oates-Indruchová, Libora
2006. "The Void of Acceptable Masculinity During Czech State Socialism: The Case of Radek John's Memento." Men and Masculinities, 8(4):428-450.
During Czech state socialism, masculinity in cultural representations was bound up with the official sociology, and thus, it was likely to be discredited in popular perception. As the dominant ideology took over the main existing models, the concept of masculinity was devoid of any alternative model. The popular novel published during the last years of state socialism, which this article considers as a case study, fills the void of masculinity with the body as the last resort to which a man seeking an alternative can turn in this situation.

Odendal, Willem
2001. "The Men Against Violence Against Women Movement in Namibia." Development, 44(3):90-93.
The author illustrates the experience of The Men Against Violence Against Women Campaign in Namibia, initiated by concerned Namibian men to combat violence against women (VAW). The National Conference on Men Against Violence Against Women in Namibia, held in February 2000, brought men from all walks of life together to develop strategies of how men in Namibia can sensitize fellow men to the problem of VAW. The Namibian Men for Change (NAMEC) was brought into life after the conference. NAMEC functions as an awareness-raising group among young adult men on issues such as masculinity, relationships, parenthood, sexual abuse, and the creation of a non-violent culture in Namibia. Despite its lack of financial resources, NAMEC has already achieved a significant degress of awareness-raising during its brief period of existence. The organization is currently active in most of Namibia's regions, where its members visit schools and organize a range of forums for discussions amongst men.

Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O., Ambrose Akinlo and Joshua A. Ebigola
2005. "Violence Against Women: An Examination of Men's Attitudes and Perceptions About Wife Beating and Contraceptive Use." Journal of Asian and African Studies, 40(3):219-229.
The objective of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of men towards domestic violence and contraceptive use. Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted between February and May in 2003 in Osun and Ondo states of southwest Nigeria. The study reveals that: (1) more than 80 percent of men disapprove of a woman deciding to use contraceptives without consulting them; (2) a significant proportion of men view domestic violence as acceptable; and (3) the results therefore signify serious problems concerning the role of men in reproductive issues, which the current efforts in family planning have not adequately addressed.

Omondi, Odhiambo
1997. "Men's Participation in Family Planning Decisions in Kenya." Population Studies, 51(1):29-40.
The effects of men's participation in family planning decisions in Kenya are studied, and suggestions are made to increase male involvement in the family planning process. Data indicate that men do participate in this process. It is suggested that a lack of communication between husband and wife may be a greater obstacle to the use of contraceptives than men's opposition.

Ood, Katharine W. and Rachel Jewkes
1997. "Violence, Rape, and Sexual Coercion: Everyday Love in a South African Township." Gender and Development, 5(2):41-46.
This article presents findings from a research project with pregnant adolescents in a South African township. The interviews reveal the extent to which male coercion and violence in sexual relationships effect women's reproductive health. The results suggest that reproductive health programs need to be conscious of these gender inequalities in certain social contexts and include men as participants in projects designed to challenge male violence.

Osella, Filippo and Caroline Osella
2003. "'Ayyappan Saranam': Masculinity and the Sabarimala Pilgrimage in Kerala." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(4):729-754.
Sabarimala―a South Indian all-male pilgrimage to Ayyappan, a hyper-male deity born from two male gods―plays a role in constructing male identities, at both external (social-structural) and internal (psychological) levels. The pilgrimage draws creatively on relationships between two South Asian male figures: renouncer and householder, breaking down the opposition between transcendence and immanence to bring into everyday life a sense of transcendence specific to men. Sabarimala merges individual men both with the hyper-masculine deity and with a wider community of men: other male pilgrims, senior male gurus (teachers). This merger is both social and personal. A normal and universal sense of masculine ambivalence and self-doubt has a specific local-cultural resolution, when boys and men experience strengthening of the gendered ego through renunciatory self-immersion in a 'greater masculine.' The ostensibly egalitarian devotional community is actually hierarchical: pilgrims surrender themselves to deity and guru, while equality and friendship between men can be celebrated and performed precisely because it is predicated upon a deeper sense of difference and hierarchy ― gender ― with woman as the absent and inferiorized other. Such segregated celebrations of masculinity work both towards masculinity's reproduction ― through processes of 'remasculinization' ― and in the limiting of masculinity to males.
2000. "Migration, Money, and Masculinity in Kerala." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(1):117-133.
This article examines migration, styles of masculinity, and male trajectories through the life-cycle in Kerala, South India, in a region with a long history of high migration, most lately to the Persian Gulf states. Ethnography suggests that migration may be integrated into wider identity projects and form part of local subjectivities. This article considers four important local categories: the gulfan migrant, typically an immature unmarried male; the kallan, a self-interested maximizer or individualistic anti-social man; the payam, an innocent good-guy, generous to the point of self-destruction; and the status of mature householder, a successful, social, mature man holding substantial wealth, supporting many dependents and clients. Another theme to emerge is the relationship between masculinity and cash: migration appears as particularly relevant to masculinity in its enhanced relationship with money, an externalizable form of masculine potency: maturity means being able to use such resources wisely.

Özkan, Türker and Timo Lajunen
2005. "Masculinity, Femininity, and the Bem Sex Role Inventory in Turkey." Sex Roles, 52(1-2):103-110.
The aim of this study was to examine the masculinity and femininity scales of Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) among Turkish university students. 536 students (280 men and 256 women) volunteered to complete the short-form of the BSRI and answer demographic questions. In factor analyses, the original factor structure was found both in the men's and women's data. Comparisons of the factor structures with target rotation and comparison indexes showed no difference between the factor structures found among men and women. The internal consistency of the masculinity and femininity scales was acceptable, and t-tests showed that women scored higher on the femininity scale, and men scored higher on the masculinity scale. There were significant differences between men and women only on two masculinity items, but significant differences were found in 8 (of 10) femininity items.

Patterson, Steven
2006. "Postcards from the Raj." Patterns of Prejudice, 40(2):142-158.
Patterson's article explores aspects of British identity as they relate to depictions of Britons and Indians on postcards during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He argues that these were not innocuous 'comic' pieces, as they were intended to be seen at the time, but rather were integrally linked to the justification of the Raj, since they emphasize the civilizing mission of empire and the 'backwards' nature of India. Nearly all aspects of imperial life, whether running the bungalow, dispensing justice or even travelling by train, required the British to maintain an imperial façade of control and an aura of invincibility. Part of this process required the British to depict Indians as incapable of self-rule, and the postcards depict the British as natural overlords of India, born 'booted and spurred' to rule, while Indians are portrayed 'saddled and bridled.' Indians then, due to their 'Oriental nature,' are portrayed as too lazy, too effeminate, or too dishonest to run their own country effectively. Another theme that can be explicated through the postcards is that of masculinity. By constantly posing as a more masculine and worthy race, the British laid down an entire grid of civilization in which they could be the only legitimate rulers. This aspect of the White Man's Burden further bolstered and perpetuated the masculine authority of the Raj, and the postcards became a key component linking empire and metropole for the re-export of imperial ideology to Britain.

Pearson, Ruth
2000. "All Change? Men, Women and Reproductive Work in the Global Economy." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):219-237.
Gender analysis of globalization has focused exclusively on women and production ― that is, the impact of changes in the global economy on women's labor force participation. There has been little analysis until now on the implications of globalization on the gender division of labor in reproductive work in paid or domestic labor, in spite of extensive research on the impacts of economic reforms on the public provision of social services. This article argues that a focus on men's roles is essential in order to capture the wider dimensions of the gendered processes of globalization and to inform the current debate on global social policies in the context of labor flexibility and welfare reform.
2000. "Which Men, Why Now? Reflections on Men and Development." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):42-48.
This article interrogates the impulses behind the current interest in men and masculinities within a gender and development framework. It argues that the Women and Development agenda, which was propelled onto the development cooperation stage in the 1970s, was inspired by Second Wave feminism and the anti-imperialist and civil rights movements of that era. However, the men and masculinities agenda does not have a parallel political origin or passion. Whilst feminists and gender analysis are committed to extending the gender agenda to men as well as women, and take a range of positions from male exclusion to male co-option, there is a striking silence from main (male)-stream development experts. Those men who are involved are largely from outside the development cooperation field, but include many who are involved with challenging both politically and academically dominant theories and positionalities of men and masculinities in developing countries and in development institutions and international social science. But the involvement of men from Scandinavian mainstream development agencies also suggests that it is the position of men in particular societies and their relationship with the state and the labor markets, as much as the policy and political relevance of men and masculinities in development practice, which is the key to extending this agenda.

Peletz, Michael G
1994. "Neither Reasonable nor Responsible: Contrasting Representations of Masculinity in Malay Society." Cultural Anthropology, 9(2):135-178.
Peletz analyzes kinship and gender among the Malays in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, dispelling the myth that this is a gender-neutral society. Peletz provides a brief overview of the matrilineal and matrilocal indigenous practices and the imported Islamic concepts of nafsu ('passion'), devalued and hegemonically associated with women, and akal ('reason'), valued in Islam and associated with men. Peletz then deconstructs gender representations into official, hegemonic representations that place men in an inherently superior position to women, and practical representations which portray men as having less reason and responsibility than women as a result of local practices and capitalist state policies which restructure kinship and fuel male irresponsibility. Further deconstruction of masculinity links practical representations of gender with lower socioeconomic class standing, since poor men are less likely to be able to provide for their families and hence the rate of divorce and abandonment is much higher amongst the lower classes. Peletz ends his article by exposing obstacles to further destabilization of hegemonic representations of gender, real and perceived, which could undermine the structure of society.

Peng, Yen-Wen
2007. "Buying Sex: Domination and Difference in the Discourses of Taiwanese Piao-ke." Men and Masculinities, 9(3):315-336.
This article attempts to deepen feminist understanding of the power dynamics in the practice of client-prostitute relations by exploring how clients (in Mandarin, Piao-ke) make sense of their relationships with prostitutes. On the basis of tens of online and in-person interviews with Taiwanese Piao-ke, the author explores the diverse and subtle details that surface in the clients' narratives and that might otherwise have been neglected. Instead of totalizing Piao-ke as problematic, a post-feminist understanding of the practice is suggested, namely, one founded on a distinction between acceptable and dominant practices and discourses that should be targeted.

Pereira da Cruz Benetti, Silvia and Jaipaul L. Roopnarine
2006. "Paternal Involvement with School-aged Children in Brazilian Families: Association with Childhood Competence." Sex Roles, 55(9-10):669-678.
Thirty-eight middle- to lower-income Brazilian fathers in two-parent families provided estimates of different dimensions of their involvement with their school-aged children, assessed children's social competence, and rated their beliefs on family roles. Analysis showed that fathers and mothers spent similar amounts of time in different activities with children, but did differ in didactic interactions, their responsibility for, and actually disciplining children. There were no significant differences in participation due to gender of child or income. Fathers' ideological beliefs about gender roles were positively related to involvement in disciplining children and inversely related to engagement in social activities with children. Fathers' involvement in disciplining children was negatively associated with childhood social competence after controlling for mothers' contribution.

Pérez-Jiménez, David et al.
2007. "Construction of Male Sexuality and Gender Roles in Puerto Rican Heterosexual College Students." Men and Masculinities, 9(3):358-378.
In this study, the authors explored the contextual elements that influence the construction of male gender roles and sexuality among Puerto Rican heterosexual male college students. They conducted three focus groups with students at the University of Puerto Rico. Sessions were transcribed and content analyzed. Participants believed that gender roles are prescribed mainly through mass media and the family. The mass media stresses men's capacity to have frequent sexual relations with multiple partners and take many sexual risks. Men are also socialized to control their emotions and to be dominant. Sexuality is still taboo in family and the church. Safer sex messages are not encouraged and some conceptions of gender roles and sexuality contradict prevention messages. The relevance of these notions for sexuality and men's health is discussed.

Peteet, Julie
1994. "Male Gender and Rituals of Resistance in the Palestinian 'Intifada': A Cultural Politics of Violence." American Ethnologist, 21(1):31-49.
This article examines ritualized inscriptions of bodily violence upon Palestinian male youths in the occupied territories. It argues that beatings and detention are construed as rites of passage into manhood. Bodily violence is crucial in the construction of a moral self among its recipients, who are enabled to juxtapose their own cultural categories of manhood and morality to those of a foreign power. Ritual as a transformative experience foregrounds a political agency designed to reverse relations of domination between occupied and occupier. Simultaneously, it both reaffirms and transforms internal Palestinian forms of domination.

Pineda, Javier
2000. "Partners in Women Headed Households: Emerging Masculinities." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):72-92.
This article examines changing expressions of masculinity and gender relations of power in Colombian women-headed households in which men are working and women have access to microcredit linked to the financial NGO Women's World Banking. At the level of the household analysis, the paper examines the bargaining process within households and gender segregation of work activities. Some men have found in women's home-based businesses an alternative form of work and survival. This process has been characterized by female leadership, relations of cooperation, and changes in gender identities. The article raises some questions and suggestions about gender-sensitive policy in development programs.

Posel, Deborah
2005. "The Scandal of Manhood: 'Baby Rape' and the Politicization of Sexual Violence in Post-Apartheid South Africa." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(3):239-252.
This paper traces the genealogy of sexual violence as a public and political issue in South Africa, from its initial marginalization and minimization during the apartheid era, through to the explosion of anguish and anger which marked the post-apartheid moment, and most dramatically the years 2001 and 2002. Of particular interest is the question of how and why the problem of sexual violence came to be seen as a scandal of manhood, putting male sexuality under critical public scrutiny. The paper argues that the sudden, intense eruption of public anxiety and argument about sexual violence which marked the post-apartheid period had relatively little to do with feminist analysis and politics (influential though this has been in some other respects). Rather, the key to understanding this politicization of sexual violence lies with its resonances with wider political and ideological anxieties about the manner of the national subject and the moral community of the country's fledgling democracy.

Poudyal, Ranjan
2000. "Alternative Masculinities in South Asia: An Exploration Through Films for Schools." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):75-78.
Masculinity and its impact on gender relations and the institutionalization of power exercised by men have been critically commented upon by activists and academics working on issues related to gender relations. The failure of the early 'developmentalist' approach to population control programs, the increase in violence against women, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic has pushed to the fore, amongst other issues, the question of male sexuality and male culture. The Save the Children (UK) South and Central Asia Regional Office and UNICEF Regional office for South Asia is proposing to make a series of films on masculinities, which deconstructs and reconstructs patriarchy within South Asia. The film-making project involves the production of films on masculinities by male filmmakers from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, within their own countries. This film-making project is intended to increase and extend the impact of SCF's and UNICEF's country programs in tackling the problems of increasing violence against girls. The intent is to try and explore the broad patterns of masculinities without ignoring the particularities of each category of men (in terms of class, caste, sexual preference, etc).

Radhakrishnan, Ratheesh
2005. "PE Usha, Hegemonic Masculinity and the Public Domain in Kerala: On the Historical Legacies of the Contemporary." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 6(2):187-208.
The paper attempts to work out the link between the structuring of the public domain and hegemonic masculinities in contemporary Kerala, South India. Using the debates around an incident of sexual harassment that happened in 1999, it argues for a conjunctural understanding of the contemporary where various events and moments in history are replayed through narrativization and popular memory. The paper goes on to analyse the debates around the incident that produce a 'narrative public domain,' to foreground the various notions of masculinity that construct and structure it in relation to notions of female sexuality and changing structures of family. These notions of masculinity could be, the paper argues, a starting point for a historical inquiry into Kerala's modernity ― an inquiry that would throw light on the past and the ways in which the contemporary is produced through its historical legacies.

Roberson, James
2005. "Fight!! Ippatsu!! "Genki" Energy Drinks and the Marketing of Masculine Ideology in Japan." Men and Masculinities, 7(4):365-384.
This article focuses on the marketing of 'genki' energy health drinks to consider the role of media representations in the everyday construction of ideologies of masculinity in contemporary Japan. It is shown that advertisements for these drinks have employed two dominant sets of images of Japanese men and masculinity, portraying either work- and company-based needs for energy and mental acuity or the (masculine) physical strength needed to compete successfully, overcome obstacles, or defeat foes. It is argued that such advertisements have participated in the representational circumscription of the visual codes of masculinity in contemporary Japan, and through this representational regime have reflected and reproduced a dominant gender ideology that sanctions a powerful, corporatist, middle-class masculinity.

Romero, R. Todd
2006. "'Ranging Foresters' and 'Women-like Men': Physical Accomplishment, Spiritual Power, and Indian Masculinity in Early-Seventeenth Century New England." Ethnohistory, 53(2):281-329.
Through an examination of seventeenth-century English sources and later Indian folklore, this article illustrates the centrality of religion to defining masculinity among Algonquian-speaking Indians in southern New England. Manly ideals were represented in the physical and spiritual excellence of individual living men like the Penacook sachem-powwow Passaconaway and supernatural entities like Maushop. For men throughout the region, cultivating and maintaining spiritual associations was essential to success in the arenas of life defining Indian masculinity: games, hunting, warfare, governing, and marriage. As is stressed throughout the essay, masculinity was also juxtaposed with femininity in a number of important ways in Indian society.

Roy, Rahul
2001. "The Eyes Are Silent... The Heart Desires to Speak: Exploring Masculinities in South Asia." Development, 44(3):15-20.
This article explores the culture of masculinity and violence against women in South Asia, arguing that film making can be an effective tool to encourage young men to reflect on their relationships with women and challenge the dominant paradigms of 'male behavior.'

Rubenstein, Gidi
2003. "Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism ― A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group." Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(2):100-110.
The present study quantitatively examined the ethnographic social-psychological profile suggested by A. M. Klein (1993) for American bodybuilders using Israeli bodybuilders. Eighty male gym trainees and 80 men who have never trained completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Bem's Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (AHS) and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scales, and a demographic questionnaire. The bodybuilders showed the highest levels of narcissism and traits socially desirable for men and exhibited the highest scores on both genetic and communal traits. Their AHS and RWA scores did not significantly differ from the other two groups, but their political affiliation was significantly more right wing. Cultural and methodological differences between Klein's study and the present study as well as personality factors involved in bodybuilding are discussed.

Rydstrøm, Helle
2006. "Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam." Childhood, 13(3):329-348.
This article examines men's use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam. By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, this article analyzes the ways in which violence is formed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse. Vietnam has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and in this spirit virtually all men in the local community disapprove of the use of physical punishment when bringing up boys. However, a father or grandfather occasionally beats his son or grandson when it is deemed necessary to instill discipline in a boy. The article elucidates the ways in which the contradictions between ideals of nonviolent behavior and actual corporal punishment have fed the construction of certain codes regarding men's beating of boys.
2003. "Encountering 'Hot' Anger: Domestic Violence in Contemporary Vietnam." Violence Against Women, 9(6):676-697.
This article examines husband-to-wife violence within a rural Vietnamese community. In Vietnam, domestic violence is tied to a complex field of cultural forces that consists of a patrilineal tradition of ancestor worship, assumptions of females' versus males' character, Confucian virtues, and a history of war. Females are expected to encourage household harmony by adjusting themselves and, in doing so, make social life smooth. Males, on the other hand, are assumed to have a hot character, meaning that a male might fly into a rage and behave violently. Local ways of constructing males and females, the article suggests, provide conditions for considering females as a corporeal materiality that can be manipulated into the right shape by the means of male violence.

Sampath, Niels
1997. "'Crabs in a Bucket': Reforming Male Identities in Trinidad." Gender and Development, 5(2):47-54.
This article describes some of the ways in which 'masculinity' is understood. Looking at the example of a community in the Caribbean, it suggests that social changes can offer opportunities to deflect men's identities away from damaging patriarchal stereotypes.

Seeley, Janet and Edward Allison
2005. "HIV/AIDS in Fishing Communities: Challenges to Delivering Antiretroviral Therapy to Vulnerable Groups." AIDS Care, 17(6):688-697.
Fishing communities have been identified as among the highest-risk groups for HIV infection in countries with high overall rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS stems from the time fishers and fish traders spend away from home, their access to cash income, their demographic profile, the ready availability of commercial sex in fishing ports and the sub-cultures of risk taking and hyper-masculinity in fishermen. The subordinate economic and social position of women in many fishing communities makes them even more vulnerable to infection. In this paper we review the available literature to assess the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape many fisherfolks' life-styles and that make them both vulnerable to infection and difficult to reach with anti-retroviral therapy and continued prevention efforts. We conclude from the available evidence that fisherfolk will be among those untouched by planned initiatives to increase access to anti-retroviral therapies in the coming years, a conclusion that might apply to other groups with similar socio-economic and sub-cultural attributes, such as other seafarers, and migrant-workers including small-scale miners and construction workers.

Setel, Phillip
1996. "AIDS as a Paradox of Manhood and Development in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania." Social Science and Medicine, 43(8):1169-1178.
This article discusses the emergence of the conditions of risk for HIV among young adults in the 1980s and 1990s, and then explores the perceptions of local actors about the historical and demographic processes that have surrounded the symbolic associations of AIDS. Some attitudes that emerged were that AIDS was seen as an attenuated crisis of the productive and reproductive labors of manhood, or concerns about the moral value of male participation in idealized forms of work and prescribed male/female unions.

Sidnell, Jack
2000. "Primus Inter Pares: Storytelling and Male Peer Groups in an Indo-Guyanese Rumshop." American Ethnologist, 27(1):72-99.
Language is centrally implicated in the semiotic organization of socio-political realities and in the maintenance of both social equality and social differentiation. Conversations in a rural Indo-Guyanese village, during which men collectively reconstruct past events, allow for differential participation in the activity of storytelling. In the sequential organization of interaction, and the actions embedded therein, the participants display to one another a preoccupation with age, rights to knowledge, and social differentiation based on these criteria.

Silberschmidt, Margrethe
2001. "Disempowerment of Men in Rural and Urban East Africa: Implications for Male Identity and Sexual Behavior." World Development, 29(4):657-671.
Patriarchal structures and stereotyped notions of gender hide the increasing disempowerment of many men in rural and urban East Africa. Socioeconomic change has left men with a patriarchal ideology bereft of its legitimizing activities. Unemployment or low incomes prevent men from fulfilling their male roles as head of household and breadwinner. Women's roles and responsibilities have increased. This affects men's social value, identity,and self-esteem. Multi-partnered sexual relationships and sexually aggressive behavior seem to strengthen male identity and men's sense of masculinity. Strategies to improve sexual and reproductive health must take into account how socioeconomic changes have affected traditional gender roles and male sexual behavior.

Simpson, Anthony
2005. "Sons and Fathers/Boys to Men in the Time of AIDS: Learning Masculinity in Zambia." Journal of Southern African Studies, 31(3):569-586.
The spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa is driven, at least in part, by particular expressions of heterosexual masculinities, especially those that entail aggressive sexuality. More needs to be known about how boys come to construct, experience, and define themselves as men and about how hegemonic constructions are, and might be, contested. The recognition that masculinities are historically, socially, and economically constructed, and that gender is a process, offers the potential for change. Many studies have described women's vulnerability to HIV along a number of dimensions, among them biological, economic, social, and cultural. What is perhaps less self-evident in view of the real power exercised by many men in everyday life in Zambia and elsewhere is the vulnerability of men because of the demands made upon them by particular constructions of masculinity. This article draws upon life-histories collected from a cohort of men educated at a Zambian Catholic mission to explore their recollections of how they learnt to be men and their discovery of themselves as engendered sexual beings. The roots of many understandings of masculinity are to be found in domestic and extra-domestic worlds where boys observed the ways in which men took precedence and exercised power over women and children. The particular contributions of the father and the male peer group to the development of masculine identities are the focus of this discussion.

Singh, Kaushalendra K., Shaleh S. Bloom and Amy Ong Tsui
1998. "Husbands' Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Uttar Pradesh, India." Studies in Family Planning, 29(4):388-399.
This article analyzes data from a 1995/96 survey of husbands regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning reproductive health for both men and women. Findings indicate that men know little about maternal morbidity or sexual morbidity conditions. Men's views concerning the role of wives indicate a low level of women's autonomy. Results indicate a pressing need for reproductive health education.

Sinha, Mrinalini
1999. "Giving Masculinity a History: Some Contributions from the Historiography of Colonial India." Gender & History, 11(3):445-460.
Contemporary historiography, especially in North American, European, and Australian history, now includes a fairly respectable body of literature on men and masculinity. While this literature has produced important contributions to the usefulness of gender as a category of historical analysis, there has also been some wariness within feminist scholarship on the grounds that the issue of the gendered organization may be evaded. Reflecting on the question 'what is involved in writing a history of masculinity?', this article considers the potential contribution that the historiography of colonial India offers to the study of masculinity.

Sobralske, Mary
2006. "Machismo Sustains Health and Illness Beliefs of Mexican American Men." Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(8):348-350.
To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

Sternberg, Peter
2000. "Challenging Machismo: Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health With Nicaraguan Men." Gender and Development, 8(1):89-99.
Health education work with men needs to be done from a gender perspective, which encourages men not only to take on responsibility for promoting health, but also to share that responsibility with women. This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of men's attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua.

Stolen, Kristi Anne
1996. "The Gentle Exercise of Male Power in Rural Argentina." Identities, 2:385-406.
Stolen portrays how power is exercised in face-to-face interaction between men and women, on the basis of the existing sexual division of labor in the household and in society at large, and on men's privileged access to crucial resources. It is argued that masculinity is hegemonic, and the article aims at revealing the processes whereby hegemonic masculinity "naturalizes" gender inequality.

Suttner, R.
2005. "Masculinities in the African National Congress-Led Liberation Movement: The Underground Period." Kleio, 37:71-106.
This article aims to uncover elements of the formation and manifestations of masculinities within the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies. It locates masculinity formation in situations and complexities that have not previously emerged. It argues that the reading given to early ANC texts, and later, autobiographies, outside of their full context led to an underplaying of the extent and significance of women entering 'male terrain.' Analysis uses notions of masculinity to refer to socially constructed conceptions of what is meant by being a man, whereas the notion of manhood is more limited and is primarily related to notions of adulthood.

Swart, S.
2000. "'Desperate Men': The 1914 Rebellion and the Politics of Poverty." South African Historical Journal, 42:161-175.
This article explores the motives of the rank and file for going into rebellion, particularly the 'desperate classes'. The author traces the economic crisis of the years prior to 1914 that led to the creation of a class of poor whites, and their increasing loss of faith in the state's efforts towards amelioration. The article delineates the way in which the economic crisis impacted on their identities as fathers, as patriarchs, as farmers, and as men, and what they hoped to regain.

Thompson, Eric C.
2003. "Malay Male Migrants: Negotiating Contested Identities in Malaysia." American Ethnologist, 30(3):418-438.
Ethnic identity has dominated the political and social landscape of Malaysia throughout most of the 20th century. Recent changes, including government development policies, feminization of the industrial workforce, and rural to urban migration, have transformed the underlying political economy of the country. In relationship to these changes, official discourse has sought to engender a "New Malay" subjectivity, dissociating the Malay-peasant complex of the early 20th century and associating 'Malayness,' instead, with urbanism and entrepreneurship. Malay male migrants figure centrally in this articulation of identity and political economy. Focusing on the articulation of multiple fields of identity, the author argues that social and cultural forces are shaping and reshaping the lives of Malay men, although their effects are felt differentially by subjects who must negotiate intersecting fields of ethnicity, gender, migrancy, religion, and class.

Türküm, Ayşe Sibel
2005. "Who Seeks Help? Examining the Differences in Attitude of Turkish University Students toward Seeking Psychological Help by Gender, Gender-Roles, and Help-Seeking Experiences." The Journal of Men's Studies, 13(3):389-401.
The present study investigated the differences in Turkish university students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help and the effects of gender and gender roles on their help-seeking experiences. The Bem Sex Roles Inventory and The Scale of Attitudes toward Seeking Psychological Help—Shortenedwere administered to 398 undergraduate students. The results found male and female students differed in their attitudes toward help seeking. However, no significant interaction was found for students' gender roles and their attitude scores toward help seeking. The findings and future research needs are discussed.

Unterhalter, Elaine
2000. "The Work of the Nation: Heroic Masculinity in South African Autobiographical Writing of the Anti-Apartheid Struggle." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):157-178.
The paper draws on autobiographical writings of the South African anti-apartheid struggle to investigate representations of masculinity, work, and gender relations. It identifies a common construction of masculinity in many texts across race, class, and generation. This construction stresses autonomy, adventure, comradeship, and a self-conscious location in history. This heroic masculinity is identified with a particular understanding of work as political work and links with a discourse that neglects the political interests and differently contoured forms of political work by women. The paper considers some similarities and differences between heroic masculinity and forms of work associated with violent masculinity, the subject of much more extensive research in South Africa to date.

Van der Spuy, P.
1996. "'Making Himself Master': Galant's Rebellion Revisited." South African Historical Journal, 34:1-28.
This article focuses on Galant van de Kaap and those closest to him in an attempt to understand why the Bokkeveld slave rebellion was fought by men and not by women. The author suggests that the political consciousness of subaltern workers on the Koue Bokkeveld farms was necessarily gendered, and that women were not pushed from the farms by forces that drove the men. The author stresses the need to examine the political consciousness of men and women separately.

Varley, Ann and Maribel Blasco
2000. "Exiled to the Home: Masculinity and Ageing in Urban Mexico." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):115-138.
This article addresses the relationship between ageing and masculinity in urban Mexico. We examine the meaning of home for older men, asking why some live alone and what life at home is like for men whose working lives were mostly spent elsewhere. We argue that the growing literature on men has neglected ageing because later life is associated with a subordinate form of masculinity. Although recent work on masculinity in Mexico has rejected the stereotyping of machismo, revealing the importance of the provider role to hegemonic masculinity, this role is gradually lost in later life. We conclude that its loss, together with the legacy of difficulties poorer men face in meeting family responsibilities throughout their life, disadvantages older men.

Vera-Sanso, Penny
2000. "Masculinity, Male Domestic Authority and Female Labour Participation in South India." The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):179-198.
The failure of gender and development studies to investigate men's gendering casts doubt on the value of much extant feminist research. In the context of household studies the investigation of men and masculinity through male informants is in danger of merely redirecting the object of essentialism and pathologization from men to that of women. Examining the way people employ discourses on gender identity in their attempts to define and contest household relations will enable us to develop a more empathetic approach to the difficulties facing poor men without losing sight of the consequences for women of domestic hierarchies.

Viki, G. Tendayi, Patrick Chiroro and Dominic Abrams
2006. "Hostile Sexism, Type of Rape, and Self-Reported Rape Proclivity Within a Sample of Zimbabwean Males." Violence Against Women, 12(8):789-800.
The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable.

Vincent, Louise
2006. "Destined to Come to Blows? Race and Constructions of 'Rational-Intellectual' Masculinity Ten Years After Apartheid." Men and Masculinities, 8(3):350-366.
In 1994, a democratic government came to power in South Africa for the first time in the country's history. But political transition is never a single event or moment. Rather, it is a continuous process that faces setbacks and contradictions. One of the questions we might ask about a society in transition is to what extent its gender order has changed or is changing. This article sets out to read the country's transformation drama through the lens of contested conceptions of South African masculinity. The article is focused on one particular version of masculinity which it terms "rational-intellectual man," and the argument is that a legacy of racism and the persistence of racialized modes of reasoning continue to marginalize Black men from this and other powerful, high-status forms of hegemonic masculinity.

Viveros Vigoya, Mara
2001. "Contemporary Latin American Perspectives on Masculinity." Men and Masculinities, 3(3):237-260.
This article reviews major studies carried out in recent decades on Latin American men as endangered actors ― products and producers of gender relations. The materials analyzed are organized around the principal themes within which studies of masculinity in Latin America have been framed, namely the construction of masculine identity, fatherhood, practices and representations, homosocial spaces of masculinity, reproductive health, and masculine sexuality. Through an examination of the current literature, the aims are to provide information on some of the current debates that have emerged on masculinity in Latin America, to identify some of the unexplored themes, and to raise questions about the ways in which masculinity has been understood and studied.

Walsh, Andrew
2003. "'Hot Money' and Daring Consumption in a Northern Malagasy Sapphire-Mining Town." American Ethnologist, 30(2):290-305.
In Ambondromifehy, a sapphire-mining town in northern Madagascar, young men earn and spend a great deal of what some call 'hot money.' Rather than invest their earnings with long-term intentions considered responsible and proper by some around them, they consume 'daringly' by spending money to fulfill immediate desires. Walsh argues that such 'daring consumption' might be understood as the active response of young men who refuse the passive roles allotted them by both the sapphire trade and traditional systems of social organization.

Walsh, Shannon and Claudia Mitchell
2006. "'I'm Too Young to Die': HIV, Masculinity, Danger and Desire in Urban South Africa." Gender and Development, 14(1):57-68.
In the South African urban areas of Atlantis and Khavelitsha, men and boys see gang membership and violence as part of 'being a man.' In this context, life itself is perilous and vulnerable. This article draws on the narratives of boys about their lives, and explores some key questions relating to gender, development, and HIV. These include: how are men's and boys' ideas about sexuality created, and what does this suggest about the kinds of HIV interventions that should be offered? In particular, how does the reality of everyday life in urban South Africa affect male perceptions of risk in relation to HIV/AIDS? And how can men and boys best be targeted in HIV prevention and treatment work?

Weis, Lois, et al.
2002. "Puerto Rican Men and the Struggle for Place in the United States: An Exploration of Cultural Citizenship, Gender, and Violence." Men and Masculinities, 4(3):286-302.
This article explores the construction of masculinity among poor and working-class Puerto Rican men on the mainland, filling a distinct gap in both the literatures on Puerto Rican and men's studies. Based on extensive interviews with a group of Puerto Rican men, the authors focus on the ways in which these men are staking out their identity on the mainland, as well as the social context in which this identity construction is taking place. It is argued that an affirmation of cultural citizenship is wrapped around notions of patriarchal authority and that a screaming to be heard "as a man" on the mainland exists within a context in which these men are stripped of all the costumes and accoutrements that enable "men to be men." The subject of domestic violence is also probed.

White, Sarah C.
2000. "'Did the Earth Move?': The Hazards of Bringing Men and Masculinities into Gender and Development." IDS Bulletin, 31(2):33-41.
This article offers a critical review of the new 'masculinities' literature in the light of the continuing dominance of patriarchal relations in society and development institutions. It argues that this necessarily challenges accepted understandings of sex/gender in GAD, representing both risk and opportunity. 'Masculinity' is at present a highly ambiguous, multi-purpose term, which needs to be more sharply defined if it is to be of analytical use, particularly in cross-cultural contexts. The identification of the study of masculinity with the study of men needs to be broken. Bringing men in must not mean replacing a focus on women with a focus on men, but a genuinely integrated and relational approach. This should include locating gender within broader dimensions of power and social difference, and recognizing its symbolic as well as material aspects.
1997. "Men, Masculinities, and the Politics of Development." Gender and Development, 5(2):14-22.
In this article, White argues that agencies and analysts should seriously consider how men's self-perception in society affects development outcomes and challenges existing approaches to work on gender issues. Incorporating men and masculinities in a gender perspective should broaden and deepen the understanding of power and inequality between men and women, increasing the effectiveness of development-related activities.

Whitehead, Ann
2000. "Continuities and Discontinuities in Political Constructions of the Working Man in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: The 'Lazy Man' in African Agriculture."The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):23-52.
This paper is addresses some contemporary development discourses about rural (black) African work with important gendered representations. In attempts to make African women's work visible where once it was not, some analysts have slipped into representing African rural men as not doing very much at all. Discourses of 'lazy' men have a long history in European ideas about rural sub-Saharan Africa, occurring wherever rural men resisted colonial labor regimes and coercive forms of rural development. The second half of the articles inspects the utilization of time-use research in a recent World Bank document on gender and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. A careful examination of this lead study suggests that this research is presented in ways which underplay men's contribution to farming. The author proposes that this highly politicized representation of gender relations in rural households results from the Bank's need to explain why recent market liberalization strategies have not produced sufficient growth in African agriculture. The implication is that such growth could occur if only underemployed ('lazy?') African men would work harder.

Wilde, Charles
2004. "From Racing to Rugby: All Work and No Play for Gogodala Men of Western Province, Papua New Guinea." The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 15(3):286-303.
Wilde explores the ways in which rugby is a modern extension of the masculinity embodied in traditional canoe racing among the Gogodala of Papua New Guinea. During colonial rule, Europeans tried to eradicate 'uncivilized' masculine aggression, immorality, and superstition through sport, thinking rugby would be a suitable substitution. Yet instead of changing the Gogodala conceptions of aggression, masculinity, and ritual, rugby has been adapted to fit with indigenous systems of gender, conflict resolution, and social custom to enhance Gogodala males' understanding of their place within Papua New Guinea both as individuals and as clan and village groups.

Willis, J.
2003. "Heteronormativity and the Deflection of Male Same-Sex Attraction Among the Pitjantjatjara People of Australia's Western Desert." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 5(2):137-151.
This paper describes findings from fieldwork conducted among Pitjantjatjara tribespeople of Central Australia between 1989 and 1997. The study examined the impact of a distinctive gender system and practices of masculinity, particularly sexual and ritual practices, on the risk of contracting sexually transmissible infections and other blood-borne diseases. The research was designed as an ethnography of masculinity, conducted via participant observation, life history interviews, ritual analysis, and critical reflection on the work of early ethnographers. The paper presents selected field data, examined in the light of early twentieth century anthropological description of Pitjantjatjara sexuality. It identifies a systematic deflection of male same-sex attraction away from possible resolution through sexual practices between men. Key components of this deflection are the ritual construction of a culturally distinctive masculinity, the inextricable linkage between masculinity rites and the system for arranging marriages, and the cultural coding of the penis during ritual. The paper concludes that although men may feel erotic attraction for each other, the gender and kinship systems of the Pitjantjatjara conspire to limit completely the possibilities for the physical, sexual expression of this attraction. The findings reported here add to our understanding of the cultural basis of heteronormativity.

Wood, Michael
2006. "Kamula Accounts of Rambo and the State of Papua New Guinea." Oceania, 76(1):61-82.
This paper contributes to the ethnography of masculinity and the media in Papua New Guinea. The author outlines some changes in Kamula men's understandings of masculinity as they are registered in accounts of conflicts between state security servies, the Kamula, Rambo, and other actors. Outlining this history shows how Kamula men are increasingly entangled in forms of state power and violence that are partially defined by new myths of masculinity expressed in Melanesian readings of Rambo. The paper describes how some of the power effects linked to Rambo are transferred to Kamula men. The author argues that in their accounts of Rambo, the Kamula are also exploreing different models of sovereignty and state power.

Yeoh, Paul
2006. "Writing Singapore Gay Identities: Queering the Nation in Johann S. Lee's Peculiar Chris and Andrew Koh's Glass Cathedral." Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 41(3):121-135.
Taking as its object of study Johann S. Lee's Peculiar Chris and Andrew Koh's Glass Cathedral, this essay considers the ways in which the relationship between queer identities and (trans)nationalism is construed in two Singapore "coming out" novels. How does their status as writing emerging from a particular postcolonial urban site inflect the significance of their literary-stylistic choices? What kinds of affiliations are affirmed, what ties are disavowed? While the thematization of homosexuality in the Singapore context does not automatically make such texts "subversive," gay writing brings sharply into focus the problematics arising from a confluence of nationalist and global discourses ― in this case, globalized notions of a transnational gay identity originating largely from the West. Drawing on and explicitly announcing their participation in a larger body of gay protest literature, these texts offer a valuable opportunity for reflecting on how transnationalism might enable queer subjects to challenge and revise nationally endorsed models of masculinity; at the same time, the extent to which their efforts to articulate a queer identity might compromise their "Singaporeanness" is considered.

Yim, Jennifer Young and Ramaswami Mahalingam
2006. "Culture, Masculinity, and Psychological Well-being in Punjab, India." Sex Roles, 55(9-10):715-724.
This study was designed to examine the relationship between internalized idealized cultural beliefs (machismo, chastity, and caste identity) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction and anxiety) in a male surplus population. The study was conducted using questionnaires in a community sample of Jat caste persons in Punjab, India. Overall, the correlation between machismo, chastity, and caste beliefs was significant. Men scored significantly higher than women on beliefs about machismo, chastity, and caste identity. For men, divine beliefs about chastity predicted higher life satisfaction, and prescriptive beliefs about chastity practices predicted lower life satisfaction. For women, machismo predicted lower anxiety. The importance of cultural ecological context in the production of masculinity is highlighted.


Arias, Omar, 2001
Are Men Benefiting From the New Economy: Male Economic Marginalization in Argentina, Brazil and Costa Rica, Volume 1. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 2740. Washington, DC: World Bank.
The economies of Latin America have undergone extensive reforms, raising concerns about how these changes have affected the labor market. But there is also increasing concern that the reforms may have deeper social ramifications as the new economies strain the ability of certain groups of men to work and to earn good wages, fulfilling their traditional role as providers. Using household surveys broadly covering the period 1988-97 in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica, Arias examines the patterns of unemployment and real wage growth for distinct groups of male workers to see whether there is evidence of a deterioration in men's ability to be economically self-sufficient. He finds no general trend of male economic marginalization. The incidence and duration of unemployment have increased the most for the typically vulnerable group ― young, less educated, informal sector workers ― but the increased duration of unemployment has also affected older and more educated men. With respect to wages, density and quantile regression analysis indicates that the usual stories of wage marginalization of vulnerable workers can hardly explain the observed variety of wage growth patterns in the three countries. The positive wage performance has been concentrated mainly in the higher quantiles of the conditional wage distribution. This suggests that differences in unobservable worker characteristics, such as industriousness, labor market connections, and quality of schooling, have been key determinants of the ability of male workers in the region to adapt to economic restructuring. These results suggest that assistance should be targeted to some groups so that frustrations in asserting an economic identity do not lead to aggressive behavior. But they also show that we must look elsewhere for the roots of the increase in socially dysfunctional behavior.

Barker, Gary and Christine Ricardo, 2005
Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 26. Washington, DC: World Bank.
The authors carried out an extensive literature review, identified promising programs applying a gender perspective to work with young men, and carried out 50 informant interviews with staff working with young men in Botswana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda, and 23 focus group discussions and interviews with young men in Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. A gendered analysis of young men must take into account the plurality of masculinities in Africa. Versions of manhood in Africa are socially constructed, fluid over time and in different settings, and plural. The key requirement to attain manhood in Africa is achieving some level of financial independence, employment or income, and subsequently starting a family. Older men also have a role in holding power over younger men, and thus in defining manhood in Africa. Initiation practices or rites of passage are important factors in the socialization of boys and men throughout the region. For young men in Africa, as for young men worldwide, sexual experience is frequently associated with initiation into adulthood, and achieving a socially recognized manhood. Efforts to question the sexual behavior of men in the African context, for example, have sometimes run into resistance by national level leaders, who perceive that African men themselves are being 'bashed' or maligned. The challenge to promote changes in gender norms is to tap into voices of change, and pathways to change that exist in the context of Africa. Ultimately, it will be the voices of these young men and adult men, and women, who will promote the necessary individual, community, and social changes.

Chant, Sylvia and Matthew Gutmann
2000. Mainstreaming Men into Gender and Development: Debates, Reflections, and Experiences. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
This working paper from Oxfam identifies the key issues concerning men and masculinities in gender and development, and draws attention to some of the main problems that have arisen from male exclusion. It offers suggestions as to how gender and development policy might be more gender-balanced.

Claeson, Mariam, Hnin Pyne and Maria Correia
2002. Gender Dimensions of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 433. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This World Bank-sponsored study examines the impact of alcohol on Latin American communities and gender relations in particular. It finds that alcohol use contributes significantly to disease, disabilities in men, unsafe sex practices, and violence. The study also suggests several approaches to dealing with this rising problem that go beyond attempts to merely control the availability of alcohol. The focus is on incorporating gender differences into policies and programs.

Greig, Alan, Michael Kimmel and James Lang
2000. Men, Masculinities, & Development: Broadening Our Work Towards Gender Equality. UNDP Monograph #10. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
This report by the UNDP Gender in Development Programme advocates the recognition of men and masculinity as issues in development. It encourages the recent shift in focus from women to gender, and outlines the necessity for men to be seen as agents of change instead of blame. Also supported is an examination of the relationship between hierarchies based on gender and other distinctions in order to highlight the importance to men of recognizing these unequal power structures. The report explores the nature versus nurture debate of the origins of masculine identity, finding that the cultural constructivist approach is a more progressive approach to engendering development. This approach can be consolidated by incorporating male-oriented programming efforts, particularly in campaigns of reproductive health, violence, governance, and the workplace.

Kane, Eileen
1996. Gender, Culture and Learning. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development/USAID Center for Human Capacity Development.
This monograph analyzes various anthropological, psychological, and biological research regarding differential learning characteristics of boys and girls. It recommends techniques for teaching in developing countries, given data on boys and girls.

Loaiza, Edilberto
1998. Male Fertility, Contraceptive Use, and Reproductive Preferences in Latin America: The DHS Perspective. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
One of the main accomplishments of international survey programs such as the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), is to allow for cross-country comparisons and analyses of basic demographic indicators. For most of the demographic inquiry, women have always been the main unit of analysis not only for data-collection, but also for policy decisions and interventions. Nevertheless, in this process of study and analysis, there is a growing interest and commitment to approaching these types of studies from a broader perspective that would include men. Efforts have been made to study men's behaviors for the basic demographic processes, although in a less systematic and rigorous way. In the best of the cases data collection for men mirrors the procedures for women, disregarding the possibility of a unique men's perspective. This paper is mainly descriptive, bivariate, and aims to provide a comparison of the empirical evidence of men's perspective regarding family formation and sexual and reproductive health.

Niang, Cheikh Ibrahima et al.
2004. Targeting Vulnerable Groups in National HIV/AIDS Programs: The Case of Men Who Have Sex With Men. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series, No. 82. Washington, DC: World Bank.
The predominant mode of HIV/AIDS transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa is through heterosexual contact. Epidemiological data is largely lacking on the transmission of HIV in Africa among men having sex with men (MSM). Most African governments vigorously condemn the practice of homosexuality or deny that it exists in their countries. However, recent studies have revealed the extent of homosexuality in Africa and the significant vulnerability of MSM to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study highlights the fact that the networks of MSM and those of heterosexual relationships are closely interlinked. It also highlights the violence and stigma to which MSM are subjected, and the limited access of MSM groups to prevention and treatment services for HIV/AIDS. The main objective of this study, which was conducted in Burkina Faso, the Gambia, and Senegal, is to develop innovative approaches that would include MSM in their nations' HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment strategies.

Parrado, Emilio A.
1998. Marriage and International Migration: Timing and Ordering of Life Course Transitions Among Men in Western Mexico. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
This paper analyzes the timing and sequence of life course events marking the transition to adulthood among men in a context of high prevalence of international migration. The main objectives guiding the analysis are first, to understand the relationship between temporary labor migration and men's marriage timing, and second, to identify the social background and institutional factors associated with different temporal orderings between first union formation and first international migration experience. The empirical analysis uses data from 34 communities in the Western States of Mexico that have traditionally provided a large number of migrants to the United States. A central aim of this analysis is to understand the social background characteristics affecting the ordering of migration and marriage and more importantly, the effect of different immigration policies on the synchronization of life course transitions in Western Mexico.

Rajendran, Shobhana et al.
2006. The Impact of Armed Conflict on Male Youth in Mindanao, Philippines. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 35. Washington, DC: World Bank.
The history of armed conflict on the island of Mindanao in southern Philippines is over three decades old. There is a need to understand the situation of young men in the context of the conflict in Mindanao. The specific objectives of this study are: a) to gain an increased understanding of how the conflict has affected male youth; and b) to develop recommendations that respond to their most immediate needs. The study covered seven provinces in four out of the six regions in Mindanao. It shows that despite growing up in an environment shaped by violence, young males in Mindanao continue to hope for change for a better life. The study notes a number of ongoing interventions in the education, health, and agriculture sectors, but only a few of them are youth focused. The study concludes by offering a number of suggestions on the kinds of interventions to address the marginalization of male youth, especially in education, livelihoods, and labor markets.

Slok, Julie
2001. The Different Impacts of Social and Economic Developments on Men's and Women's Labor Force Participation in Korea, Volume 1. EASES Environmental and Social Research Note, No. 3. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This note uses current data from Korea, to show how societal and cultural constraints influence men's and women's labor force participation and work lifecycle. The impacts of collective economic and social change on men and women in the labor market are varied and distinct. The analysis reveals that aggregate statistics, such as male-female unemployment figures, are not directly comparable because they do not capture the changes within the labor force, nor do they reflect the cultural, legal, and institutional obstacles facing men and women. Yet, an analysis of readily available gender disaggregated statistics concerning male and female entry into, position within, and exit from the labor force provides important insights. Confucian traditions and a patriarchal family system create a foothold for gender discrimination that permeates society and the economy, heavily influencing the labor market. It is highlighted that lifecycle participation in the labor force is different for men than for women, and that men and women also have different status and wages once inside the work force. Consequently, when the East Asian economic and financial crises hit, it had different impacts on men and women. It is suggested that gender sensitive analysis be supported, taking into account awareness of the different starting points and labor force experiences of men and women caused by both cultural and educational behaviors and biases.

Sommers, Marc
2006. Fearing Africa's Young Men: The Case of Rwanda. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 32. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This paper sets the case of Rwanda's male youth within the larger context of Africa's urbanization and burgeoning youth population. It investigates the pervasive images of male urban youth as a menace to Africa's development and its primary source of instability. It then turns to the Rwandan case, examining the desperate conditions its young men (and women) faced before the civil war (1990-94) and 1994 genocide, as well as their experience of it. It draws on field interviews with Rwandan youth to consider the situation male youth face in the postwar, post-genocide era. The paper situates the Rwandan case within the debate on whether concentrated numbers of African male youth are dangerous (the youth bulge theory), as well as prospects for Rwanda's male youth population.

Stycos, J. Mayone
1998. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Family Size: A Survey of Indian Adolescents. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
In a review of research comparing male and female attitudes toward family size, Mason and Taj concluded that 'more often than not... fertility goals are very similar. When gender difference do occur...they usually are small and are of both types (men more pronatalist than women and vice-versa).' On the assumption that attitudes toward family size might be formed well before marriage, Stycos carried out surveys of secondary school students in three Latin American countries. The average number of children desired was only about 2.5. However, although the gender differences were small, they were highly consistent. In every school grade in each of the three countries ― Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru ― mates preferred more children. Moreover, when 13 economic and psychological variables were held constant by multiple regression, males continued to prefer more children in all three countries, at a statistically significant level in two of them. These results raised several questions. First, is the gender difference culturally bound, or does the alleged 'machismo complex' in Latin America drive the mate preferences as manifestations of virility? Second, does the foret of the question (asking what number of children the respondent prefers) encourage stereotypic or socially acceptable responses such as two or three children? That is, would less direct and less numerically conceptualized questions still reveal gender differences? Third, if such differences do persist, can they be explained by gender's relation to other social or psychological differences? The present paper explores these questions through analysis of a large survey of secondary school children in Uttar Pradesh, India, within a cultural context very different from Latin American.

Sweetman, Caroline
2001. Men's Involvement in Gender and Development Policy and Practice: Beyond Rhetoric. London: Oxfam.
This report presents several papers that explore the ways in which development organizations have addressed gender and development in the past, the problems they have faced, and possible ways of working which will take account of future concerns. Two key questions addressed are: In what sectors should gender and development work involve men as beneficiaries? What issues face men who work in activities that have a commitment to gender equality and feminist perspectives?

Toure, Lalla
1996. Male Involvement in Family Planning: A Review of the Literature and Selected Program Initiatives in Africa. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, Inc./USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development.
This literature review examines male attitudes toward family planning efforts in Africa. It includes numerous findings on and recommendations for effective policy implementation and interaction with communities for family planners.

2001. Working with Men for HIV Prevention and Care. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Engaging men as partners is a critical component in AIDS prevention and care as, in many contexts, men are the decision-makers in matters related to reproductive and sexual health. Men's roles and responsibilities in relation to their health and to their partner's health have a significant bearing on the course of the epidemic. Programs that work with boys and men are crucial in ensuring that men protect not only their own health but also the health of their families. By working in partnership with men, rather than apportioning blame, it is hoped that men can finally begin to be seen as part of the solution rather than part of the problem. Twelve projects were selected for analysis in this report that represent a diverse range of interventions with men. It is hoped that analysis of these strategies will provide insight into effective approaches for working with men to combat the spread of HIV.
1999. Regional Consultation on HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support Programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Sex between men occurs in most societies. For several reasons, it is often stigmatized and denied, and therefore the public visibility of male-to-male sex varies considerably from one country to another. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable group and the cultural, sociopolitical and religious factors that lead to the denial of male-to-male sex increases their vulnerability. In Latin America, sound epidemiological data indicate that the epidemic of HIV amongst MSM is spreading fast. It is a major route of transmission of the virus and there is a need to support and encourage prevention, care and support programs that aim to decrease the spread. Lessons learned from MSM programs have shown that the vulnerability of this group is reduced when political leaders and other key players in society accept the existence of male-to-male sex and its relevance to HIV/AIDS programming. There is an important role for leaders to play in creating a supportive environment for MSM that fosters better understanding, eliminates stigmatization and criminalization, and decreases vulnerability to HIV.

2004. The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality. New York: UNDAW.
This document is a final report of the expert group meeting of the above topic, held in Brasilia in 2003. The report covers the rationale for focusing specific attention on men and boys, a statement of principles, a list of resources, and an overview of key actors in promoting the role of men and boys. Additionally, five major issues and arenas where men and boys can become involved in an effort to promote gender equity are discussed at length.

2003. It Takes 2: Partnering with Men in Reproductive and Sexual Health. New York: UNFPA.
Partnering with men is emerging as an important strategy for improving reproductive health. This new publication offers guidance on effective and gender-sensitive ways to engage men in the reproductive and sexual health of themselves and their partners. It includes examples of successful strategies and programming as well as lessons learned. A checklist summarizing key points makes this program advisory note an especially useful tool for both designing and evaluating projects.

This website contains a collection of papers presented at the 'Men, Masculinities and Gender Relations Development' seminars held in September 1998 and June 2000, hosted by the Development and Project Planning Centre at the University of Bradford in Bradford, England. The seminars served to describe the issues of men and masculinities as they impact a gendered notion of development.
This page presents summaries of articles published in the Institute of Development Studies' ID21 Insights Issue 35, which is titled "Do men matter? New horizons in gender and development." This special issue addresses a variety of subjects in the area of men and development.
Development Experience Clearinghouse, by the U.S. Agency for International Development (the Development Experience System), allows you to search USAID-affiliated publications by topic, region, or keyword. Enter "men" into Title Search box.
Men for Change is a pro-feminist organization for men, dedicated to working with women to promote gender equity and to end sexism and violence.
XY is a website focused on men, masculinities, and gender politics. XY is a forum for men who are seeking to build life-affirming, joyful, and non-oppressive ways of being. It is guided by three principles: pro-feminism, a commitment to enhancing men's lives, and a recognition of diversities among men. XY features over 180 articles on key 'men's issues,' from fathering and men's health to the relationships between masculinity, class, race, and sexuality, to domestic violence. XY also includes personal stories, book reviews, links to related websites, and an extensive bibliography.
EngenderHealth is committed to involving men globally in reproductive health and to addressing their needs. This website offers information on men's roles in reproductive health, overviews of case studies, workshop information, and publications.
This website is part of the United Nations Population Fund, and has links to information on the promotion of men's roles in family life. The UNFPA hopes to support gender equality in the 21st century through re-envisioning men's roles in families.
This website explores men's unique roles and issues in reproductive health. Articles include men's participation in reproductive health, male reproductive health risks, reproductive health programs for men and best how to approach them, and more.
Oxfam's website on Gender Equality and Men examines what part men can play in gender equality and anti-poverty initiatives. Concerned that men have written off gender equality as a 'women's issue,' Oxfam's site links to extensive resources on making gender equality a top priority for both sexes.
This website is for Program H, a program through Brazil's Instituto Promundo gender and health program. Program H stimulates young men to question traditional "norms" associated with masculinity and promotes both discussion and reflection about the "costs" of traditional masculinity as well as the advantages of gender equitable behaviors, such as better care for their own health. This site has information on Program H's resources, such as educational workshops, lifestyle campaigns, innovative approaches to attracting young men to health facilities, and a culturally sensitive impact evaluation methodology, as well as information on its impact on men's movements globally. Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
This website is from the UNFPA State of World Population 2005 report. This report discusses men's role in helping to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, and calls for women's partnership with men for gender equity. Topics addressed include the socially constructed nature of masculinity, how male identity develops in boys and throughout the lifespan, men's roles in families, and ways to increase male involvement with projects of gender equity and development.

Gender & Politics in Asia

Gender and Politics in Asia
Compiled by Tanya Palit, 2002


Bih-er, Chou, Cal Clark, and Janet Clark
1990. Women in Taiwan Politics: Overcoming Barriers to Women's Participation in a Modernizing Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
This is a joint study between researchers at Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the University of Wyoming in the U.S. It discusses women in political participation in developed and developing countries, the social and economic development of Taiwan, and the status of women in the country. The actual research instrument is a biographical questionnaire focused on women who are elected and currently serving, formerly elected, and defeated for seats in the National Assembly, the Legislative Yuan, the Provincial Assembly, or the Taipei and Kaohsiung City Councils. Though the results of the study showed that most women in the ruling party are part of or associated with the established Taiwanese elite, this proves that there is at least some form of "countersocialization" to overcome roadblocks to women's political participation. The authors conclude that Taiwan is on a progressive path in terms of gender equity, and the need for things like the legislative quota system and a separate feminist movement should be re-examined.

Brill, Alida
1995. A Rising Public Voice: Women in Politics Worldwide. New York: The Feminist Press.
This is a pioneer book that takes an in-depth look at women's evolution in political life, in countries around the world. Through essays, profiles, and interviews, activists and women in high-level government positions describe many aspects of political life from elections to party politics. How and whether women's political agendas and lifestyles differ from their male counterparts are also discussed, along with the unique responsibilities of women to manage the family and household while accepting strict public scrutiny of their personal lives.

Clark, Cal and Rose J. Lee (eds.)
2000. Democracy and the Status of Women in East Asia. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
The main question examined in this book is whether democratization empowers women and promotes women's rights. Particularly, it is concerned with whether the recent move toward democratization in East Asia will positively influence the status of women in the region. In an era when the promise of modernization to significantly improve the lives of women and dismantle patriarchal culture has fallen through, democratization is seen as another avenue by which women can make positive social change. While East Asian cultures, at least stereotypically, have been notorious for their patriarchal practices, the countries of this region remain strong candidates for change in gender relations.

El Saadawi, Nawal
1997. The Nawal El Saadawi Reader: A Selection of the Works of Nawal El Saadawi. London and New York: Zed Books.
Nawal El Saadawi is the author of the acclaimed work on Arab women, "The Hidden Face of Eve." This collection of non-fiction essays highlights the full range of her incredible work on a multitude of topics relating to women in the developing world. The works include 23 essays under 6 headings: "Gendering North-South Politics," "Women's Health," "Women/Islam/Fundamentalism," "Orientalizing Women," "Decolonizing the Imagination," and "Women Organizing for Change." Her writings demonstrate the power of women in resistance to many different inequalities.

Hourn, Kao Kim and Norbert van Hofman (eds.)
1999. Women's Political Voice in ASEAN: Sharing a Common Vision. London: ASEAN Academic Publishers.
Women in Southeast Asia play an instrumental role in the various aspects of both political and non-political life. As the region moves closer to full integration, there is a need to pay closer attention to the role and voice of women at various decision-making levels in the region.

Jayawardena, Kumari
1986. Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed Books. India: Kali for Women.
This book is a reconstruction of the history of women's rights movements throughout Asia and the Middle East from the 19th century to the 1980s. It focuses on Egypt, Turkey, Iran, India, Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines. This research shows that feminism was not simply a foreign ideology imposed on Third World countries. Instead, it developed on its own in these countries as women struggled for equal rights and against the subordination of women at home and in society generally.

Jeffery, Patricia and Amrita Basu (eds.)
1998. Appropriating Gender: Women's Activism and Politicized Religion in South Asia. New York: Routledge.
This is a complex edited collection that examines the intricate intersections of gendered ideologies, class structures, the state, and religious and ethnic politics in the social construction of gender identity in South Asian societies. While a very eclectic volume, a certain unity is maintained throughout the book. In all of the writings, women are characterized as agents instead of victims. There is also much diversity in the case studies; the editors successfully incorporate detailed case studies from India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The book is divided into three sections: "Gender, Nation, and State," "The Local and the Everyday," and "Agency and Activism." In these sections, the intersection of gender with class, ethnicity, and religion is explored, as are constructed gender identities. The book ends with a pragmatic approach for feminist activists, and is sensitive to the particular cultural context of South Asia.

Kelly, Rita Mae
2001. Gender, Globalization, and Democratization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Using the contributions of thirteen prominent researchers from a number of different disciplines, gender analyses are used to create a critical study of both globalization and democratization. It represents a broad geographical dimension of the existing gender regime with its variations and uniformity around the world. The main argument is that in order to establish a "full democracy," women must be recognized equally as citizens, and institutionalized gender relationships and regimes must be egalitarian.

Kiribamune, Sirima (ed.)
1999. Women and Politics in Sri Lanka: A Comparative Perspective. Sri Lanka: International Center for Ethnic Studies.
This book is a collection of different essays relating to the situation of women in South Asian politics, particularly in Sri Lanka. There are both South Asian and global perspectives in this analysis, which attempts to outline the history, challenges, opportunities, and roles of women in electoral politics and women's organizations in Sri Lanka. Also, the results of a national field survey on the topic are analyzed and made into a chapter of the book.

Kumari, Abhilasha and Kabina Kidwai
1998. Crossing the Sacred Line: Women's Search for Political Power. New Delhi: Orient Longman Publishing.
This book serves as an overview to women's barriers in the Indian political arena. It attempts to explore social and historical reasons for the limited participation of women in politics by using "free-flowing interviews" of women in various political parties, ranging from the dominant BJP to the Communist Party of India. The interviews reveal that a majority of women who have political power come from the elite strata of Indian society. Also discussed are the controversial 33% reservation bill, gang rape as a political tactic to intimidate women politicians, and women's activism in non-political spheres.

LeBlanc, Robin M.
1999. Bicycle Citizens: The Political World of the Japanese Housewife. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
LeBlanc utilizes the metaphor of bicycle-riding citizens (shufu, or Japanese housewives) and taxi-riding citizens (high-powered male politicians) to guide her analysis. The former group is one rooted in the community and its values and minute details, while the latter is concerned with a fast-paced life, money, and the advancement of one's career. The author lived with and observed groups of Japanese shufu for more than two years, and her ethnographic study seeks to describe the relation of Japanese housewives to politics. She concludes that these women are actively boycotting politics as a protest against the corrupt and hypocritical system. These women have created a distinctly non-political space through community and local non-governmental organizations to further their goals. The book has been called the first truly "serious account of the role of women in Japanese politics" for more than a decade.

Mishra, Anil Dutta (ed.)
1999. Gender Perspective: Participation, Empowerment, and Development. New Delhi: Radha Publications.
This volume contains a series of essays by well-known social scientists from various disciplines. Many perspectives are given on the roles of Indian women in the post-independence era of globalization, economic liberalization, and democratization. It touches on issues of women's empowerment at the grassroots level, at the local government (Panchayati Raj) level, and in the context of economic development and land reform. The essays offer well-developed "blueprints" that outline how to empower and improve the status of women in India.

O'Connell, Helen
1996. Equality Postponed: Gender, Rights, and Development. Oxford and London: Worldview Publications and One World Action Publishers.
This book uses case studies from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe to demonstrate that international economic policies often perpetuate and exacerbate gender inequalities. These policies rely on the current unequal division of rights and responsibilities between the sexes. This is a good introductory volume to the topic. It illustrates how development policy and practice can clash with democracy and governance, to the detriment of the poorest women, men, and children.

One World Action
1999. "Influence and Access: Local Democracy and Basic Service Provision." May, Report of One World Action Seminar. Available through:
The One World Action Seminar brought together UK and EU development cooperation officials with representatives from NGOs, research institutions, local authorities, and public sector trade unions from all over the world. They set out to answer questions such as "How can the poorest women and men have a greater say in local level decision-making?" and "How can the poorest communities gain access to good quality and gender-sensitive services?" The report highlights the exchange of experience and strategies used to answer these questions. It includes case studies from around the world and also an overview of current EU and UK policy thinking.

One World Action
1999. "Women and Democracy." June, Report of seminar. Available through
Gender, democracy, and political representation of women are discussed. Strategies for promoting women's gender interests and strengthening the presence of women in political spheres are illustrated as well. The report outlines specific recommendations for action by bilateral and multilateral donors, women's organizations, and others.

Saxena, K.S. (ed.)
1999. Women's Political Participation in India. Jaipur: Sublime Publishing.
This volume contains the works of many authors, all of whom address the issue of women's political participation in India. The roles women have played in both the anti-colonial independence movement and current parliamentary politics are examined. Prospects for women in the political decision-making process in India are discussed.

Sinha, Niroj (ed.)
2000. Women in Indian Politics: Empowerment of Women through Political Participation. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.
This book is a collection of essays by several Indian women who analyze both the historical and current situations of women in the Indian political sphere. Politics are discussed in the context of patriarchal culture, the female participants in the independence struggle, elections, political parties, local government, and the proposed reservation bill. Case studies from Bihar, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and other areas are examined.

Waylen, Georgina
1996. Gender in Third World Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
This volume serves as an overview of the subject of gender in Third World politics. It is very introductory, and is intended for an audience of non-feminist political scholars. The goal is to infuse a gendered perspective into mainstream politics. The author explores phenomenon such as the rigid separation between "grassroots politics" and "power politics," and other such patterns that have relegated women historically. Waylen presents a challenge to the status quo approach to the study of comparative politics, and attempts to create a new set of guidelines to follow. Her expertise is in Latin America, and much of her focus is there.


Acosta-Belen, Edna and Christine E. Bose
1990. "From Structural Subordination to Empowerment: Women and Development in Third World Contexts." Gender and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3, Special Issue: Women and Development in the Third World (September), pp. 299-320.
This article argues that the condition of women in Third World societies cannot be separated from the colonial experience since the power relationships that were established during the colonial era between Europe and its territories, and between women and men, have not varied significantly and are still recreated through contemporary mechanisms. For example, development projects promoted by Western countries to modernize the Third World have, in the long run, better served their own interests than those of their intended beneficiaries. As a result and contrary to expectations, growth and prosperity still elude the Third World. We also show that during the current international economic crisis, women's unpaid or underpaid labor has become the basis of new development programs and policies and is crucial to the recent phase of capitalist development. We discuss how the structural position and status of women and colonies closely resemble each other and have served as the foundations of the capital accumulation process and the development of industrial nations. The concept of women as a last colony thus becomes a compelling metaphor of liberation and leads us to stress the need for a worldwide process of gender decolonization, entailing the reformulation of power relations between women and men.

Banerjee, Sikata
1996. "The Feminization of Violence in Bombay: Women in the Politics of the Shiv Sena." Asian Survey, Vol. 36, No. 12 (December), pp. 1213-1225.
During the early 90s, a shockwave of political violence swept through the Indian subcontinent. The violence was largely a reaction to the destruction of a Muslim religious structure in Ayodhya by militant Hindu nationalists. Riots spread throughout the country, and some of the most brutal fighting occurred in the city of Mumbhai (Bombay) in Maharashtra. An extraordinarily large number of Hindu women participated in these violent riots, an uncommon occurrence in Indian culture. Banerjee attempts to uncover the reasons for this "feminization of violence" in the Mumbhai riots, and more broadly, the reasons for increased female involvement in militant Hindu nationalist groups such as the Shiv Sena. The effective strategies that the Shiv Sena has employed to mobilize women are discussed, as well as the reaction of feminist groups to this phenomenon. She raises the issue of whether or not participation in a structurally and ideologically patriarchal organization such as the Shiv Sena can bring about "true" empowerment, but avoids making a judgment about it.

Blumberg, Rae Lesser
1984. "A General Theory of Gender Stratification." Sociological Theory, Vol. 2, pp. 23-101.
This chapter sets forth a general theory of gender stratification. While both biological and ideological variables are taken into account, the emphasis is structural. It is proposed that the major independent variable affecting sexual inequality is each sex's economic power, understood as relative control over the means of production and allocation of surplus. For women, relative economic power is seen as varying - and not always in the same direction - at a variety of micro- and macro- levels, ranging from the household to the state. A series of propositions links the antecedents of women's relative economic power, the interrelationship between economic and other forms of power, and the forms of privilege and opportunity into which each gender can translate its relative power.

Croll, Elisabeth J.
1991. "Imaging Heaven: Collective and Gendered Dreams in China." Anthropology Today, Vol. 7, No. 4 (August), pp. 7-12.
The Revolution in China employed powerful psychological tools to sustain a vision of collectivism and unity. This article focuses specifically on the concept of a collective striving toward a "heaven on earth," and the "near monopoly of the language of collective celebration which disguised the relevance of the language of individual experience." This government-driven monopoly of rhetoric and thought had a profound impact on women. Along with the rupture of China's Cultural Revolution and the downfall of Mao Zedong's successors in 1976 came the collapse of idealistic visions of gender equality and empowerment. This revealed a stark contrast between the rhetoric and actual practice of gender equality in the country. Croll argues that this was most clear in the "One Child" policy, a government-mandated limitation on fertility that allowed the infanticide of millions of infant girls. In this post-Revolution China, people's perceptions of "heaven" and "the present" have changed dramatically from a more certain (and monolithic) past.

Korson, J. Henry and Michelle Maskiell
1985. "Islamization and Social Policy in Pakistan: The Constitutional Crisis and the Status of Women." Asian Survey, Vol. 25, No. 6 (June), pp. 589-612.
This article, though somewhat dated, describes the leadership of Pakistan's President Zia-al-Haq, and his pursuit of an "Islamic Democracy" in the country. After his ascent to power following a military coup in 1977, Zia implemented a host of controversial policies. His administration dissolved the elected legislature, appointed a new one, suspended the Constitution, banned political parties, and significantly increased the power of the President. These policies, according to Zia, were part of a broader goal of "Islamization" in Pakistan. This is a goal that has had profound impacts on women in the country. Although the government has established internal offices to deal exclusively with women's issues, their scope and power have been limited at best. The policy of "Islamization" has served in many cases to institutionalize and reinforce the rigid gender roles of the culture. In some arenas, such as employment and civil law, the status of women has either remained static, or declined. The implications of Zia's administration for the future of women in Pakistan remain to be seen, but it does not look bright.

Margolis, Diane Rothbard
1993. "Women's Movements around the World: Cross-Cultural Comparisons." Gender and Society, Vol. 7, No. 3 (September), pp. 379-399.
This article develops a framework for cross-national comparisons of contemporary women's movements. The article focuses on the international context and cross-national influences, the nature of the state, the absence or presence of other movements, the effects of conservative or liberal political environments, the effects of centralization or dispersion within the movement itself and on feminist involvement in political parties and elections. Because each of these factors shapes a particular movement, the article concludes that there cannot be one correct feminism.

Palley, Marian Lief
1990. "Women's Status in South Korea: Tradition and Change." Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 12 (December), pp. 1136-1153.
The Republic of Korea (ROK) has experienced very rapid industrial growth and economic modernization since the end of the Korean War. Although the society's material change has been substantial, behavioral adjustments to the economic developments have occurred slowly and have sometimes been justified by tradition. Thus, inequities in women's opportunities are maintained through an elaborate system of role relationships that are rooted in and rationalized by Confucian customs; they are socially mandated and often legally condoned. However, despite the cultural limits on behavioral change, a women's rights movement has developed in the ROK over the past several years, and it is addressing issues of equity and worker exploitation - two universal concerns of modernized societies. The interaction of tradition with the calls for change issued by this women's rights movement is the focus of this study.

Richter, Linda K.
1990. "Exploring Theories of Female Leadership in South and Southeast Asia." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 63, No. 4 (Winter), pp. 524-540.
Asia, with its reputation for holding women in low regard, has nonetheless had numerous female leaders over the last thirty years. Why this should be so and what effect that has is examined in this research. This study (1) explores several key variables in the political prominence of Asian women, (2) assesses what if any advantages or disadvantages women have in leadership roles in south or southeast Asia, (3) attempts to determine what if any impact women have as women in the politics of these regions, and (4) predicts rather gloomy prospects for female leadership in these regions.

Rogers, Marvin L.
1986. "Changing Patterns of Political Involvement among Malay Village Women." Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 3. (March), pp. 322-344.
From the introduction of the article:
"This article is an analysis of the changing pattern of political involvement among Malay women in the village of Sungai Raya in northwestern Johore. It examines continuity and change in the women's political awareness, concern, and participation, and argues that, although marginal involvement has increased during the past two decades, most women remain politically uninformed and unconcerned. The study contends that the village Wanita UMNO organization is very weak and politically insignificant. It predicts that marginal involvement will grow, but that few women will become actively involved in politics."

Rosen, Stanley
1995. "Women and Political Participation in China." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 3 (Autumn), pp. 315-341.
This paper examines the role of women in post-1949 Chinese politics, and considers the effect of various forces - government policy, modernization, foreign influence and culture - on women's political participation over time. It provides statistical data on women in leadership positions in the party and state bureaucracies, and contrasts the Cultural Revolution's overtly "political" strategy of mandated official quotas for leadership roles with the reform period's strategy, which emphasizes the development of a long-term legal framework for the protection of women's rights, and which stresses the importance of competitive elections for holding public office. The changing role of the Women's Federation is also addressed. Beginning in 1990, when China first bid to host the 1995 UN Women's Conference - which has as its main slogan the equal 50 percent representation of men and women in power structures - there has been an attempt to reverse the numerical decline of women in political roles by reinstituting a quota system, albeit a more modest one than its predecessor.

Verba, Sidney, Nancy Burns, and Kay Lehman Schlozman
1997. "Knowing and Caring about Politics: Gender and Political Engagement." The Journal of Politics, Vol. 59, No. 4 (November), pp. 1051-1072.
This paper demonstrates that women are less politically interested, informed, and efficacious than men and that this gender gap in political engagement has consequences for political participation. Only when gender differences in political interest, information, and efficacy are considered along with gender differences in resources can we explain the relatively small disparity between the sexes with respect to political activity. When we searched for the origins of the gender gap in political engagement, we found that it can be explained only partially by gender differences in factors such as education that are associated with political engagement. Furthermore, these gender differences in political orientation seem to be specific to politics rather than the manifestation of general personal attributes. Investigation of the extent to which the cues received by males and females that politics is a man's world are responsible for the gender gap in political engagement yielded results that were suggestive, but mixed.

Waylen, Georgina
1994. "Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics." World Politics, Vol. 46, No. 3 (April), pp. 327-354.
This article examines the impact of gender relations on democratization. It considers a number of key questions: what role women's movements play in the transition to democratic rule and what impact a return to competitive electoral politics has on women and women's movements. The starting point is a critique of the existing literature on democratization. That literature cannot provide a satisfactory analysis of the role of women in transition politics because of the narrow definitions of democracy used and the top-down focus of much of it. The article then develops a gendered analysis through a comparison of the different processes of transition in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. It highlights the significance of the relationship between civil society and the state and the existence of "political space."

Weiss, Anita M.
1990. "Benazir Bhutto and the Future of Women in Pakistan." Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 5 (May), pp. 433-445.
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto rose to power in 1988 under the political flag of the PPP (Pakistan People's Party). Throughout her campaign and in her inaugural speech, she pledged to fight for the cause of women's rights in Pakistan. This article examines how the Bhutto administration's policies might affect women, the poor, and other disadvantaged social groups. It is asked whether Bhutto will commit herself to bettering the status of these groups, or instead cave to the internal political pressures of a skeptical parliament. If her administration does not exercise its influence to improve the lives of women and others, the consequences could be worsened poverty, further social and political disenfranchisement, and a host of other problems.
1985. "Women's Position in Pakistan: Sociocultural Effects of Islamization." Asian Survey, Vol. 25, No. 8 (August), pp. 863-880.
From the opening paragraph of the article: "During the past six years, the government of Pakistan has been pursuing an Islamization program unparalleled in the modern history of Islam in South Asia. The government proposals, if all are enacted, would systematically reduce women's power and participation through established social institutions (e.g., legal, educational, political). This article addresses the many implications of the new Islamic laws (both decreed and proposed) for women in Pakistan, discusses the variety of responses to these actions, and analyzes the effects of these laws on the social environment they are attempting to shape, focusing on the conflicting social forces at play."

Gender & Education in Africa

Gender and Education in Africa
Compiled by Misa Tamura

Bendera, S. J. and M. W. Mboya (eds.)
1999. Gender and Education in Tanzanian Schools. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Dar es Salaam University Press.
This book is a result of different researchers who set out to study/analyze gender issues in Tanzanian schools, both at primary and secondary school levels. There are individual and collectively written chapters by Women Education Development Group (WED) members.

Clark, Ann and Elaine Millard (eds.)
1998. Gender in the Secondary Curriculum: Balancing the Books. London and New York: Routledge.
The 'gender gap' in schooling, as manifested by the current disparity in boys' and girls' achievement, continues to create problems for teachers. In this volume, a team of contributors consider the gender issues particular to a range of subjects in the secondary curriculum. They discuss effective strategies - supported by their research and practice - and offer some ways forward for teachers.

Diller, Ann, Barbara Houston, Kathryn Pauly Morgan, and Maryann Ayim; with a foreword by Jane Roland Martin
1996. The Gender Question in Education: Theory, Pedagogy, and Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
These authors not only remind us of gender's centrality in education, but also provide us with immensely helpful ways in which to think and talk about gender and education. In the process, they have presented education's aims, its curricula, its institutional structures, its pedagogies, and its practices in a brilliant new light.

Dorsey, Betty Jo
1996. Gender Inequalities in Education in the Southern Africa Region: An Analysis of Intervention Strategies. Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe: UNESCO Sub-Regional Office for Southern Africa.
UNESCO recognized the need for a study to be carried out in the southern region of Sub-Saharan Africa to analyze the education and training systems in order to compare the success of intervention strategies that have been applied to improve girls' access to and achievement in education, and to put forward recommendations for improving educational policies and practices with regard to the education of girls and women in the sub-region.

Duke, Chris
1985. Combating Poverty Through Adult Education: National Development Strategies. London and Dover, NH: Croom Helm, Limited.
This book, one of a number to be published in association with the International Council for Adult Education, is a collection of papers examining ways of fighting poverty in the Third World. It places adult education in a different context than it is frequently found in the more developed countries. As such, it should prove enlightening reading not only to those concerned with various aspects of adult education but also to those who are more concerned about world poverty and the process of development.

Egbo, Benedicta
2000. Gender, Literacy, and Life Chances in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clevedon and Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.
The author asserts that the question of women's access to literacy touches virtually all spheres of women's private and social life within organized society, including issues of power, politics, economics, demographics, health, and child welfare, as well as their psychological well being. To varying extents, this work touches on all of these. Additionally, the book addresses the broader implications of low literacy levels among women for society as a whole.

Floro, Maria and Joyce M. Wolf (eds.)
1990. The Economic and Social Impacts of Girls' Primary Education in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: Creative Associates International, Inc.
This worldwide literature review was prepared as part of Creative Associates International, Inc.'s work under the Advancing Basic Education and Literacy (ABEL) project, the Agency for International Development's (USAID's) primary mechanism for assisting government and USAID missions worldwide in the design and implementation of basic education programs.

Gordon, Winsome
1994. The Education of Girls and Women Beyond Access: Contribution of UNESCO to the Fifth Regional Conference on Women. Dakar, Senegal: UNESCO.
This publication reviews the state of education of women and girls in Africa. It commends the efforts of governments, NGOs, and international agencies in promoting the education of girls and women.

Haile, Tsigie
1991. An Assessment of the Academic Performance of Female Students in Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
No one would doubt that education is the major vehicle to development, the panacea to women's problems. Governments allot so much of their budget for education based on this premise, which is the theme of this paper. As one of the least developed nations, Ethiopia suffers from a very low representation of women at all educational levels, especially at the tertiary level. This particular study emphasizes that females lag way behind males in terms of numbers as well as level of performance in higher education.

Hausmann, Christine
1998. Nonformal Education for Women in Zimbabwe: Empowerment Strategies and Status Improvement. Frankfurt am Main and New York: P. Lang.
This study is partly based on information and data gathered by the author in the course of a three-month traineeship (July-September 1996) in Harare, Zimbabwe. The primary aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of rural women in Zimbabwe with a special focus on historical factors.

Heward, Christine and Sheila Bunwaree (eds.)
1999. Gender, Education, and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment. London and New York: Zed Books - Distributed in USA exclusively by St. Martin's Press.
This book grounds the education of women and girls in the realities of their lives and experiences in diverse areas of the developing world. The chapters all draw on substantial experiences in the field, giving a voice to groups of girls and women hitherto invisible. The book also presents a critical theoretical analysis of the World Bank's view of women's education. Including an overview chapter on the impact of structural adjustment on education throughout Latin America and Africa, the book provides detailed information on Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Africa, Niger, and Mauritius. It is useful reading for students, academics, and practitioners in education, development studies, and women's studies.

Hyde, Karin A.L.
1993. Gender Streaming as a Strategy for Improving Girls' Academic Performance: Evidence from Malawi. Zomba, Malawi: University of Malawi, Centre for Social Research.
This paper first reviews the major characteristics of female education in Malawi with an emphasis on the available data on performance. Data is collected from two co-ed secondary schools, which attempt to improve the performance of their female students through two types of gender streaming. Finally, implications for performance-enhancing strategies and for the conceptualization of female academic performance are discussed.

Hyde, Karin A.L. and Esme C. Kadzamira (eds.)
1994. Girls' Attainment in Basic Literacy and Education Project: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Pilot Survey: Final Report, August. Zomba, Malawi: University of Malawi, Centre for Social Research.
This study was conducted at the request of the GABLE (Girls' Attainment in Basic Literacy and Education) Social Mobilization Campaign in preparation for a pilot campaign in the Machinga District. The objectives were to gather data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents with respect to their children's education; to obtain baseline measures in preparation for regular monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the campaign; and to provide other information to assist in the design of the campaign.

Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.
1996. Women's Education, Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour: Assessing What We Have Learned. New York: Guaranteed Printing.
In much of the world thus far, little attention has been paid to the education of girls. Huge gaps persist between women's and men's educational achievement. This book attempts to explain how to fill this gap. Synthesizing the available literature from various disciplines and regions, this review addresses the ways in which educating women affects their lives and their autonomy as well as the linkages between women's education and reproductive behavior.

Kelly, Gail P. and Carolyn M. Elliott (eds.)
1982. Women's Education in the Third World: Comparative Perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press.
This book is organized around sets of closely related issues. It begins with a discussion of factors that affect women's access to education. It presents research that is sensitive to the cultural/historical context of each society and provides sufficient information to enable comparison among countries.

King, Elizabeth M. and Anne M. Hill (eds.)
1997. Women's Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policies. Baltimore and London: Published for the World Bank by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
This volume organizes recent data on the status of women's education in the developing world and links this information to indicators of development, such as income per capita, mortality rates, and fertility levels. This volume began as a collection of reviews of the literature commissioned by the World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department in preparation for an interagency conference on this topic at the World Bank in June 1989. Each review focused on the literature pertaining to one developing region.

Leo-Rhynie, Elsa and the Institute of Development and Labour Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa
1999. Gender Mainstreaming in Education: A Reference Manual for Governments and Other Stakeholders. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
This manual is intended to assist readers in using a GMS to mainstream gender in the education sector. It is part of a Gender Management System Series, which provides tools and sector-specific guidelines for gender mainstreaming. This manual is intended to be used in combination with the other documents in the Gender System Series, particularly the Gender Management System Handbook.

Oever-Pereira, Pietronella van den
1979. Training Women in Rural Africa: A Sahelian Case Study. Project Report (M. P. S. [Agr.]) - Cornell University, September.
The purpose of this report is to utilize the experience of several years of fieldwork in West Africa to illuminate the process of involving African rural women in education for economic development. The experience reported in this was gained in Mali from 1971 to 1975.

Osuman, Grace Iyabo
1997. The Education of Women in Developing Countries. Makurdi, Nigeria: Osuman & Co.
This book carefully examines the mitigating factors responsible for the stunted development of women in various areas of endeavor. It also brings to the fore some of the repugnant suppressive laws and traditional practices that discriminate against women. It not only makes useful suggestions, but also describes vividly the practical steps to take in order to sensitize women in both urban and rural areas.

Sweetman, Caroline (ed.)
1998. Gender, Education and Training. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
This collection of articles by development workers and researchers focuses on the role of education and training in promoting equality between women and men in all areas of development. They discuss a broad range of opportunities for learning, giving attention to both formal and informal education. A resource list includes books, journals, and websites.

Thody, Angela and Eleanor Stella M. Kaabwe (eds.)
2000. Educating Tomorrow: Lessons from Managing Girls' Education in Africa. Kenwyn, South Africa: Juta.
The case studies in this book highlight the critical role of education in gender equality. As an agent of socialization and a key determinant of future life chances, education represents an important arena in which strategic interventions can be made in favor of gender equality.

Tsolidis, Georgina
2001. Schooling, Diaspora and Gender: Being Feminist and Being Different. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
This book illustrates the changing location for research on ethnic minority girls and boys by a series of reflections on two different research projects she undertook, over a decade apart. This book is grounded in the author's strong history of active engagement in the educational politics of these issues. It sets up a case which is not simply about what is done to minority groups in education, and not simply about how minority groups experience their education, but is an original contribution to feminist theorizing of difference, and schooling debates about students of minority cultural background.

Walters, Shirley (ed.)
1997. Globalization, Adult Education and Training: Impacts and Issues. New York and London: Zed Books.
This collection of critical essays from leading academics, professional practitioners, and education activists from more than a dozen countries looks at the impact of globalization on adult education and training (AET), with a particular focus on women. The authors explore the effectiveness of AET strategies, workplace training, and experiential learning in diverse contexts and countries.

Wamahiu, Sheila Parvyn
1997. The Empowerment of Women Through Functional Literacy and the Education of the Girl-Child: Report of the African Conference on the Empowerment of Women Through Functional Literacy and the Education of the Girl-Child: Organized by the Government of Uganda and the Organization of African Unity: Kampala, Uganda, 8-13 September 1996. Nairobi, Kenya: UNICEF ESARO.
This report highlights issues that impact the education of the girl-child. These issues consist of safety and security in schools and alternative approaches to functional literacy. It also highlights pledges for female education from both high enrollment countries and countries with relatively high but declining enrollments, as well as pledges from relatively low enrollment countries.
1994. The Status of Girls' Education in Africa: An Overview Under the Theme "Achievement." Nairobi, Kenya: Forum for African Women Educationalists.
This paper views educational achievement as a multi-dimensional concept, encompassing several hierarchical levels. In order to reduce the gender gap in educational achievement, it is vital to demonstrate personal commitment to the cause of female education; have an empathetic understanding of the problem; design relevant, contextual and creative solutions; and adopt "package" or holistic intervention strategies that take into consideration the linkages between various underlying factors and consequences.

Wrigley, Julia (ed.)
1992. Education and Gender Equality. London and Washington, DC: Falmer Press.
This book grew out of a special issue of Sociology of Education. It analyzes gender and education from a comparative and historical perspective, with particular attention to the role of the state, 'Diversity, Social Control, and Resistance in Classrooms,' and 'Gender and Knowledge.' The authors seek to understand the many ways in which the private world of families and the public world of schools intersect.

Journal Articles

Castro, Teresa Martin
1995. Women's Education and Fertility: Results from 26 Demographic and Health Surveys. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 4 (July/August), pp. 187-202.
This article presents an updated overview of the relationship between women's education and fertility. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 26 countries are examined. The analysis confirms that higher education is consistently associated with lower fertility. However, a considerable diversity exists in the magnitude of the gap between upper and lower educational strata and in the strength of the association. In some of the least-developed countries, education might have a positive impact on fertility at the lower end of the educational range. Yet, compared with patterns documented a decade ago, the fertility-enhancing impact of schooling has become increasingly rare. The study also examines the impact of female education on age at marriage, family-size preference, and contraceptive use. It confirms that education enhances women's ability to make reproductive choices.

Cubbins, Lisa A.
1991. Women, Men, and the Division of Power: A Study of Gender Stratification in Kenya. Social Forces, Vol. 69, No. 4 (June), pp. 1063-1083.
This study demonstrates the importance of modern and traditional sources of macro-level economic power in explaining gender stratification in developing countries. The author argues that gender differences in the macro-level distribution of adult economic power affect boys' and girls' privilege through the investments of their parents. Census and ethnographic data from Kenya for 1969 and 1979 are analyzed in testing hypotheses derived from the Blumberg theory of gender stratification. The author compares how adult employment, technical expertise in the traditional division of labor, and inheritance rights affect children's privilege in education. The economic power of both sexes is found to influence children's education in Kenya. In general, modern sources of adult economic power increase formal schooling, while traditional sources reduce children's education.

Desai, Sonalde and Soumya Alva
1998. Maternal Education and Child Health: Is There a Strong Causal Relationship? Demography, Vol. 35, No. 1 (February), pp. 71-81.
Using data from the first round of Demographic and Health Surveys for 22 developing countries, the authors examine the effect of maternal education on three markers of child health: infant mortality, children's height-for-age, and immunization status. In contrast to other studies, they argue that although there is a strong correlation between maternal education and markers of child health, a causal relationship is far from established. Education acts as a proxy for the socioeconomic status of the family and geographic area of residence. Introducing controls for husband's education and access to piped water and toilet attenuate the impact of maternal education on infant mortality and children's height-for-age. This effect is further reduced by controlling for area of residence through the use of fixed-effects models. In the final model, maternal education has a statistically significant impact on infant mortality and height-for-age in only a handful of countries. In contrast, maternal education remains statistically significant for children's immunization status in about one-half of the countries, even after individual-level and community-level controls are introduced.

Fuller, Bruce, Judith D. Singer, and Margaret Keiley
1995. Why Do Daughters Leave School in Southern Africa? Family Economy and Mothers' Commitments. Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 2. (December), pp. 657-681.
By focusing on the family economy and its capacity to mediate broad economic developments, sociologists are beginning to move beneath macro structural forces to better explain parental demand for schooling and children's attainment. This materialist model focuses on the explanatory power of contextual labor demand and resources internal to the family. Parents' social preferences and commitments, antecedent to "choosing" between work and school for their children, are presumed to converge with economic factors. In contrast, research on family practices within impoverished settings reveals that parents' social commitments linked to child development or schooling can vary independently of the family's economic circumstances. Applying these alternative theories to family behavior in Southern Africa, the authors assess the relative influence of mothers' economic demands and social commitments on their daughter's probability of staying in school. They found that the risk of daughters leaving school is more strongly influenced by mothers' social commitments than by household economics. Maternal influences do interact with selected family-economy indicators and are conditioned by the level of discretionary time afforded to daughters.

Jacobs, Jerry A.
1996. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 153-185.
This paper reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational system than in others. The analysis distinguishes access to higher education, college experiences, and post collegiate outcomes. Women fare relatively well in the area of access, less well in terms of the college experience, and are particularly disadvantaged with respect to the outcomes of schooling. Explanations of gender inequality in higher education should distinguish between these different aspects of education and should explain those contexts in which women have attained parity as well as those in which they continue to lag behind men.

Knodel, John and Gavin W. Jones
1996. Post-Cairo Population Policy: Does Promoting Girls' Schooling Miss the Mark? Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4 (December), pp. 683-702.
One emphasis of the new population paradigm that emerged at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo concerns gender inequality in education and the need to promote girls' schooling at the secondary level, both as a goal of human development and as a means to encourage lower fertility in developing countries. A critical weakness of this approach to population and development policy is that it fails to address the socioeconomic inequality that deprives both boys and girls of adequate schooling. Such unbalanced attention to one dimension of inequality detracts from the attention accorded to other dimensions. Moreover, while female disadvantage remains an important feature of educational access in some regions, there are numerous countries, even within the developing world, where the gender gap in education is absent or modest, and in almost all countries it has been diminishing substantially over the last few decades. By contrast, the authors contend, inequality in education based on socioeconomic background is nearly universal and, in most cases, more pronounced than gender inequality. Data from various developing countries, especially Thailand and Vietnam, are documented in the review.

Lloyd, Cynthia B. and Anastasia J. Gage-Brandon
1994. High Fertility and Children's Schooling in Ghana: Sex Differences in Parental Contributions and Educational Outcomes. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2 (July), pp. 293-306.
This paper explores the linkages at the family level between sustained high fertility and children's schooling in Ghana, in the context of a constrained economic environment and rising school fees. The unique feature of the paper is its exploration of the operational significance of alternative definitions of "sib size" - the number of "same-mother" siblings and "same-father" siblings - in relation to enrollment, grade attainment, and school dropout rates for boys and girls of primary and secondary school age. The analysis is based on the first wave of the Ghana Living Standards Measurement Survey (GLSS) data, collected in 1987-88. The results of the statistical analysis led to the conclusion that the co-existence of high fertility, rising school costs, and economic reversals is having a negative impact on the education of girls, in terms of dropout rates and grade attainment. Some of the costs of high fertility are borne by older siblings (particularly girls) rather than by parents, with the result that children from larger families experience greater inequality between themselves and their siblings by sex and birth order. Because fathers have more children on average than mothers, the inequality between their children appears to be even greater than between mothers' children, particularly given the importance of the fathers' role in the payment of school fees. The paper concludes that the greatest cost for children in Ghana of sustained high fertility is likely to be the reinforcement of traditional sex roles, largely a product of high fertility in the past.

Lloyd, Cynthia B. and Ann K. Blanc
1996. Children's Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Fathers, Mothers, and Others. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2 (June), pp. 265-298.
This article examines the determinants of children's school enrollment and completion of primary grade four - one of UNICEF's key indicators of social progress - in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the role of parents and other household members in providing children with educational and residential support. While in most of these countries a substantial majority of 10- to 14-year-old children are currently enrolled in school, many fewer children by this age have attained a minimum of a fourth grade education, primarily due to late ages of entry into school and slow progress from grade to grade. The resources of a child's residential household, in particular the education of the household head and the household standard of living, are determining factors in explaining variations among children in these aspects of schooling. By contrast, a child's biological parents appear to play a less critical role, as demonstrated by comparing the educational record of orphans with that of children whose parents are still living. Furthermore, children living in female-headed households have better school outcomes than children living in male-headed households, when households with similar resources are compared.

Shapiro, David and Oleko B. Tambashe
1994. The Impact of Women's Employment and Education on Contraceptive Use and Abortion in Kinshasa, Zaire. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2 (March/April), pp. 96-110.
This report examines contraceptive behavior and abortion among women residing in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital city, with particular emphasis on women's employment and education. Data is collected from 1990, covering 2,399 women of reproductive age. While the practice of contraception is a common event in Kinshasa, dominated by the rhythm method, the use of modern contraceptives remains limited, but is on the rise. Induced abortion is reported by 15% of the ever-pregnant women in the survey. Women's employment and education are strongly linked to contraceptive use and abortion, and differences in the incidence of abortion by schooling and employment status appear to play an important role in contributing to corresponding observed differences in fertility. Modern contraceptives and induced abortion appear to be used as complementary fertility control strategies in Kinshasa, and analyses of the findings suggest that better educated women employed in the modern sector are most likely to be in the forefront of the contraceptive revolution.

Singh, Susheela
1998. Adolescent Childbearing in Developing Countries: A Global Review. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in the Developing World (June), pp. 117-136.
This article discusses the current levels and recent trends in the rate of adolescent childbearing, the timing of the first birth, and births to unmarried women for 43 developing countries. Differences in rates of adolescent childbearing by residence and level of education are also examined. The analysis is based on nationally representative fertility surveys. Substantial declines in adolescent fertility have occurred in North Africa and Asia, but levels are still high in some countries. Declines are beginning to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, but current levels are still high in most countries of this region, and the proportion of births to unmarried adolescents is increasing in some countries. In Latin America, where the level of teenage childbearing is moderate, declines are less prevalent and some small increases have occurred. Higher education is associated with lower rates of adolescent childbearing, but other socioeconomic changes cancel or reduce this effect in several countries.

Wall, Lewis L.
1998. Dead Mothers and Injured Wives: The Social Context of Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Among the Hausa of Northern Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4 (December), pp. 341-359.
Northern Nigeria has a maternal mortality ratio greater than 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Serious maternal morbidity (for example, vesico-vaginal fistula) is also common. Among the most important factors contributing to this tragic situation are: an Islamic culture that undervalues women; a perceived social need for women's reproductive capacities to be under strict male control; the practice of purdah to cover universal female illiteracy; marriage at an early age and pregnancy often occurring before maternal pelvic growth is complete; a high rate of obstructed labor; directly harmful traditional medical beliefs and practices; inadequate facilities to deal with obstetric emergencies; a deteriorating economy; and a political culture marked by rampant corruption and inefficiency. The convergence of all of these factors has resulted in one of the worst records of female reproductive health existing anywhere in the world.

Wils, Annababette and Anne Goujon
1998. Diffusion of Education in Six World Regions, 1960-90. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2 (June), pp. 357-368.
Education has been found to be related to fertility and hence population growth, to the status of women, and to labor force skills. Therefore, education is a central issue for development, and it is important to understand the dynamics of education diffusion throughout populations during development. This note analyzes trends in school enrollment and adult education achievement for six world regions, 1960-90. There has been an enormous global increase in both measures of education. Gaps between male and female enrollment remain, and the gap is larger at lower levels of education. As enrollment rates increase and the average level of adult education rises, the gender gap narrows considerably.


Assie-Lumumba, N.T.
2000. Educational and Economic Reforms, Gender Equity, and Access to Schooling in Africa. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 41(1):89-120, January.
This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms, particularly the World Bank's Structural Adjustment Programs and educational policies with regard to gender equity in access to schooling in Africa. Using qualitative, historical, and quantitative methods and based on data from UNESCO and African Development Bank, it analyzes the impact of economic factors, specifically gross domestic investment, public expenditure on education as a percentage of gross national product, public expenditure on education as a percentage of government expenditure, and government deficit/surplus as a percentage of GDP at current prices, on women's access to higher education.

Barrett, H. and A. Browne
1996. Health, Hygiene and Maternal Education: Evidence from The Gambia. Social Science & Medicine 43(11):1579-1590, December.
This paper explores the ways in which women's education influences domestic hygiene practices and use of health care services in a traditional agricultural village in The Gambia. The "environment of health" is one of poverty, high morbidity, and low levels of female literacy. A detailed household survey was undertaken in the rainy season when agricultural work is demanding of people's time and energy and morbidity rates are high. Mothers with and without formal education and with at least one child under five years were included in the study. Small differences were found between the educated and uneducated group in the knowledge and practice of household hygiene. The healthcare services in the village were utilized by all women regardless of whether or not they had been to school, but educated mothers appeared to have a better understanding of health education messages. The case study illustrates the synergy between health, hygiene, and maternal education and discusses the implications of the findings.

Chilisa, B.
2002. National Policies on Pregnancy in Education Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Botswana. Gender and Education 14(1):21-35, March.
The article critiques pregnancy policies in the education systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Policies discussed are divided into expulsion, re-entry, and continuation policies. Arguing from the standpoint of theories of oppression, it is postulated that expulsion policies symbolize direct violence against girls who become pregnant and are more common in those countries with poor human rights records. Continuation and re-entry policies are prevalent in countries that have ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It is argued that re-entry policies also violate girl mothers' right to education through a retreat ideology that requires temporary withdrawal of the pregnant girl from school. Moreover, gender inequalities are built into the policies and supported by traditional and institutional ideologies that make re-entry of the girl mother into the school difficult. The Botswana re-entry policy is reviewed to illustrate difficulties in the readmission of girl mothers to school.

Curtin, T.R.C. and E.A.S. Nelson
1999. Economic and Health Efficiency of Education Funding Policy. Social Science & Medicine 48(11):1599-1611, June.
Public spending programs to reduce poverty, expand primary education, and improve the economic status of women are recommended priorities of aid agencies and are now gradually being reflected in Third World governments' policies, in response to aid conditions imposed by the World Bank and OECD countries. However, outcomes fall short of aspiration. This paper shows that donors' lending policies, especially those restricting public spending on education to the primary level, perpetuate poverty, minimize socio-economic impact of public health programs, and prevent significant improvement in the economic status of women. These effects are the result of fundamental flaws in the donors' education policy model. Evidence is presented to show that health status in developing countries will be significantly enhanced by increasing the proportion of the population that has at least post-primary education. Heads of households with just primary education have much the same probability of experiencing poverty and high mortality of their children as those with no education at all.

Ekani-Bessala, M.M., N. Carre, T. Calvez, and P. Thonneau
1998. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Contraceptive Method Use in a Palm Oil Company in Cameroon. Contraception 58(1):29-34, July.
The principal reasons given by African women for not using contraception include lack of economic power and control over their choice of partner. An epidemiologic descriptive survey of a cross-section of the female personnel of a Cameroonian palm oil company (SOCAPALM) was carried out in August 1995 to evaluate the various determinants and level of use of various family planning methods in a well-defined population of women in employment. The adjusted odds ratios showed that use of modern contraceptive methods was significantly associated with the woman having received secondary education, having more than three children, being the head of the household, and, in cases where there was a man regularly present in the household, his approval of family planning. Recently receiving information (during the last month) about family planning was not identified by multivariate analysis as a significant factor affecting the decision to use modern or traditional contraception. The same factors were found to be associated with the use of traditional methods of contraception, but having had an illegal abortion was also associated with the use of such methods.

Fallon, K.M.
1999. Education and Perceptions of Social Status and Power Among Women in Larteh, Ghana. Africa Today 46(2):67-91, Spring.
In examining the status of women in developing countries, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, such as income or health, on women. This paper moves beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in Larteh, a rural town in Ghana. This paper focuses particularly on the effects of gender and education on perceptions of social status and power. The first section provides a brief overview of the history of Ghana, which allows the reader to understand the current position of women in Ghana. The second section places the definitions of social status and power within an African context. The third section analyzes 24 interviews collected in Larteh, Ghana. The interviews asked respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. Overall, the findings indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors influencing perceptions of social status and power include wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, such as elder, chief, or priestess.

Glick, P. and D.E. Sahn
1999. Schooling of Girls and Boys in a West African Country: The Effects of Parental Education, Income, and Household Structure. Economics of Education Review 19(1):63-87, February.
In this paper the authors investigate gender differences in the determinants of several schooling indicators - grade attainment, current enrollment, and withdrawal from school - in a poor urban environment in West Africa, using ordered and binary probit models incorporating household-level random effects. Increases in household income led to greater investments in girls' schooling but had no significant impact on schooling of boys. Improvements in father's education raise the schooling of both sons and daughters (favoring the latter) but mother's education has significant impact only on daughters' schooling; these estimates are suggestive of differences in maternal and paternal preferences for schooling daughters relative to sons. Domestic responsibilities, represented for example by the number of very young siblings, impinge strongly on girls' education but not on boys'. Policies such as subsidized childcare that reduce the opportunity cost of girls' time in the home may therefore increase their ability to get an education.

Kirk, D. and B. Pillet
1998. Fertility Levels, Trends, and Differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s. Studies in Family Planning 29(1):1-22, March.
This study presents an assessment of fertility trends in 23 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It examines trends and differentials in proximate determinants and fertility preferences. Findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys for these countries over a period of 15 years show that desired family size has decreased significantly. Two-thirds of the countries examined show evidence of fertility decline, a particularly rapid decline in the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe. Areas with higher education for women experienced lower child mortality and desired family size. Contraceptive use far exceeds other proximate determinants in explaining these changes. The striking regularity in fertility reduction across all ages indicates that contraception is practiced mostly for birth spacing and that contraceptive methods have gained wide acceptance among younger cohorts. Good prospects are seen for further intensification of fertility declines in East Africa and urban West Africa. However, low levels of education and high child mortality make rapid changes unlikely in rural West Africa.

Kravdal, O.
2001. Main and Interaction Effects of Women's Education and Status on Fertility: The Case of Tanzania. European Journal of Population-Revue Europeenne de Demographie 17(2):107-135.
When various sources of spuriousness are taken into account, it is found that giving a woman more education reduces her fertility much less than suggested by unvaried tabulations of the total fertility rate. Expansion of primary education contributes to only a slightly higher age at first birth, and the effect on higher-order birth rates is not significant. Changes in post-partum insusceptibility outweigh those in fertility desires and use of modern contraception among women not wanting an additional child. Secondary school enrollment influences fertility more markedly, in particular because of a later first birth. Effects of women's status are estimated in models for actual fertility as well as fertility desires, post-partum insusceptibility and contraceptive use, using up to six macro- or micro-level indicators. All significant effects suggest that empowerment of women will tend to push fertility down, net of education. The significant interactions between women's status and education point in different directions, but a majority of them indicate that education has the most pronounced effect on fertility in the more egalitarian regions and among women with relatively high individual status.

Kritz, M.M. and P. Makinwa-Adebusoye
1999. Determinants of Women's Decision-Making Authority in Nigeria: The Ethnic Dimension. Sociological Forum 14(3):399-424, September.
Using data from a 1991 survey of five ethnic groups in Nigeria, this paper looks at the determinants of wives' decision-making authority. The analysis shows that ethnicity plays a very important role in shaping wives' decision-making authority and is even more important than wives' individual-level characteristics as a determinant of authority. The ethnic effect occurs both by shaping the levels of resources that women achieve and by shaping the relationships of wives' achieved characteristics to family decision-making. To the extent that characteristics other than ethnicity make a difference for authority, it is revealed that wives' contributions to household expenditures are important. That factor significantly increases wives' authority, as do wives' formal education, age, and work for pay outside the home. The findings underscore the importance of looking at ethnic social differentiation in the African context and advancing educational and employment opportunities for women.

Locoh, T. and M.P. Thiriat
1995. Divorce and Remarriage in West Africa - The Situation in Togo. Population 50(1):61-93, January/February.
The high matrimonial mobility of West African women is only generally analyzed by demographers as a correlate in polygamy research (on men) or as a fertility factor. Anthropological literature, on the other hand, has investigated the subject in its own right, weighing up the pros and cons of marriage, widowhood, and divorce for the status of women. Analysis of the matrimonial data on women surveyed in the DHS Togo survey (1988) confirms certain observations and interpretations by ethnologists. It shows the fragility of couples during the first few years of marriage. Multivariance analysis measures the impact of the housing environment, level of education, matrimonial co-habitation, infertility, and ethnic specificities on the risk of divorce. The last few years seem to have been marked by a rising trend in the probability of marriage breakups and remarriage. It still remains to be found out whether these new matrimonial trends result in a real gain in the autonomy of women or whether, on the contrary, women are less secure and more dependent on the person able to help them raise their children.

Shapiro, D. and B.O. Tambashe
2001. Gender, Poverty, Family Structure, and Investments in Children's Education in Kinshasa, Congo. Economics of Education Review 20(4):359-375, August.
This paper examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors focus on the impact of poverty, household structure, and economic well-being on investments in children's education and differences by gender in such investments. These issues are addressed using data from a 1990 survey that provided information on the enrollment status and educational attainment of more than 8,500 youths aged 6-25. Findings indicate that increased economic well-being translates into greater investments in children's education for both females and males. However, improved economic status does not necessarily result in reduced gender differences in school outcomes. In addition, family structure (as measured by the number of children in the household in different age groups) and a child's relationship to the head of the household are also found to be significant influences on investments in children's education.

Shapiro, D. and B.O. Tambashe
1997. Education, Employment, and Fertility in Kinshasa and Prospects for Changes in Reproductive Behavior. Population Research and Policy Review 16(3):259-287, June.
This paper examines fertility behavior of women in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital city, with a population of roughly four million. The authors look at relationships linking women's education, employment, and fertility behavior (children ever born, age at first marriage, contraception, abortion, breastfeeding, and postpartum abstinence), using data from a 1990 survey of reproductive-age women. Other things equal, there are significant differences by educational attainment and by modern sector employment in lifetime fertility and in most of the proximate determinants as well. The results suggest that modern contraception and abortion are alternative fertility control strategies in Kinshasa, with abortion appearing to play an important role in contributing to the observed fertility differentials by education and employment. The dramatic increases that have taken place in women's access to secondary and higher education are likely to reduce fertility in the future, while the effects of Zaire's current economic and political crisis are uncertain.

Gender Violence in South Africa

Gender Violence in South Africa

Gender violence as a topic of inquiry has steadily increased in popularity, both domestically and internationally, in recent decades. It is readily acknowledged as a pervasive problem in society, crossing class and racial boundaries. Much attention has focused on the empowerment of women as a way to reduce their susceptibility to violence, and while successful in many ways, this strategy often fails to address the origins of violent behavior. This bibliography surveys gendered violence in South Africa, a country that is no stranger to conflict. Particular emphasis is given to the construction of masculine identities and the consequent widespread use of violence as a means of legitimating power. Specific themes that are explored in more depth include:
• Historical legacy of oppression and familiarity to violence (e.g. colonization, violent conflict, Apartheid);
• Traditional masculine ethnic identities (e.g. Zulu, Afrikaans, Xhosa);
• Migration of men from rural villages to urban centers for employment, where sexual dominance of males over other males flourished, a trend continued upon their return home but in the form of males sexually dominating females;
• Misunderstanding surrounding HIV/AIDS;
• Prevalence of poverty which positions women as vulnerable to violence due to a lack of resources (e.g. education, health services, employment)
• An increase in inequalities, between black and white racial groups and within the black community, which has lead to a crisis of identity and a need to prove dominance and control, manifested in the form of male violence towards females.

Apartheid, Contemporary Society, Development, Family Structure, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Roles, HIV/AIDS, Inequality, Masculinity Construction, Patriarchal Cultural Structure, Rape, Sexual Rights, Societal Structures, South Africa, Violence (political, collective, domestic), Traditional/Ethnic Identity, Violence Against Women

Articles and Books
Ahluwalia, Pal, Louise Bethleham, and Ruth Ginio (Eds.)
2007 Violence and Non-Violence in Africa. New York: Routledge.
This edited volume of articles are directed at political, social, and cultural processes in Africa which incite violence or which facilitate its negation through non-violent social action, whether or not explicitly formulated as such. The last few chapters in this volume are devoted to apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa, most notably how apartheid created a mechanism for violence in the country. Each section addresses a different aspect of the continuing repercussions of the material and structural violence of apartheid.

Armstrong, Sue
2004 Rape in South Africa: An Invisible Part of Apartheid's Legacy. Gender and Development (previously called Focus on Gender) 2(1): 35-39.
This article investigates rape in South Africa, where, during the years of apartheid, a culture of aggression and domination has caused both black and white cultures to intensify their specific male-dominated power systems, as the national liberation struggle has been fought. This heavily militarized society has marginalized qualities which are traditionally thought of as female, such as trust, compassion and gentleness (Cock, 1989). In situations of conflict, rape as a means of asserting male power over women tends to increase in incidence and intensity (El Bushra and Piza Lopez, 1994). This has certainly been the case in South Africa, where the incidence of rape and other forms of gender violence, has soared (Segel and Labe, 1990).

Ashworth, Adam
1999 Weighing Manhood in Soweto. CODESRIA Bulletin 3 & 4: 51-59

Bannon, Ian and Maria C. Correia (Eds.)
2006 The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
This volume contributes to the small, albeit growing, literature on men and gender in the context of development. It is in no way an exhaustive look; rather, it provides a collection of research and insightful articles that examine the way development affects men. It aims to expand the debate and discourse on gender and development to encompass men and to identify the critical knowledge and data gaps that can help us better understand men and concepts of masculinity. With a more complete understanding of development as a gendered process that impacts both men and women, the authors hope ultimately to influence policy design and implementation that can move us closer to the goal of gender equity. Men and gender issues are analyzed in this collection from a variety of approaches and perspectives. The book starts with an overview chapter that examines gender issues across multiple countries and then moves into specific topics, first in Latin America and the Caribbean and then in Sub-Saharan Africa. A final chapter summarizes some of the common messages emerging from the chapters and suggests policy directions. Chapter 8, "Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa," applies a gender perspective to young men in Sub-Saharan Africa in examining two of the most pressing issues in the region today: conflict and HIV/AIDS.

Bay, Edna G. and Donald L. Donham (Eds.)
2006 States of Violence: Politics, Youth, and Memory in Contemporary Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
The essayists whose work is collected here – historians, anthropologists, and political scientists – bring their diverse disciplinary perspectives to bear on various forms of violence that have plagued recent African history. Exploring violence as part of political economy and rejecting stereotypical explanations of African violence as endemic or natural to African cultures, this work includes essays that examine a continent where the boundaries on acceptable force are shifting and the distinction between violence by the state and against the state is not always clear. The case studies are drawn from field research conducted in Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.

Becker, Heike
2003 The Least Sexist Society? Perspectives on Gender, Change and Violence among Southern African San. Journal of Southern African Studies 29(1): 5-23.
This article refutes essentialist popular and academic discourses revolving around the presumption of primordial gender equality and harmony among the San of southern Africa. These discourses continue to ignore the devastating gendered consequences of land and cultural dispossession, poverty, and the large-scale militarization of the San. The discussion focuses on contemporary gender-based violence among San communities against the background of those socio-economic, political, and cultural influences that have fundamentally altered gender relations among southern African San. The central argument presented is that, relatively recently, and as a result of specific social and historical circumstances, distinct and hierarchically organized perceptions of 'men' and 'women' have begun to establish themselves to varying degrees among southern African San communities. It is argued that violence between San men and women has been reproduced and exacerbated by the San people's re-appropriation of gender as a significant social category, which is, however, highly ambiguous and contradictory. The comparative analysis employed in this paper draws on recent field research among three major communities of San, at Schmidts-drift in the Northern Cape (South Africa), Ghanzi district in western Botswana, and Tsumkwe West, the area formerly known as 'Western Bushmanland', in north-eastern Namibia. In conclusion, the paper takes up again the cultural discourse of 'traditional' gender equality and harmony, and asks how this, within the wider context of contemporary cultural reclamation, may become a strategic, although contested, tool to address contemporary gender concerns among San people.

Beinart, William
1992 Introduction: Political and Collective Violence in Southern African Historiography. Journal of Southern African Studies 18(3): 455-486.
Violent conflict, though by no means unique to southern Africa, has been central in its modern history. It is very difficult to write about the region in the nineteenth century without constant reference to wars, conquest, and violence. Recent conflicts have put violence high on the political and academic agenda. Whereas guerrilla struggle was the weapon of liberation movements up to the late 1970s, it subsequently became that of counter-revolution. Intellectuals have responded rapidly to these developments, a testament to the fertility of academic production on the region. Nor have they, by and large, dodged the difficult questions. It is not only the wars of liberation, the rise of Renamo, and South Africa's militarization which have been explored. The intensity of civil conflict and the nexus of violence within or between African communities have also become important questions for explanation. Academics have explicitly pursued these issues as part of the ideological work necessary to counter the colonial notion of the intrinsic violence of 'tribes'. An increasing volume of literature displays direct concern not only with the causes of conflict, but with violence itself.

Boonzaier, Floretta and Cheryl De La Rey
2003 'He's a Man, and I'm a Woman': Cultural Constructions of Masculinity and Femininity in South African Women's Narratives of Violence. Violence Against Women 9(8): 1003-1029.
In South Africa, woman abuse is a pervasive social problem. This article explores how abused women give meaning to their experiences. Narrative interviews were used to investigate 15 women's experiences of violence from their partners. In their narratives, women constructed particular gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. Meanings women attached to their experiences of abuse were filtered through the particular social context—characterized by poverty and deprivation—within which their experiences occurred. Women's naming of the violence was linked to broader sociocultural mechanisms that construct woman abuse as a social problem in South Africa.

Booyens, K., A. Louw-Hesselink, and P. Mashabela
2004 Male Rape in Prison: An Overview. Acta Criminologica 17(3): 1-13.
Correctional facilities are high-risk settings for the sexual victimization of prisoners, especially for males. Many legal jurisdictions do not recognize a crime of rape against a male victim, but instead use terms such as "forcible sodomy" or "child abuse". Male-on-male rape in men's correctional facilities remains an ignored crime problem within the larger society. The experience of being raped can cause a man to develop anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorders, and suicide ideation and action. When a rape victim is eventually released from prison he is more likely filled with a tremendous amount of rage and studies have shown that victims become predators in the general society.

Borer, Tristan Anne
2009 Gendered War and Gendered Peace: Truth Commissions and Postconflict Gender Violence: Lessons from South Africa. Violence Against Women 15(10): 1169-1193.
That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. This article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

Breckenridge, Keith
1998 The Allure of Violence: Men, Race and Masculinity on the South African Goldmines, 1900-1950. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 669-693.
In the history of the modern industrial world the Witwatersrand stands out in four key respects: first, the size of the workforce which grew from around 200,000 men in 1910 to over 400,000 in 1940; second, the longevity of an industry that has continued almost uninterrupted for well over a century; third, its geographical concentration; and fourth, its exclusively male demographic character. All four of these features suggest that we need to pay very close attention to an important question: What kinds of masculinities, to use Connell's term, were forged on the South African gold mines? A succinct answer does spring to mind. The gold mines fashioned explicitly racial masculinities and an intensely monitored legal, economic, and geographical boundary between them. Between 1900 and 1950 and probably for some time thereafter, the definitive encounter between white and black men in South Africa was underground on the gold mines. The evidence that we have on the relationship suggests that it was characterized by high levels of personal violence. This article explores worker relationships, and argues that the reason that violence was so common on the mines was that both black and white men celebrated the capacity for personal violence as a key element of masculinity.

Brod, Harry and Michael Kaufman (Eds.)
1994 Theorizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
A new field of inquiry and growing interdisciplinary area, men's studies, is just now beginning to develop its own distinctive methodologies and perspectives as demonstrated in the pages of Theorizing Masculinities. This first major compilation of new theoretical work on men begins by presenting ideas borrowed from the disciplines that have fostered the study of masculinities: sociology, psychoanalysis, ethnography, and inequality. The following chapters explore many issues central to the study of men such as power, ethnicity, feminism, and homophobia. The contributors also provide theoretical explanations of some of the institutions most closely identified with men, such as the military, sports, and the men's movement. The contributors to this volume come from disciplines as diverse as sociology, political science, industrial relations, philosophy, education, anthropology, gender studies, and literature. Together, they make this benchmark volume the guiding set of theories on masculinities. Theorizing Masculinities is a comprehensive volume that will appeal to a wide range of students and scholars, especially those interested in gender, sociology, social theory, family studies, counseling, and psychology.

Brown, Jill, James Sorrell, and Marcela Raffaelli
2005 An Exploratory Study of Constructions of Masculinity, Sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Namibia, South Africa. Culture, Health & Sexuality 7(6): 585-598.
The goal of the current study was to explore notions of masculinity and their linkages to HIV/AIDS among Owambo men and women in Namibia, where an estimated one-fifth of 15-49 year-olds have acquired HIV. Thirteen open-ended interviews and three focus groups were conducted with 50 male and female participants aged 19-50 in rural and urban Namibia. Qualitative analysis revealed six central themes: the evolving meanings of masculinity, power dynamics between men and women, women as active agents, the tension between formal and informal education and HIV transmission, alcohol and masculinity, and the blending of masculinity and explanations of HIV and AIDS. The findings suggest both direct and indirect linkages between notions of masculinity and AIDS, and highlight the need for prevention efforts that focus on providing alternative avenues for attaining culturally recognized markers of masculinity.

Campbell, Catherine
1992 Learning to Kill? Masculinity, the Family and Violence in Natal.
Journal of Southern African Studies 18(3): 614-628.
Analyses of South African violence have failed to take explicit account of the fact that the conflict has almost always taken the form of men fighting men. The aim of this paper is to point to a crisis in masculinity amongst working-class African men, and to suggest that this forms a key dimension of explanation for the massive upsurge in violence in the recent past. Political analysts concerned with bringing an end to the violence cannot afford to ignore its gendered dimensions. The paper elaborates on three points: that there is a crisis of African masculinity; that violence is one of the compensatory mechanisms whereby men have sought to reassert their masculinity in the face of this crisis; and that it is within the family that men learn to be violent.

1997 Migrancy, Masculine Identities and AIDS: The Psycho-Social Context of HIV Transmission on the South African Gold Mines. Social Science and Medicine 45(2): 273-281.
Levels of HIV infection are particularly high amongst migrant workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a case study of one such vulnerable group of migrants—underground workers on the South African gold mines—and highlights the psycho-social context of HIV transmission in the mining setting. On the assumption that social identities serve as an important influence on peoples' sexual behavior, the study examines the way in which miners construct their social identities within the parameters of their particular living and working conditions. It also identifies some of the key narratives used by miners to make sense of their experience in the realms of health, ill-health, HIV, and sexuality. Masculinity emerged as a leading narrative in informants' accounts of their working life, health, and sexuality, and the paper examines the way in which the construction of masculine identities renders miners particularly vulnerable to HIV. The implications of these findings for HIV educational interventions are discussed.

Choi, Susanne Y.P. and Kwok-Fai Ting
2008 Wife Beating in South Africa: An Imbalance of Resources and Power. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23(6): 834-852.
This article develops an imbalance theory to explain physical violence against women in intimate relationships in South Africa. The theory proposes four typologies: dependence, compensation, submission, and transgression, through which imbalances in resource contribution and power distribution between spouses are hypothesized to contribute to violence. The dependence hypothesis suggests that economic dependence of the wife will lead to more violence. The compensation hypothesis argues that the husband will use force to compensate for his inability to live up to the male-provider norm. The submission hypothesis suggests that violence will increase due to the submission of women in male-dominated families. Finally, the transgression hypothesis argues that men in female-dominated families will use force to punish their wives for supposedly transgressing the gender norm of male dominance. Empirical evidence provided some support for the dependence, submission, and transgression hypotheses.

Cleaver, Francis
2002 Masculinities Matter! Men, Gender and Development. New York: Zed Books.
Men appear to be missing from much gender and development policy, but many emerging critiques suggest the need to pay more attention to understanding men and masculinities, and to analyzing the social relationships between men and women. This book considers the case for a focus on men in gender and development, which requires us to reconsider some of the theories and concepts which underlie policies. It includes arguments based on equality and social justice, the specific gendered vulnerabilities of men, the emergence of a crisis of masculinity, and the need to include men in development as partners for strategic change.

Connell, R.W.
2000 The Men and the Boys. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Questions about men and boys have aroused remarkable media attention and public interest in recent years. But what have we learned about masculinity, and where is our thinking on the subject headed? In this book, Connell continues his pioneering work by taking the next step in understanding the dynamics of contemporary masculinity: incorporating the international dimension. Through a discussion of masculinity and globalization, this book links theory with case studies to point us toward change. This book looks at a range of intriguing and controversial subjects, including the question of sex between men, men's bodies and health, education, the prevention of violence, and much more. It includes the voices of many men, both straight and gay, in a series of life histories. As he reveals the price men and boys across cultures pay for patriarchy, Connell makes a persuasive case for men to change their conduct in order to create a more cooperative and peaceful world.

2002 Masculinities. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
This is revised edition of Connell's groundbreaking text, which has become a classic work on the nature and construction of masculine identity. In its first edition, it provided one of the most important voices in feminist scholarship by men. Connell argued that there is no such thing as a single concept of masculinity, but that many different masculinities exist, each associated with different positions of power. In a world in which gender order continues to extend privilege to men over women, but that also raises difficult issues for men and boys, Connell's account is more pertinent than ever. In the new edition, Connell discusses the development of masculinity studies in the ten years since the book's initial publication. He explores global gender relations, new theories, and practical uses of masculinity research. Looking to the future, the new concluding chapter addresses the politics of masculinities, and the implications of masculinity research as a way of understanding current world issues.

Cornwall, Andrea
1997 Men, Masculinity and Gender in Development. Gender and Development 5(2): 8-13.
This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity. Gender and Development (GAD) initiatives have consistently been focused exclusively on women, in the attempt to involve women as equals. However, this can have detrimental impacts on males since it fails to include them in the discussion of total gender equality. It is noted that the link between men and power differs between cultures, and while some men have and use power (most notably over women), not all people in power are men.

Cornwall, Andrea
2000 Missing Men? Reflections on Men, Masculinities and Gender in GAD. IDS Bulletin 31(2): 18-27.
This article explores the implications of missing men for Gender and Development (GAD). Men, in all their diversity, are largely missing from representations of gender issues and gender relations in GAD. Mainstream development purveys its own set of stereotypical images of men, serving equally to miss the variety of men who occupy other, more marginal, positions in households and communities. Men remain residual and are often missing from institutionalized efforts to tackle gender inequity. Portrayed and engaged with only in relation to women, men are presumed to be powerful and are represented as problematic obstacles to equitable development. Men's experiences of powerlessness remain outside the frame of GAD, so threatening is the idea of the marginal man. Amidst widespread agreement that changing men, as well as women, is crucial if GAD is to make a difference, new strategies are needed. This article suggests that rather than simply 'bringing men in', the issues raised by reflecting on men, masculinities, and gender in GAD require a more radical questioning of the analytical categories used in GAD, and a revised politics of engagement.

Dangor, Zubeda, LeeAnn Hoff, and Renae Scott
1998 Woman Abuse in South Africa: An Exploratory Study. Violence Against Women 4(2): 125-152.
This exploratory study addresses the issue of woman abuse in South Africa and the resources for victimized women and children, or their absence. It provides documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services on behalf of this at-risk population. The study affirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves to obtain a fuller picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. An unvarnished acknowledgment of domestic violence and its physical, emotional, and social toll on community stability and health is integral to the new South Africa's pursuit of political and economic reform.

Daphne, Jeremy
1998 A New Masculine Identity: Gender Awareness Raising for Men. Agenda 37: 24-29.
The author reports on the Gender Education and Training Network (GETNET) training initiative to build men's gender awareness, noting the importance of developing the vision of 'a new man' in South Africa. GETNET, conceptualized in 1996, is an independent, non-profit organization that provides an education, training, and consultancy service on gender issues. Its activities include gender awareness raising among women and men, training of gender coordinators, and gender mainstreaming in organizational change. It originally strived to play an active role in the equalization of power relations between women and men by placing special emphasis on women's empowerment, but has now introduced gender awareness training programs exclusively for men. This short article also evaluates the programs that serve the male population, identifying some of the principal debates and issues raised by men at the workshops and discusses their implications.

Datta, Kavita
2004 A Coming of Age? Re-conceptualizing Gender and Development in Urban Botswana. Journal of Southern African Studies 30(2): 251-268.
Feminist research has debated whether Gender and Development (GAD) discourse should be re-conceptualized to include both women and men as gendered beings. While the arguments for and against are now fairly well established in the theoretical realm, empirically grounded work that has explored the sheer complexity of integrating men into what has largely been a women-only discourse is much more recent. Drawing upon in-depth interviews, this article explores the case for the inclusion of men in localized GAD discourse, policies, and programs. The research evidence presented is contradictory, suggesting both the potential for a marginalization of women's rights if men are embraced, and the necessity of integrating men so as to further the struggle to achieve gender equality. The article concludes by arguing that, while the case for the re-conceptualization of GAD may not be clear cut in Botswana, there is a need to start to think about how male identities can be problematized and how men can be usefully included into GAD studies.

Delius, Peter and Clive Glaser
2002 Sexual Socialization in South Africa: A Historical Perspective. African Studies 61(1): 27–54.

Dunne, M., S. Humphreys, and F. Leach
2006 Gender Violence in Schools in the Developing World. Gender and Education 18(1): 75–98.
This paper explores gender violence in schools in what is commonly known as the 'developing world' through a review of recent research. Violence in the school setting has only recently emerged as a widespread and serious phenomenon in these countries, with the consequence that our knowledge and understanding of it is embryonic: much of it remains invisible or unrecognized. The authors use theories of gender/sexual relations to provide a more coherent understanding of the issues. They start by clarifying the purposes and the broad position adopted in writing this paper. Then, they trace the conceptual connections between gender/sexual relations and gender violence in schools, acknowledging the importance of locating understanding of the phenomena within the context of the school's culture, its structures, and processes. They organize the review using two overlapping categories: implicit gender violence, which relates to the everyday institutional structures and practices, and explicit gender violence, which relates to more overtly sexualized encounters. Both categories cover gender violence perpetrated by students on other students, by teachers on students, and by students on teachers. In the final section, the theoretical connections (and distinctions) generated by the research allow for a critical overview of the strategies that have been used to address the problem to date.

El-Bushra, Judy and Eugenia Piza Lopez
1993 Gender-Related Violence: Its Scope and Relevance. Gender and Development 1(2): 1-9.
The purpose of this paper is to sketch out the parameters of this broad and complex subject, and to identify policy issues for further consideration. Violence – which is defined as an assault on a person's physical and mental integrity – is an underlying feature of all societies, an undercurrent running through social interaction at many different levels. How a society chooses to control the violence inherent in it reflects the value it places on mutual respect and tolerance of difference, and on human rights, democracy, and good governance. Though some countries may have more successful records than others in this respect, gender violence is a worldwide and ever-present phenomenon against which eternal vigilance is necessary. Gender-related violence is defined as violence which embodies the power imbalances inherent in patriarchal society. Though it is not necessarily carried out by men against women, this is overwhelmingly the form it takes

Epprecht, Marc
1998 The 'Unsaying' of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 631-651.
Many black Zimbabweans believe that homosexuality was introduced to the country by white settlers and is now mainly propagated by 'the West'. The denial of indigenous homosexual behaviors and identities is often so strong that critics have been quick with accusations of homophobia. Yet those critics unfairly impose a rather crude and ultimately unhelpful analysis. Without denying that violent forms of homophobia do exist in Zimbabwe, the invisibility of indigenous homosexuality has more complex origins. This article examines the many, overlapping discourses that are constructed into the dominant ideology of masculinity and that contrive to 'unsay' indigenous male-to-male sexualities. It seeks in that way to gain insight into the over determination of assertively masculinist behavior among Zimbabwean men today. It also draws lessons for researchers on the importance of interrogating the silences around masculinity.

2005 Black Skin, 'Cowboy' Masculinity: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983. Culture, Health & Sexuality 7(3): 253-266.
This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe's anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the 'cowboy' culture of White Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

Erlank, Natasha
2003 Gendering Commonality: African Men and the 1883 Commission on Native Law and Custom. Journal of Southern African Studies 29(4): 937-953.
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Cape Colonial government attempted to formalize African law and custom within its native territories. This process, particularly apparent in the Commission on Native Law and Custom (1878-1883), involved much discussion between colonial representatives and African men in the Eastern Cape about the origins, utility, and worth of customs and practices such as initiation, lobola (bridewealth), and polygamy. Particular areas of concern for both groups were the gender relations and sexual codes that existed in Xhosa-speaking society. The Commissioners viewed practices such as polygamy as troublesome, retrogressive, and oppressive to women. Xhosa, Fingo, and Thembu men were concerned, on the contrary, to assert the validity and worth of such practices. One noticeable change in African attitudes to gender relations concerned the way in which African men were beginning to view female sexual activity in less forgiving terms. In a context in which much of the information sought and testimony received concerned sex and gender codes, discussion around sex framed a metanarrative more diffusely concerned with racial differences.

Fox, Ashley M. et al.
2007 In Their Own Voices: A Qualitative Study of Women's Risk for Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in South Africa. Violence Against Women 13(6): 583-602.
This study qualitatively examines the intersections of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection in South Africa. Eighteen women seeking services for relationship violence were asked semi-structured questions regarding their abusive experiences and HIV risk. Participants had experienced myriad forms of abuse, which reinforced each other to create a climate that sustained abuse and multiplied HIV risk. Male partners having multiple concurrent sexual relationships, and poor relationship communication compounded female vulnerability to HIV and abuse. A social environment of silence, male power, and economic constraints enabled abuse to continue. "Breaking the silence" and women's empowerment were suggested solutions.

Garcia-Moreno, Claudia
2001 The World Health Organization Addressing Violence Against Women. Development 44(3): 129-132.
This article describes the approach of the World Health Organization (WHO) towards violence against women as a major public health issue. The author explains how the focus of WHO's work is on building the knowledge base for policy and action, identifying the role of the health sector in the prevention of violence against women, and the provision of care for those experiencing abuse.

Gear, Sasha
2005 Rules of Engagement: Structuring Sex and Damage in Men's Prisons and Beyond. Culture, Health & Sexuality 7(3): 195-208.
This paper analyses data from a recent study of ex-prisoners and prisoners in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to consider the moral economy established by hegemonic inmate culture in which sexual interactions are negotiated. It argues that while this system is based on outside norms of heterosexism, ruptures with these norms occur. Male prison populations are rearranged into gendered categories through intricate inmate rituals, causing dramatic breaks in the ways that some prisoners are understood by others and themselves. The rituals and rules involved in the constructions appear to be unfamiliar from an 'outside' perspective, but have roots beyond prison walls. Similarly, the gendered positions generated are distinct from those they imitate, but also emerge in relation to them, beyond mere imitation. Even as new structures of identity emerge, breaks with the outside are never total.

2007 Behind the Bars of Masculinity: Male Rape and Homophobia in and about South African Men's Prisons. Sexualities 10(2): 209-227.
This article explores the dynamics and layers of discourse surrounding sex, sexual violence, and coercion in South Africa's men's prisons. Violence in prison, most of which goes unrecorded, is ritualized and fundamental in establishing inmate identities and hierarchies. Male rape, perhaps the most severely under-reported, is one of many forms of assault occurring (predominantly) between prisoners. Drawing on interviews with (ex)prisoners, together with related media coverage, the author shows how in dominant discourses on prison sex and sexual violence, a blurring occurs between 'homosexuality' and 'male rape'. Consequently, inclusive understandings of diverse sexualities are negated and sexual violence in prison is denied. The article traces how powerful discourses on gender and sexuality make invisible the violence of male rape, and simultaneously demonize same-sex desire behind bars. Moreover, the author considers the embryonic discourses that challenge hegemonic understandings, arguing that they have not yet adequately succeeded in producing more accepting understandings of male sexuality or male victimization.

Gibson, Diana and Anita Hardon (Eds.)
2005 Rethinking Masculinities, Violence, and AIDS. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
The essays collected in this book resonate with the ways in which men are both constructed and behave as gendered beings (i.e., in relations with other men, women, and children). They also address the more recent focus on issues of power and masculinity in relation to violence, unsafe sex, and exposure to sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. The authors examine the role of power and violence in the construction and practices of masculinity in various socio-cultural settings, and across age groups and class differences. There are a variety of chapters that focus on countries in Africa, with five devoted exclusively to South Africa. These chapters largely deal with the construction of men and boys as perpetrators, the multi-cultural forms of masculinity that exist within the country, and the dominant ways that manhood is performed. Additionally, each chapter contains a component that evaluates the HIV/AIDS pandemic in relation to gendered identities and behaviors.
"Masculinities in South Africa: A Critical Review of Contemporary Literature on Men's Sexuality," by Tamara Shefer, et al
"The Practice of Masculinity in Soweto Shebeens: Implications for Safe Sex," by Sakhumzi Mfecane, et al
"Some Notions of Masculinity in Manenberg, Capt Town: The Gangster and the Respectable Male," by Heidi Sauls; and
"Gender and Violence in a Cape Town Township," by Diana Gibson, Ann Dinan, and George McCall

Glaser, Clive
1998 Swines, Hazels and the Dirty Dozen: Masculinity, Territoriality and the Youth Gangs of Soweto, 1960-1976. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 719-737.
During the 1960s and early 1970s, the youth gangs of Soweto, like their predecessors throughout the Witwatersrand in the 1940s and 1950s, developed a sense of masculine identity intimately linked to their territories. There was a great deal of cultural continuity between these exclusively male urban gangs and rural age grades: groups of male adolescents separated off from established households to experiment with their sexuality, hone their fighting skills, and assert their independence. The social mobility of most city-bred black youths, however, was blocked and much of their masculine dignity was invested in their ability to dominate their local streets. Gang identity depended on an overlap of personal and spatial familiarity, which took time to develop. Gangs, therefore, usually emerged in fairly settled neighborhoods. While there was relative continuity in gang formation in the older parts of Soweto, gangs took longer to cohere in the newly resettled areas.

Goldblatt, Beth and Shelia Meintjes
1997 Dealing with the Aftermath: Sexual Violence and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Agenda 36: 7-18.
While thousands of people have faced the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to tell stories of human rights violation under Apartheid, many of the stories of violence against women have remained untold. In order to rebuild South African society as one based on human rights and justice, survivors of sexual violence need to tell their experiences. This article examines the role of the TRC in dealing with the issue of sexual violence against women and the evidence that did and did not emerge. It then tries to explore the relationship between political and other sexual violence, and the relationship between public and private violence, leading to a preliminary understanding of the gendered nature of South African society both during and in the aftermath of apartheid. Finally, it proposes certain reparation measures as the means to ensure positive social reconstruction.

Govender, Michelle
2003 Domestic Violence: Is South Africa Meeting Its Obligations in Terms of the Women's Convention? South African Journal on Human Rights 19(4): 663-678.
Violent crime in South Africa is at an unprecedented rate, with women and girls at the receiving end of much of the crime. There is a danger that the efforts to address such violence against women will be swallowed up by the larger struggle against violence in society in general. This article examines reasons why, despite state action, gender based violence is South Africa is regarded as being amongst the highest in the world. A key reason given to explain the occurrence of violence is that efforts taken by the state, although directed specifically at reducing the amount of gendered violence, have been rather ineffective in halting its occurrence.

Gqola, Pumla Dineo
2007 How the 'Cult of Femininity' and Violent Masculinities Support Endemic Gender Based Violence in Contemporary South Africa. African Identities 5(1): 111–24.
This essay draws on South African history in order to deepen understanding of the high level of gender based violence in that country in the post-Apartheid era. Demonstrating the limitations of current public discourses about gender, violence, and sexuality, the author argues that events like the recent rape trial of former national vice-president [now President] Jacob Zuma, are unsurprising. Rather, such moments are enabled by the continuum through which masculinities and femininities are thought and sanctioned in contemporary South Africa. The patterns of complicity that allow for gender based violence require historicized feminist undoing.

Greig, Alan
2000 The Spectacle of Men Fighting. IDS Bulletin 31(2): 28-32.
The meaning of male violence should be a central concern of Gender and Development (GAD) discourse and practice. Explanations of the nature, and limits, of men's responsibility for such violence increasingly center on their socialization into a masculine identity. By counter-posing the 'individual' and the 'social', attention becomes fixed on identity as the surface that connects these two realities on which is inscribed the masculinity of men. The task of responding to the spectacle of men fighting then appears to be one of re-inscribing a new non-violent masculine identity. This paper argues that GAD practitioners should be wary of this kind of politics of identity. Focusing on identification as relation, rather than identity as boundary, clarifies the violent politics of difference at the heart of masculinity. Addressing violence means approaching a new politics of difference. This is a politics of alliance and coalition, a transgressing of sectoral and institutional boundaries in recognition of the common bases of oppression and their plural manifestations in women's and men's lives. GAD can address the politics of identification(s) by approaching questions of responsibility for and complicity in male violence as personal-communal issues. Depending on what they choose to fight for, the spectacle of men fighting can be a sight, and site, of real political potency.

Hall, Steve
2002 Daubing the Drudges of Fury: Men, Violence and the Piety of the 'Hegemonic Masculinity' Thesis. Theoretical Criminology 6(1): 35-61.
A substantial body of empirical work suggests that young, economically marginalized males are the most likely perpetrators and victims of serious physical violence. Interpreting these findings in a historicized way that has been neglected by the criminological discourses of the moment suggests that physical violence has become an increasingly unsuccessful strategy in the quest for social power in liberal-capitalist societies. Although it has been displaced by symbolic violence as the principal domineering force in capitalism's historical project, physical violence has not been genuinely discouraged, but harnessed as a specialist practice in a pseudo-pacification process. From this perspective, violence has a complex relationship with liberal-capitalism. Can the concept of 'hegemonic masculinity' help criminology to deal with this complexity and inform violence reduction strategies? This article argues that, in the context of pseudo-pacification, the notion that violent males 'rework the themes' of an institutionally powerful 'hegemonic masculinity' inverts and distorts the concept of hegemony, which for Gramsci was the self-affirming cultural production of the dominant political-economic class. Thus the concept of 'hegemonic masculinity' tends to downplay political economy and class power, which suggests that it is too far removed from historical processes and material contexts to either justify the use of the term hegemony itself or explain the striking social patterns of male violence. This intellectual retreat is representative of a general political evacuation of capitalism's global socio- economic processes, a move that is allowing sparsely regulated market forces to continue the economic insecurity, specialist roles, and corresponding cultural forms that reproduce the traditional male propensity to physical violence.

Hassim, Shireen
2009 Democracy's Shadows: Sexual Rights and Gender Politics in the Rape Trial of Jacob Zuma. African Studies 68(1): 57-77.
This article examines the implications of the trial of Jacob Zuma, former President of the ANC and current President of South Africa, for sexual and gender politics in South Africa. The article argues that a central, contested issue in public debates on the trial was the relationship between public and private spheres in society.

Hatty, Suzanne E.
2000 Masculinities, Violence and Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers a post-modern analysis linking the contemporary social crisis of masculine subjectivity and the law and order crisis over escalating violence. In doing so it examines the major biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological theoretical models of masculinity and violence, and formulates an integrated theoretical approach to the relationship between violence and masculinity. In essence, the book focuses on violence as a gendered activity, specifically masculine. Early chapters define and theorize both violence and masculinity, and subsequent chapters focus on representations of violence and masculinity in popular culture. Familiar but insightful examples from cartoons, fiction, television, and the movies are used to illustrate the construction of masculinity in popular culture as well as the range of images of violence that dominate our senses.

Hearn, Jeff
2001 Men Stopping Men's Violence to Women. Development 44(3): 85-89.
This article examines some of the major forms of organized responses men have made to men's violence against women in recent years. These include campaigns against men's violence, men's programs for men who have been violent to women, and national and international commitments against men's violence to women. The article also points to possible future organized responses by men.

Hirschowitz, R., Milner S. and Everatt, D. (Eds.)
1994 Growing Up in a Violent Society. In Creating a Future: Youth Policy for South Africa, ed. D. Everatt. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

Hunter, Mark
2005 Cultural Politics and Masculinities: Multiple-Partners in Historical Perspective in KwaZulu-Natal. Culture, Health & Sexuality 7(4): 389-403.
Drawing from ethnographic, archival, and secondary research, this article examines multiple-sexual partners from a historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal, a South Africa province where one in three people are thought to be HIV positive. Research on masculinities, multiple-partners, and AIDS has been predominantly directed towards the present day. This article stresses the importance of unraveling the antecedents of contemporary masculinities, particularly the gendered cultural politics through which they have been produced. Arguing against dominant conceptions of African masculinity as being innate or static, it charts the rise and fall of the isoka, the Zulu man with multiple-sexual partners, over the last century. Showing how the isoka developed through changing conditions occasioned by capitalism, migrant labor, and Christianity, it contends that an important turning point took place during the 1970s, when high unemployment threatened previous expressions of manliness, notably marriage, setting up an independent household and becoming umnumzana (a household head). The high value placed on men seeking multiple-partners increasingly filled the void left by men's inability to become men through previous means. Turning to the contemporary period, the article argues that, shaken by the huge AIDS deaths, men are betraying increasing doubts about the isoka masculinity.

Jewkes, Rachel
2001 Reflections on Gender Violence in the South African Public Health Agenda. Development 44(3): 64-68.
The article discusses how gender has come to be a major concern of the health sector, describing some of the key influences on the policy arena over the past decade, which has contributed to gender based violence being incorporated into public policy. The author discusses the activities within the health sector to counter gender violence, as well as challenges and dilemmas which these pose.

Jewkes, Rachel, et al.
2002 Rape of Girls in South Africa. The Lancet 359(9303): 319-321.
Child rape violates human rights and causes immediate and long-term health problems for the child. In the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey, the authors assessed the frequency of rape in a nationally representative study of 11,735 women, aged 15-49 years. 153 of these women had been raped (forced or persuaded to have sex against their will) before the age of 15 years. The results show that younger women were significantly more likely to report rape than older women. The largest group of perpetrators were school teachers. Their findings suggest that child rape is becoming more common, and lend support to qualitative research of sexual harassment of female students in schools in Africa.

Johnson, Catherine F.
2001 Strategies to End Gender Based Violence: The USAID Approach. Development 44(3): 125-128.
This article affirms that gender-based violence undermines development efforts in such sectors as economic growth, HIV/AIDS, and child survival. Gender violence is an enormous cost to society. The author advocates for a comprehensive, multifaceted model to address the problem, including legal interventions, health approaches, public awareness, and political will, illustrating this model with the interventions of USAID.

Jones, Adam (Ed.)
2006 Men of the Global South: A Reader. London: Zed Books.
This collection highlights a population group which hardly figures in the literature of gender and development. It describes men in all their complexity and inconsistency: violent and non-violent, powerful and not powerful, straight and not straight, maintainers of tradition and destroyers of it. Both potentially controversial and uniquely insightful, it provides a rich new set of case-material and conceptual tools for researchers and teachers. Particularly in the Global South, in the face of the massive social challenges posed by globalization, poverty, conflict, and climate change, this book argues that it is imperative that we understand men better in order to support resolutions to these problems that produce gender equality and social harmony.

2009 Gender Inclusive: Essays on Violence, Men, and Feminist International Relations. New York: Routledge.
This volume offers a challenging and unconventional reinterpretation of gender and mass violence. It consists of a compilation of essays and excerpts drawn from nearly two decades of Adam Jones's writing on gender and politics. This diverse collection of essays explores vital issues surrounding 'gendercide' (gender-selective mass killing), including: how gender shapes men and women as victims and perpetrators of mass violence, including genocide; the range of gender-selective atrocities inflicted upon males, especially the gendercidal killing of civilian men of "battle age"; the victimization of women and girls worldwide, including the structural forms of violence ("gendercidal institutions") directed against them; genocidal violence throughout modern history, with a particular focus on the Balkans and Rwanda; and in-depth critiques of prevailing gender framings in academic scholarship, mass media, and the policy sphere.

Joudrard, Sidney M.
1971 Some Lethal Aspects of the Male Sex Role. In The Transparent Self, ed. S. Jourard. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Kimmel, Michael S., Jeff R. Hearn, and Robert W. Connell (Eds.)
2004 Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This is an interdisciplinary and international culmination of the growth of men's studies that offers insight about future directions for the field. It provides a broad view of masculinities primarily across the social sciences, with the inclusion of important debates in some areas of the humanities and natural sciences. The various approaches presented range across different disciplines, theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and conceptualizations in relation to the topic of men. It examines the construction of masculinities in four different frames: the social organization of masculinities in their global and regional iterations; the institutional reproduction and articulation of masculinities; the ways in which masculinities are organized and practiced within a context of gender relations; and the ways in which individual men express and understand their gendered identities. The Handbook is organized in a way that moves from the larger global and institutional articulations of masculinities, to the more intimate and personal expressions.

Kynoch, Gary
2001 'A Man Among Men': Gender, Identity and Power in South Africa's Marashea Gangs. Gender & History 13(2): 249-272.
This article explores gender and power relations in a South African criminal society through an examination of the legend surrounding a prominent leader. Tseule Tsilo achieved a great deal of notoriety in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s. Tsilo's legend lives on in the lore of the Marashea, the criminal organization to which he belonged. However, rather than being embraced by the entire Marashea, Tsilo is a hero only to men. The legend was created, and is sustained, by men and for men, a discursive development that mirrors the gendered nature of power within the Marashea.

Lambert, Helen and Kate Wood
2005 A Comparative Analysis of Communication About Sex, Health and Sexual Health in India and South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention. Culture, Health and Sexuality 7(6): 527–541.
This paper provides a comparative analysis of modes of dialogue, non-verbal communication, and embodied action relating to sex and health in two contrasting countries, India and South Africa, which have the world's two most heavily HIV-affected populations (in terms of numbers of people living with HIV). Drawing on material derived from multiple studies, including ethnographic and other forms of qualitative and multi-disciplinary research, the paper identifies commonalities as well as differences in communication relating to sex and sexual health in these diverse settings. The paper considers: first, how and by whom sex is and is not talked about, in public discourse and private conversation; second, how sexual intention and desire are communicated through indirect, non-verbal means in everyday life; and third, how references to sexuality and the sexual body re-enter within a more explicit set of indigenous discourses about health, such as semen loss in India and womb 'dirtiness' in South Africa. The concluding section reflects on the implications of a comparative analysis such as this for current policy emphases on the importance of promoting verbal communication skills as part of 'life skills' for HIV prevention.

Leach, Fiona
2003 Learning to be Violent: The Role of the School in Developing Adolescent Gendered Behavior. Compare 33(3): 385-400.
The author examines the role of the school and the peer group culture in constructing male and female identity among adolescents within the context of high levels of gender violence, specifically in African countries.

Leach, Fiona and Claudia Mitchell
2006 Combating Gender Violence in and Around Schools. Staffordshire, England: Trentham Books.
The book increases awareness and understanding of gender violence in school settings and presents innovative strategies to address it. Many chapters focus on participatory methodologies for working with young people on reducing violent and abusive behavior in school, including through curriculum development and teacher education. Other chapters deal with gender, youth, and sexuality in the context of HIV/AIDS.

Lemon, Jennifer
1995 Masculinity in Crisis? Agenda 24: 61-71.
With the attempt to claim back their masculinity and to define their place within a new South Africa, some men in have established groups where masculinity is promoted and celebrated. The author notes the creation of the country's first male liberation movement, the South Africa Association of Men, and its tendency to be anti-feminist, oppositional, and inflammatory. She outlines what a critical debate on gender and sex should consist of in the reformation of the country. Unfortunately, the question is being asked if at what point does this new celebration of being a man come in conflict with gender equality and feminist studies? While some male groups have identified with the feminist views of anti-violence, others seem to be in conflict with women and the fight for gender equality for both sexes.

Lindsay, Lisa A. and Stephen Miescher (Eds.)
2003 Men and Masculinities in Modern Africa. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
This collection is the first to analyze the concepts and issues involved in exploring African men and the constructions of masculinity in sub-Saharan Africa. Major themes include men as gendered actors, the social construction of masculinity, masculinity as a relational category, and hegemonic and subordinate masculinities. This book challenges stereotypes of African men as savages, patriarchs, or emasculated colonial victims. Essays establish the centrality of gender to the social and political transformation of 20th-century Africa. Chronologically and regionally diverse, the collection moves from the early colonial period through the era of independence and includes local studies throughout the continent, as well as the work of both junior and senior scholars.

Luyt, Russell
2005 The Male Attitude Norms Inventory – II: A Measure of Masculinity Ideology in South Africa. Men and Masculinities 8(2): 208-229.
This article describes the development of the Male Attitude Norms Inventory-II (MANI II), with empirical findings and theoretical debates contributing to the development of a measure of South African masculinity ideology. Three hundred and thirty-nine male participants, drawn from universities across greater Cape Town, were included in the study. Exploratory factor analysis rendered a three-factor model of traditional masculinity and the MANI-II offers a contextually sensitive and multidimensional measure of masculinities. Future research should include a representative sample, establish test-retest reliability, and further examine total and subscale construct validity.

Luyt, Russell and Don Foster
2001 Hegemonic Masculine Conceptualization in Gang Culture. South African Journal of Psychology 31(3): 1-11.
This research sought to investigate the relationship between gang processes and differing forms of masculine expression. Three hundred and sixteen male participants, drawn from secondary schools within Cape Town, were included in the study. These schools were in areas differentially characterized by gang activity. The questionnaire included the newly devised Male Attitude Norm Inventory designed to explore hegemonic conceptualizations of masculinity. Factor analytic procedures rendered a three-factor model stressing the importance of male toughness, success, and control. Through a series of t-tests for independent samples, as well as supporting qualitative data, participants from areas characterized by high gang activity were found to support these hegemonic elements to a significantly greater extent.

MacPhail, Catherine
2003 Challenging Dominant Norms of Masculinity for HIV Prevention. African Journal of AIDS Research 2(2): 141-149.
Within South Africa there is a growing HIV epidemic, particularly among young heterosexual people. A recent report indicated that levels of HIV infection among young people aged 15-24 years rests at 9.3%, although other studies in more specific locations have shown levels to be higher. One of the best means of developing successful and innovative HIV prevention programs for young people is to enhance our understandings of youth sexuality and the manner in which dominant norms contribute to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Social norms of masculinity are particularly important in this regard, as the manner in which 'normal' men are defined, such as through acquisition of multiple partners, power over women, and negative attitudes towards condoms, are often in conflict with the true emotional vulnerabilities of young men. Given the strong influence of peer groups on young people and the belief that one of the solutions to behavior change lies in peer renegotiation of dominant norms, there is the need to begin to investigate young men who challenge dominant norms of masculinity. It is in investigating their points of view that a platform for the deconstruction of stereotypical masculinities and the reconstruction of new norms can be formed. The paper begins to consider these counter-normative ideas by highlighting the discussions of South African men, aged 13-25 years, in focus groups and in-depth individual interviews conducted in Gauteng Province. It is apparent that among this group there are young men challenging normative views of masculinity in a manner that could be harnessed within HIV prevention initiatives.

Mager, Anne
1996 Sexuality, Fertility and Male Power. Agenda 28: 12-24.
In the mid-twentieth century, new ways for young men to define their masculinity emerged, straying from the traditional views that classified a man based on his rural homestead and herd of cattle. Instead, young men began constructing their identities from a combination of factors, including inter-group rivalry, aggressive behavior, and control over females. These new dimensions generated negative consequences over time, resulting in violence, distrust, and insecurity that permeated young men's social groups and contributed construction of their gender identity's.

1997 Youth Organisation and the Construction of Masculine Identities in the Ciskei and Transkei, 1945-1960. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 653-667.
Organizations of Xhosa-speaking youth — predominantly boys and young men — in the 1950s and 1960s were critical spaces for the construction of masculine identities in rural Ciskei and Transkei. In the context of post-Second World War industrialization, collapsing reserve agriculture, and apartheid rule, these organizations were critical sites for filtering influences and fashioning values and lifestyles. While boys and young men constantly reconstructed a distinction between boyhood and manhood around the axis of circumcision, they reinvented notions of masculinity in the shadow of decreasing prospects of establishing themselves as men with rural homesteads and herds of cattle. Moreover, in the absence of migrant fathers, youth organizations operated with considerable autonomy in rural localities. Concomitantly, the terrain on which boys and young men constructed their identities was shaped more by inter-group rivalry, aggressive behavior, and control over girls than by generational conflict.

Maharaj, Pranitha
2000 Promoting Male Involvement in Reproductive Health. Agenda 44: 37-47.
Recent conferences have turned a focus on men's involvement in the arenas of responsible parenting, sexual and reproductive behavior, and prevention of sexually transmitted disease, including HIV/AIDS awareness. All of these measures also called for emphasis on the prevention of violence against women and children. This article evaluates why increased attention needs to be placed on men's roles in these topics if change is expected to occur, especially considering that men frequently hold much of the power in heterosexual relationships. The author argues that the development of strategies for encouraging male participation in reproductive health is essential to improving women's health status.

Mane, Purnima and Peter Aggleton
2001 Gender and HIV/AIDS: What Do Men have to Do with it? Current Sociology 49(6): 23-37.
The world is facing an unprecedented crisis as a result of HIV/AIDS. The global epidemic is the most devastating in human history - shortening many lives and affecting the economic and social structure of many countries. Central among the factors influencing vulnerability to infection and its consequences are systems and structures of gender. Dominant ideologies of gender influence how women and men see themselves and the social relations into which they enter. While growing attention is being given to the position of women in the epidemic, less attention has been focused on men. This article explores the usefulness of concepts of masculinity for our understanding of HIV/AIDS-related risk and vulnerability. It examines the variable nature of masculinity, as well as its dominant, subordinate, alternative, and oppositional forms, and how these impact on the vulnerabilities of men in this epidemic. It highlights the necessity for a more balanced understanding of gender as a set of structures created by, and affecting, both women and men. Some strategies and options for change are also discussed.

McIlwaine, Cathy and Kavita Datta
2004 Engendered Youth? Youth, Gender and Sexualities in Urban Botswana. Gender, Place and Culture 11(4): 483-512.
Age is now recognized as a significant social cleavage in research on youth in the global South. Using participatory urban appraisal methodologies, this article explores constructions of sexualities among urban youth in Botswana, a country that is currently experiencing an HIV/AIDS epidemic and high levels of teenage pregnancy. The authors argue that not only are young people sophisticated sexual beings, but that there is a need to adopt more holistic approaches to examining sexualities among them so as to appreciate that constructions of sexualities are multi-faceted, highly diverse, and heavily gendered. This appreciation must then be integrated into a multi-sectoral policy approach that moves beyond information provision towards one that addresses changes in gender, cultural, and sexual identities.

Meintjes, Louise
2004 Shoot the Sergeant, Shatter the Mountain: The Production of Masculinity in Zulu Ngoma Song and Dance in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Ethnomusicology Forum 13(2): 173-201.

Maitse, Teboho
1998 Political Change, Rape, and Pornography in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Gender and Development 6(3): 55-59.
The author argues that in post-apartheid South Africa, perceptions of what it means to be a woman are changing. Men are finding it difficult to adapt to these changes and, fuelled by the ready availability of pornography, are reacting with increased rape and violence against women.

Moffett, Helen
2006 'These Women, They Force Us to Rape Them': Rape as Narrative of Social Control in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies 32(1): 129–144.
South Africa has the worst known figures for gender-based violence for a country not at war. At least one in three South African women will be raped in her lifetime. The rates of sexual violence against women and children, as well as the signal failure of the criminal justice and health systems to curtail the crisis, suggest an unacknowledged gender civil war. Yet narratives about rape continue to be rewritten as stories about race, rather than gender. This stifles debate, demonizes black men, hardens racial barriers, and greatly hampers both disclosure and educational efforts. As an alternative to racially-inflected explanations, the author argues that contemporary sexual violence in South Africa is fuelled by justificatory narratives that are rooted in apartheid practices that legitimated violence by the dominant group against the disempowered, not only in overtly political arenas, but in social, informal, and domestic spaces. In South Africa, gender rankings are maintained and women regulated through rape, the most intimate form of violence. Thus, in post-apartheid, democratic South Africa, sexual violence has become a socially endorsed punitive project for maintaining patriarchal order. Men use rape to inscribe subordinate status on to an intimately known 'Other' - women. This is generally and globally true of rape, but in the case of South Africa, such activities draw on apartheid practices of control that have permeated all sectors of society.

Mooney, Katie
1998 'Ducktails, Flick-knives and Pugnacity': Subcultural and Hegemonic Masculinities in South Africa, 1948-1960. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 753-774.
The Ducktails were a white youth gang subculture which emerged within post-Second World War South Africa. They were rebellious, hedonistic, apolitical, and displayed little respect for the law, education, or work. Collectively, their identity was shaped by specific racial, class, and gender elements. Within gender studies, femininity has been at the forefront, whereas investigations into masculinities have rarely been featured. This article contributes towards a better understanding of masculinity, and particularly white masculine identities within a historical context. Particular attention is given to the way male members of the subculture constructed, sustained, and practiced their masculinity. Specifically, this article argues that Ducktail masculinity was not static or homogeneous, but was rather multifarious, embracing characteristics such as image, territoriality, loyalty, pugnacity, competitiveness, virility, and homophobia. This sets the context for an exploration of the relationship of conformity, conflict, and control that emerged between Ducktail masculinity and other more accepted and dominant masculinities.

Moore, Henrietta L.
1994 Fantasies of Power and Fantasies of Identity: Gender, Race and Violence. In A Passion for Difference: Essays in Anthropology and Gender, ed. Henrietta Moore, 49-70. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
The author examines the limitations of the theoretical languages used by anthropologists and others to write about sex, gender, and sexuality. The book begins by discussing recent feminist debates on the body and the notion of the non-universal human subject. It then considers why anthropologists have contributed relatively little to these debates, suggesting that this reflects the history of anthropology's conceptualization of "persons" or "selves" cross-culturally. The author also pursues a series of related themes, including the links between gender, identity, and violence; the construction of domestic space and its relationship to bodily practices and the internalization of relations of difference; and the links between the gender of the anthropologist and the writing of anthropology. By developing a specific anthropological approach to feminist post-structuralist and psychoanalytic theory, the author demonstrates anthropology's contribution to current debates in feminist theory. Of specific interest is the chapter listed in this entry.

Morrell, Robert
1997 Masculinity in South African History: Towards a Gendered Approach to the Past: Colloquium Report. South African Historical Journal 37(1): 167-177.

1998 Gender and Education: The Place of Masculinity in South African Schools. South African Journal of Education 18(4): 218–225.

1998a Introduction: The New Man? Agenda 37: 7-12.
With all of the changes occurring in South Africa in the past few decades, there are opportunities to change the gender dimensions that have historically existed in the country and persist even to this day. The author identifies how men can remake themselves and move away from the many types of violence, criminal activities, and abusive tendencies that are often used to label them and their gender.

1998b Of Boys and Men: Masculinity and Gender in Southern African Studies. Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4): 605-630.
Southern African historiography has become increasingly gender-sensitive in the last decade. Primarily as a result of the impact of feminism in the world of work and in universities, research on women has burgeoned. The inclusion of women in the study of the past and the recognition of their agency has filled an important gap, but also has made evident the corresponding absence in knowledge about men. The dominance of men in the public record has obscured the fact that little is known about masculinity. The socially constructed nature of masculinity is widely acknowledged and it is this insight that needs to be applied to a study of the region's history. This article introduces readers to the inter-disciplinary work on masculinity, reviews how research on gender in South Africa has handled issues of men and masculinity, and then suggests how insights taken from Men's Studies might help to broaden gender analysis and enrich the study of the South African past. In this article, a range of masculinities are identified. Colonialism created new and transformed existing masculinities. Race and class featured prominently in the configuration of these masculinities. Under colonialism positions of domination and subordination were created along the lines of race, bequeathing to the region the language of white men and black 'boys'. The particular trajectory of colonialism ended the political independence of the indigenous polities and destroyed their economic independence, but the success of the defeated polities in retaining possession of land and of the policies of segregation and apartheid meant that key African institutions survived. These were the basis for an African masculinity that in certain geographical and social areas disputed hegemony with white masculinities.

——— (Ed.)
2001 Changing Men in Southern Africa. New York: Zed Books.
The political transition from apartheid to democracy disturbed the established gender order of South Africa. This book looks at the way in which men, under apartheid and in the transition period, responded to, were affected by, and themselves contributed to the transitions in Southern Africa. Men in South Africa are still dominant in the domestic and public realm, but masculinities have shifted, and in many cases, become more inclusive. The book examines different forms of masculinity, highlighting the importance of race and class.

2002 Men, Movements, and Gender Transformation in South Africa. The Journal of Men's Studies 10(3): 309-327.
South Africa is a country of movements, spectacularly in the 1980s and 1990s when populist and nationalist movements were particularly active in the struggle to overthrow apartheid. These were by and large militant groups of young black men who had borne the brunt of state repression. Yet despite this, women participated, though seldom in leadership positions other than in organizations designed exclusively for women such as the ANC Women's League. Elsewhere in the continent, women have been particularly marginalized. Despite the fact that many South African women are still denied a voice in domestic decision-making, prevented from occupying leadership positions, and, in very general terms, under-represented in the public sphere, they are in a substantially more powerful position than their sisters elsewhere on the continent. Part of the reason for this is the success of the women's movement in the country. The political participation of women in women's only and mixed gender movements has as its corollary the participation of men working together with women. The goals of such movements vary a lot. Church and civic movements, which draw mixed gender participation, for example, may have goals that range from support for existing patriarchal relations to commitment to gender emancipatory practices. For the purposes of this paper, it needs to be noted that some men work for gender justice in movements not exclusively male and which therefore cannot be considered strictly speaking as men's movements.

Nagel, Joane
1998 Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2): 242-269.
This article explores the intimate historical and modern connection between manhood and nationhood, including: the construction of patriotic manhood and exalted motherhood as icons of nationalist ideology; through the designation of gendered 'places' for men and women in national politics; through the domination of masculine interests and ideology in nationalist movements; through the interplay between masculine microcultures and nationalist ideology; through sexualized militarism, including the construction of simultaneously over-sexed and under-sexed 'enemy' men (rapists and wimps) and promiscuous 'enemy' women (sluts and whores). Three 'puzzles' are partially solved by exposing the connection between masculinity and nationalism: why are many men so desperate to defend masculine, monoracial, and heterosexual institutional preserves, such as military organizations and academies; why do men go to war; and the 'gender gap', that is, why do men and women appear to have very different goals and agendas for the 'nation'?

Nair, Sumati
2001 Violence Against Women: Initiatives in the 1990s. Development 44(3): 82-84.
This article looks at how the decade of the 1990s saw the women's movement making enormous inroads into the struggle against violence against women (VAW). At different levels women have posed challenges to make visible the issues of violence and abuse of women and to make public what had been held as a private matter. Using the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights Newsletter as a source, the author shares some of the innovative ideas for analysis or actions undertaken to fight VAW.

Niehaus, Isak
2000 Towards a Dubious Liberation: Masculinity, Sexuality and Power in South African Lowveld Schools, 1953-1999. Journal of Southern African Studies 26(3): 387-407.
This article investigates how masculine sexuality featured as a political issue during the liberation struggle in Impalahoek, a village on the South African lowveld. The starting point of the analysis is the repressive regime in primary and high schools during the period of Bantu Education, from 1953 to 1986. The author shows that whilst teachers strictly prohibited and harshly punished all forms of sexuality between students, male teachers freely engaged in sexual liaisons with schoolgirls. The revolt by Comrades in the schools between 1986 and 1992 was inspired in part by students' discontent about sexuality. Comrades demanded an end to corporal punishment, expelled teachers who engaged in sex with schoolgirls, and celebrated their own sexual virility in a local campaign to 'build soldiers'. Since 1994, the management of sexuality by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government has not inaugurated sexual liberation. Rather, sex education and new medical discourses about sexuality in the era of AIDS have generated new forms of surveillance and contestation. Such historical experiences inform the links between democratization and changing notions of sexuality in South Africa.

Odendal, Willem
2001 The Men Against Violence Against Women Movement in Namibia. Development 44(3): 90-93.
This article illustrates the experience of The Men Against Violence Against Women Campaign in Namibia, initiated by concerned Namibian men to combat violence against women (VAW). The National Conference on Men Against Violence Against Women in Namibia, held in February 2000, brought men from all walks of life in Namibia together to develop strategies of how men in Namibia can sensitize fellow men to the problem of VAW. The Namibian Men for Change (NAMEC) was brought to life after the National Conference. NAMEC functions as an awareness-raising group among young adult men on issues such as masculinity, relationships, parenthood, sexual abuse, and the creation of a non-violent culture in Namibia. Despite its lack of financial resources, NAMEC has already achieved a significant degree of awareness-raising during its brief period of existence. The organization is currently active in most of Namibia, where its members visit schools and organize a range of forums for discussions amongst men.

O'Sullivan, Lucia F., et al.
2006 Gender Dynamics in the Primary Sexual Relationships of Young Rural South African Women and Men. Culture, Health and Sexuality 8(2): 99–113.
A substantial body of South African research describes the importance of gender dynamics within sexual relationships as factors underlying HIV risk, yet we know little about these factors among young adults—a group at exceptionally high risk of infection. The authors primary objective was to explore the ways that young adult men and women interpret and enact gender roles within their established primary partnerships, and how these dynamics influence sexual behavior in relation to HIV risk. They employed script theory to frame their analysis of the dynamics of gender. Fifty students (25 women, 25 men) at secondary schools in a rural district of KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa completed in-depth interviews about sexual interactions with their primary partner. While many participants indicated that the standards of sexual conduct within relationships reflect dominant gender role norms, their findings indicate that there are important variations in these roles with some male and female respondents accepting and reinforcing the rights of women to determine the nature of sexual interactions. Efforts aimed at improving acceptance and adoption of alternative scripts for women and men may help to broaden young people's repertoire of HIV prevention options.

Outwater, Anne, Naeema Abrahams, and Jacquelyn C. Campbell
2005 Women in South Africa: Intentional Violence and HIV/AIDS: Intersections and Prevention. Journal of Black Studies 35(4): 135-154.
In South Africa, violence has become normative and, to a large extent, accepted rather than challenged. Unusual for sub-Saharan Africa, there is a strong national research institute and rigorous data-based scientific literature describing the situation. Much of the research has focused on violence against women. This article reviews the intersection of HIV/AIDS and violence in the lives of women in South Africa. The evidence for the need for positive change is solid. The potential for positive change in South Africa is also very strong. There are suggestions that an African renaissance based on the principle of ubuntu has already begun on national, community, family, and individual levels. If so, it can lead the way to a society with decreased levels of violence and HIV transmission.

Ouzgane, Lahoucine and Robert Morrell (Eds.)
2005 African Masculinities: Men in Africa from the Late Nineteenth Century To Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
While masculinity studies enjoy considerable growth in the West, there is very little analysis of African masculinities. This volume explores what it means for an African to be masculine and how male identity is shaped by cultural forces. The editors believe that to tackle the important questions in Africa – the many forms of violence (wars, genocides, familial violence, and crime) and the AIDS pandemic – it is necessary to understand how a combination of a colonial past, patriarchal cultural structures, and a variety of religious and knowledge systems creates masculine identities and sexualities. The work done in the book particularly bears in mind how vulnerability and marginalization produce complex forms of male identity.

Oyegun, Julie
1998 Working Masculinities Back into Gender. Agenda 37: 13-23.
Gender equity programs have started to encourage the participation of men, in addition to the continued presence of women, with the continued goal of eradicating gender inequality and discrimination against women. Old methods of only including women in this discussion has perpetuated their isolation and kept them in the position of the victim. With the inclusion of men, a better understanding of how we become gendered has the potential to lead a better understanding of the inequalities that continue to exist. The author presents her argument about why this dual engagement has great potential for gender relations.

Oyekanmi, Felicia (Ed.)
2000 Men, Women and Violence. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.
Gender based violence is alarmingly widespread across cultures, but research is in its initial stages in Africa, with few statistics and resources. This selection of papers from the 1997 CODESRIA Gender Institute gathering, which included participants from eight African countries, highlights different perspectives of the topic of violence between men and women. The six contributors highlight how universal attitudes of male dominance and patriarchy can literally engender a culture of violence in which women and children are the victims. Case studies from East and West Africa are included.

Parpart, Jane L. and Marysia Zalewski
2008 Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
This book is a crucial investigation and reinvigoration of debates about gender and international relations, looking at the increasingly violent and 'toxic' nature of world politics post 9/11. Contributors consider the diverse theoretical and practical implications of masculinity for international relations in the modern world. It covers theoretical issues, including masculine theories of war, masculinity and the military, cyborg soldiers, post-traumatic stress disorder, and white male privilege. It also focuses on the ways in which masculinity configures world events from conscientious objection in South Africa to 'porno-nationalism' in India, from myths and heroes in Kosovo to the makings of Zimbabwe.

Pattman, Rob
2005 'Boys and Girls Should Not Be Too Close': Sexuality, the Identities of African Boys and Girls and HIV/AIDS Education. Sexualities 8(4): 497–516.
This article explores the significance of sexuality in relation to the ways boys and girls in southern and eastern Africa construct their identities. It draws on a UNICEF-funded study conducted in the region with 6-18-year-olds from 2001 to 2002. It addressed young people as active and intelligent beings and encouraged them (in interviews and diaries) to elaborate upon their interests, pleasures, and anxieties, and their relations with contemporaries and adults of either sex. It seemed impossible, at times, for the young people not to allude to sexuality, and this and their emotional engagement when addressing sexuality in the interviews suggested that sexuality was fundamental in their lives. Focusing in particular on young people's accounts of contemporaries and others of the opposite sex, the article investigates how sexuality was invoked (and contested) by boys and girls and the sorts of identities they assumed in relation to the ways they spoke and wrote about sexuality. In the conclusion, the author argues that the issues raised by Carole Vance about female sexuality are extremely pertinent for understanding and working with both girls and boys in sex education, being introduced in many African countries in response to HIV/AIDS. The implications of this research for developing student-centered, gender-sensitive, and relevant forms of HIV/AIDS and life skills education which address the sexual and non-sexual cultures, pleasures, and anxieties of girls and boys are discussed in some detail.

Pease, Bob and Keith Pringle (Eds.)
2002 A Man's World? Changing Men's Practices in a Globalized World. New York: Zed Books
Much has been produced in recent years regarding the critical studies of men's practices utilizing various feminist and pro-feminist perspectives. This book widens what has previously been a dialogue primarily within the Western democracies. The editors have brought together a number of established and new scholars to provide a broader critical analysis of men's practices across a wide range of socio-cultural settings. Two chapters of significance include Michael Kauffman's article, "The White Ribbon Campaign: Involving Men and Boys in Ending Global Violence Against Women," and Ira Horowitz's article, "Cultural Practices of Masculinity in Post-apartheid South Africa."

Posel, Deborah
2004 'Getting the Nation Talking About Sex': Reflections on the Discursive Constitution of Sexuality in South Africa Since 1994. Agenda 62: 53–63.

2005 The Scandal of Manhood: 'Baby Rape' and the Politicization of Sexual Violence in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Culture, Health & Sexuality 7(3): 239-252.
This paper traces the genealogy of sexual violence as a public and political issue in South Africa, from its initial marginalization and minimization during the apartheid era, through to the explosion of anguish and anger which marked the post-apartheid moment, and most dramatically the years 2001 and 2002. Of particular interest is the question of how and why the problem of sexual violence came to be seen as a scandal of manhood, putting male sexuality under crucial public scrutiny. The paper argues that the sudden, intense eruption of public anxiety and argument about sexual violence which marked the post-apartheid period had relatively little to do with feminist analysis and politics (influential though this has been in some other respects). Rather, the key to understanding this politicization of sexual violence lies with its resonances with wider political and ideological anxieties about the manner of the national subject and the moral community of the country's fledging democracy.

Ragnarsson, Anders, et. al.
2008 Young Males' Gendered Sexuality in the Era of HIV and AIDS in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Qualitative Health Research 18(6): 739-746.
This article is focused on young males' sexual identity and behaviors in rural South Africa. The study comprised 19 focus group discussions with adolescents aged 12 to 14. The informants depict male sexuality as biologically predetermined, where physical needs and practices such as circumcision legitimize early sexual debut. Furthermore, the construction of male sexual identity and power imbalances in relationships are already evident at an early age, and age and economics are pertinent factors affecting social relations. Violent behavior and sexual abuse are supported by constructed gender inequalities forming an often negative and non-supportive environment for young people. The authors stress the importance of planned HIV and sexuality education for young adolescents with support structures that can help endorse individual actions and informed choices. This is especially important in resource-poor settings where young people are likely to be less empowered than is the case in more affluent settings.

Ratele, Kopano
2006 Ruling Masculinity and Sexuality. Feminist Africa 6: 46–64.
This article is concerned with the public 'psycho-political theatre', and what it tells us about sexualities, gender, and, in particular, masculinities in contemporary South Africa. A range of moments from the rape trial of Jacob Zuma point to the links between sexualities and a ruling masculinity, including: the fact that Zuma, who was at one time tasked with leading the anti-HIV/AIDS campaign, knowingly had unprotected sex with a woman he knew to be HIV-positive; that he stated in court that he had sex even though no condoms were available because in his culture, a man could be accused of rape for leaving a woman sexually aroused; and that he testified that he had taken a shower after the incident because he believed this would reduce the risk of infection. However, given the import of the idea of "a better life for all", and with the intention of thinking of development beyond political sloganeering and electioneering, at the same time as assessing the events that continue to take place around Zuma in particular and other African political leaders more generally, what is called for is considered reflection on the question of the use of politics for human betterment. The author looks at this question of a better life for all as it relates to sexual and gender life. In this reflection, research from pro-feminist studies of men and masculinity are drawn on, with the arguments informed by discourse analysis. It is therefore not the rape trial of Zuma, or even his corruption trial, but rather a less publicized moment to which attention is drawn, in order to think about the interconnections between sexualities, masculine power, and the notion of "a better life". It is at this moment that Zuma's discursive political and psychological practices reveal themselves as unable to inspire confidence in some sections of South African society.

Reddy, V. and C. Potgieter
2006 'Real Men Stand up for the Truth': Discursive Meanings in the Jacob Zuma Rape Trial. South African Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Studies 24(4): 511–521.
The focus of this paper is a preliminary analysis of the representation of meanings in relation to some aspects of the Jacob Zuma rape trial. The argument uses illustrative public evidence (notably media reports) of events and relates these to discourses generated by the trial. Drawing upon such data, the argument foregrounds a feminist discursive reading of some central meanings articulated by events and players in the trial. Rather than offering a detailed analysis of all aspects of this trial (for instance, the argument excludes in-depth assessments of the legal context), it instead prioritizes the performative dimension of meanings. In so far as such meanings open up thinking about rape as a crime of violence, about its ideology of victimization, and the possible limitations that accrue in relation to representations of victims, the paper concludes by asking what meanings about 'justice' circulate through the way discourses of rape articulate interests, and often privilege the accused.

Reid, Graeme and Liz Walker
2005 Men Behaving Differently: South African Men Since 1994. Cape Town: Double Storey
Recent years have seen a growing world-wide concern about men and boys. Do boys have appropriate role models at home? Are girls outperforming boys at school? Is men's health under undue pressure? The nature of masculinity has been brought into question by a radical reorganization of gender relations. Indeed, many now speak of a 'crisis in masculinity'. South Africa has made a rapid shift from a male-dominated patriarchal society, to a new social order based on ideals of equality between men and women. How have men responded to these changes? How do men achieve successful masculinity in this new context? These are some of the questions that are explored in this book by leading researchers in the field.

Redman, P
1996 Empowering Men to Disempower Themselves: Heterosexual
Masculinities, HIV, and the Contradictions of Anti-Oppressive Education. In Understanding Masculinities, ed. Mac an Ghaill, 168-179. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Ritcher, Linda and Robert Morrell (Eds.)
2006 Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council Press
This collection explores the centrality of fatherhood in the lives of men and in the experiences of children, showing that fathers' involvement contributes to the well-being of children. The authors argue that men can make a major contribution to the health of South African society by caring for children and producing a new generation of South Africans for whom men will be significant by their positive presence rather than by their absence or their abuse. In this collection, authors examine the conceptual and theoretical questions posed and attempt to map the field. In the second section, fathers and fatherhood are examined from a historical perspective, showing how race and class have shaped fatherhood in South Africa, and how understandings of fatherhood have changed over time. In the third section, authors discuss the way in which fathers appear in the media and how men as fathers are often ignored or portrayed in narrow ways which inhibit alternative forms of fatherhood emerging. In the fourth section, authors offer answers to how men experience fatherhood and what obstacles bar men from expanding their engagement with children. Finally, the book offers examples of local and international programs that have been initiated to promote fatherhood and to work with fathers.

Robins, Steven
2008 Sexual Politics and the Zuma Rape Trial. Journal of Southern African Studies 34(2): 411–427.
This article focuses on post-apartheid developments in relation to the sexual politics that surrounded the 2006 rape trial of South Africa's former Deputy President, Jacob Zuma. The trial and its aftermath highlight contested interpretations of rights, morality, religion, culture, and political leadership in post-apartheid South Africa. It also serves as a mirror reflecting the tension between sexual rights and patriarchal cultures. Whereas race and class concerns dominated oppositional politics during the apartheid era, sexual and gender rights now compete for space in the post-apartheid public sphere. There is a glaring gap between the progressive character of 'official' state, constitutional, and NGO endorsements of gender and sexual equality on the one hand, and the deeply embedded ideas and practices that reproduce gender and sexual inequality on the other. Idealized conceptions of 'civil society' fail to adequately acknowledge its 'unruly' and 'uncivil' character. The responses of Zuma supporters, including NGOs, activists, academics, and journalists attending the trial reveal a chasm between the sexual and gender equality ideals enshrined in the Constitution and promoted by progressive civil society organizations, and the sexual conservatism within the wider South African public. The article also examines how ideas about 'traditional' Zulu masculinity were represented and performed in the Zuma trial, thereby highlighting a tension between constitutional conceptions of universalistic sexual rights on the one hand, and claims to particularistic sexual cultures on the other. This tension, the author argues, is reproduced by the rhetorical productivity of a series of binaries: modern and traditional, rights and culture, liberal democracy and African communitarianism.

Rude, Darlene
1999 Reasonable Men and Provocative Women: An Analysis of Gendered Domestic Homicide in Zambia. Journal of Southern African Studies 25(1): 7-27.
This article is based on 150 cases of killings and alleged killings of women and girls by intimate partners and male family members in Zambia from 1973 to 1996. The female victims range from infancy to old age, but half were women in their child-bearing years. The alleged perpetrators represent men of all ages, all social classes, and from all parts of Zambia. They used a variety of weapons and methods that parallel state-sanctioned torture, to beat, burn, stab, or shoot their victims to death. Power and control are underlying factors in these cases of gender-based homicide. Suspected adultery appears to be a leading 'motive' of the killings, as does any threat or challenge to a husband or male relative, or refusal to obey orders or perform domestic tasks. For many of the victims, the punishment for deviating from their expected gender roles was death. Newspaper accounts of such killings create a secondary level of silence about domestic violence and homicide by blaming the victims and concealing the brutality of the attacks. Cases are described simply as 'domestic disputes', thus obscuring what are actually violent and deadly assaults by men against women. A lack of detail about the victims, who are sometimes not even named, ensures they are erased, both literally and in the public eye. Comments by the judiciary, as reported in the press, reflect certain attitudes about gender roles and appropriate behavior. The women are judged to have 'provoked' their perpetrators, whose violent reactions are all too often seen as inevitable, understandable, and therefore somewhat pardonable. Comments which legitimize men's violent behavior could be said to sanction violence against women in the home.

Salo, Elaine
2003 Negotiating Gender and Personhood in the New South Africa: Adolescent Women and Gangsters in Manenberg Townships on the Cape Flats. European Journal of Cultural Studies 6(3): 345-365.
This article examines the shifts in young men's and women's racial and gendered identities in Manenberg, a predominantly colored, Afrikaans-speaking township in Cape Town, South Africa. It explores how male and female youth destabilize, renovate, and transform local racial and gendered identities in relation to the local histories, repertoires, and ideals of masculinity and femininity and in relation to global cultural forces such as soap operas, rap music, and international brand name clothes. Youth obtain access to these global features through electronic media such as television, radio, or visits to trendy city nightspots and cosmopolitan beachfront neighborhoods. This study challenges the idea that cultural flows from the North necessarily lead to cultural hegemonization and homogenization in the South. Instead, it suggests that the meanings that these cultural forms assume in this non-western context are shaped by specific local histories and cultural practices.

Scully, Diana
1998 Convicted Rapists' Perceptions of Self and Victims: Role Taking and Emotions. Gender and Society 2(2): 200-213.
This article is an attempt to bridge the gap between feminist structural explanations for rape and the social psychological mechanisms that make it possible for some men in patriarchal societies to feel neutral about sexual violence toward women. The concept of role taking is used to analyze the perceptions of self and victim held by 79 convicted rapists. Men who defined their behavior during sexual encounters as rape saw themselves from the perspective of their victim through reflexive role taking, had inferred their victims' experience through synesic role taking, and used this awareness to further their plan of action. Men who did not define their behavior as rape did neither reflexive nor synesic role taking and appeared incapable of understanding the meaning of sexual violence to women. The majority of both groups did not experience role-taking emotions, that is, guilt, shame, or empathy, which symbolic interactionists posit are the mediators of self-control. The author argues that the gender imbalance of power and the status of women as property are the social factors that render normative emotions inoperative in sexual violence.

2006 Young Men and Masculinities: Global Cultures and Intimate Lives. New York: Zed Books
The lives of young men in a globalized world are influenced by the mass circulation of images of men's bodies, desires, and sexualities, and the cultural masculinities of particular histories, cultures, and traditions. Questioning universalist theories of 'hegemonic masculinities', this book argues that young men often feel caught between prevailing masculinities and how they want to define themselves. It explores how the idea of men as 'the First Sex' has been established within the West and how young men affirm their male identities in different cultures and societies. It draws on the experience of young men in different continents in creating their own male identities and establishing more equal relationships within a world of intense inequalities.

Shaw, Mark
2002 Crime and Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Transforming under Fire. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Since the mid-1990s, South Africa has experienced a crime wave of such unprecedented proportions that the ability of the new democracy to form a stable civil society and govern effectively has been called into question. In this book, the author describes how a police force that was so effective under apartheid became so ineffectual in the face of rising crime. It shows how an increase in violent crime shapes society, police, and government, and discusses possible solutions for the current crisis. International crimes such as war, terrorism, and organized crime are explored along with crimes that affect individual security, such as armed robbery, murder, and rape.

Shefer, Tamara, et al. (Eds.)
2007 From Boys to Men: Social Constructions of Masculinity in Contemporary Society. Cape Town: UCT Press
Representing the work of some of the best-known theorists and researchers in masculinities and feminism in South Africa, this highly original work is comprised of a collection of papers presented at the "From Boys to Men" conference held in January 2005. Based on rich ethnographic studies in South Africa and elsewhere in the continent, this collection addresses the argument that because South African feminine studies are fraught with problems, boys and men should be included in all research and intervention work studying gender equality and transformation. Chapters examine several issues of the African male psyche, such as varying identifiers of manhood, teenage masculinity, paternal responsibility, and the impact of HIV/AIDS in the region.

Shefer, Tamara, et al.
2008 Gender, Power and Resistance to Change among Two Communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Feminism & Psychology 18(2): 157-182.
This study investigates how women and men in the Western Cape, South Africa, construct their gender identities and roles. As part of the development of an HIV prevention intervention for men, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Several themes regarding the construction of gender were identified. First, participants reported that traditional gender relations of male dominance and female subservience were still in evidence, along with traditional gender roles that mandated a division of labor between the household and paid workforce. Second, participants reported a shift in gender roles and relations in the direction of increased power for women. Last, hostile resistance to changes in gender power relations was evident in the discussions. Redefining masculinity and femininity and shifting gender relations in the direction of 'power with' instead of 'power over' is perhaps a necessary prelude to lasting social change and curbing the HIV epidemic in South Africa.

Shelton, A. J., et al.
2005 The Prevalence of Partner Violence in a Group of HIV-Infected Men. AIDS Care 17(7): 814-818.
There is a paucity of literature regarding partner violence among males that identifies the sex and relationship of their partner(s). The authors studied a sample of 54 HIV-infected men, recruited from HIV/AIDS service organizations. Using a standard questionnaire, they collected data on HIV risk behaviors and self-reports of acts of partner violence and forced sex. Physical violence perpetrated by a primary or a casual partner was reported by 39% and 17% of the sample, respectively. Life-time forced sex by a primary or casual partner was reported by 32% and 15% of the sample, respectively. Forced sex was more commonly reported by participants who were non-white and reported a higher number of primary partners in the previous 12 months. The authors recommend that health care providers be aware of the high rates of intimate partner violence among men infected or at risk of infection with HIV.

Sideris, Tina
2004 'You Know You Have To Change and You Don't Know How!': Contesting What It Means to be a Man in a Rural Area of South Africa. African Studies 63(1): 29-49.
In a remote corner of South Africa, a group of men are negotiating more caring and equal relationships with their wives and children. It is not remarkable that there are caring men in Nkomazi, where they live. What is notable is that these individuals are mindful of their intimate relationships and define themselves as different to other men. They are concerned about how they treat women and children, reflect on their roles in family life, consciously attempt to create more equal ways of sharing domestic tasks and decisions, and explicitly reject violent methods of resolving conflicts. Yet they live in a social context where traditional notions of the family hold sway. According to these ideas, gender and age hierarchies dictate the rights, duties, and obligations of men, women, and children in the family. Biology and "God's will" are invoked to justify these structures of hierarchy and in this way they are presented as the natural order of family relations, in addition to popular ideas about gender that permit the use of violence to maintain male authority. It is of interest to understand men who explicitly cast themselves as different to the norm, something that has a practical purpose since South Africa is plagued by alarmingly high levels of domestic violence. Ideas and values, as well as social and institutional practices that affirm gender inequalities, still hold currency, despite the political endorsement of equal constitutional rights for men and women. In this context, the most obvious question that arises is what we might learn from examining the lives of these men about factors that discourage violent conventions and promote greater equality in intimate relationships.

Simpson, Anthony
2009 Boys to Men in the Shadow of Aids: Masculinities and HIV Risk in Zambia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
The AIDS epidemic has afflicted Sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately, affecting every aspect of culture and society. In this intimate, longitudinal study, the author analyzes the lives of a group of men who studied together at a Catholic mission school in Zambia and explores how the risk of HIV infection has shaped sexual practices. It reveals the dangerous fragility of masculinity in many men's attempts to act out the ideal of the "real man." It also looks at their search for meaning, and their response to both prevention and HIV testing campaigns, to suggest how to refigure masculinity and redesign gender relationships.

Singh, D.
2004 Male Rape: A Real Crime with Real Victims. Acta Criminologica 17(1): 129-138.
The current South African law defines rape as "consist[ing] in a male having unlawful and intentional sexual intercourse with a female without her consent," failing to address the occurrence of male-on-male rape which is found to be much wider spread than previously believed. Sex is used as an instrument for control and power, and the male victim frequently experiences shame, embarrassment, stigma, and homophobia. Five predominant psychological stimuli have been identified in the offenders: conquest and control; revenge and retaliation; aggression becoming eroticized; conflict and reaction; and status and affiliation.

Suttner, Raymond
2005 Masculinities in the African National Congress-Led Liberation Movement: The Underground Period. African Historical Review 37(1): 71-106.
This article aims to uncover elements of the formation and manifestations of masculinities within the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies. While notions of masculinity or masculinities have been examined in other literature, this work tries to specify the precise character of a distinct process and phenomenon in an organization, primarily in its period of illegality. This bears resemblances to that found in other situations, but ANC masculinities have specificities that need to be brought into the foreground. This enquiry locates masculinity formation in situations and complexities that have not previously emerged. In certain ways, these relate to a past that is in some respects a warrior tradition. In part, ANC masculinities also interface with belief systems that precede and coexist with the organization's existence, for example the relationship between initiation and other rites of passage to manhood.

Unterhalter, Elaine
2000 The Work of the Nation: Heroic Masculinity in South African Autobiographical Writing of the Anti-Apartheid Struggle. European Journal of Development Research 12(2): 157-179.
The study draws on autobiographical writings of the South African anti-apartheid struggle to investigate representations of masculinity, work, and gender relations. It identifies a common construction of masculinity in many texts across race, class, and generation. This construction stresses autonomy, adventure, comradeship, and a self-conscious location in history. This heroic masculinity is identified with a particular understanding of work as political work and links with a discourse that neglects the political interests and differently contoured forms of political work by women. The study considers some similarities and differences between heroic masculinity and forms of work associated with violent masculinity, the subject of much more extensive research in South Africa to date.

Usdin, Shereen
2002 State of Siege. New Internationalist 346.
This article presents, in an easy-to-read format, the inter-connectedness of the rising HIV/AIDS infection rate and the prevalence of domestic violence, particularly male-on-female violence. Various suggestions are given by experts in the field as to how progress can be made to reduce and prevent both of these epidemics, both of which are paralyzing Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Africa especially. Ultimately, the realization is made that in order for any progress to be made, men and women must be brought together to begin the discussion of prevention and change.

Vetten, Lisa
2007 Violence Against Women in South Africa. In State of the Nation South Africa, eds. Sakhela Buhlungu, et al., 425-447. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
The contradiction of women's status in post-apartheid South Africa is quite clear: it is a woman-friendly state with a vision and plans for the achievement of gender equality, including a constitutional commitment to such equality and some of the highest numbers in the world of women holding office, yet marked by the intractable, stubborn persistence of violence against women. The argument in this chapter then is that this state of affairs represents not so much a contradiction as an illustration of the contingent, conditional, and contested nature of gender equality in South Africa. The chapter first sets out what is seen as the contradiction: state responses to violence against women and a Bill of Rights enabling the advancement of women's rights, and the statistics for such violence. It analyzes how particular responses have constructed the problem of violence against women and also critically examines the relationship between law and policy reform and the incidence of violence.

Vincent, Louise
2006 Destined to Come to Blows? Race and Constructions of 'Rational-Intellectual' Masculinity Ten Years After Apartheid. Men and Masculinities 8(3): 350-366.
The present paper sets out to read South Africa's transformation drama through the lens of contested conceptions of masculinity. It focuses on one particular version of masculinity, termed "rational-intellectual man," with the argument that a legacy of racism and the persistence of racialized modes of reasoning continue to marginalize black men from this and other powerful, high-status forms of hegemonic masculinity.

Waetjen, Thembisa
2004 Workers and Warriors: Masculinity and the Struggle for Nation in South Africa. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press
This analysis explores how gender structured the mobilization of Zulu nationalism as anti-apartheid efforts gained momentum in South Africa in the 1980s, as well as the dilemma of feminist politics when culture and gender compete as categories of loyalty and identification. It also functions as a study of patriarchy from a Zulu context to the male-dominated world of capitalist economies. This study provides a complex and historically informed view of how masculinity and gender power are articulated within the politics of nationalism and nation-building. The popular appeal of Zulu masculinity, with its martial reputation, makes Zulu nationalism a relevant case through which to explore these crucial critical questions.

Waetjen, Thembisa and Gerhard Maré
1999 Workers and Warriors: Inkatha's Politics of Masculinity in the 1980s. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 17(2): 197-216.
This article suggests that Inkatha's invocations of Zulu manhood are best understood as constructed against modern, contemporary social realities, as "the crystallization of new (identities) suitable for the conditions now prevailing" (Gellner 1984:49) and not as the encroachment of primordialism on an otherwise clearly modern bid for statehood by a 'bantustan'/'homeland' elite. The authors examine how masculinities, "men's places and practices in the large social framework of gender relations" (Connell 1993:601), are accommodated and newly defined within the political discourse of Inkatha.

Walker, Liz
2005 Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994. Culture, Health and Sexuality 7(3): 225-238.
Liberal versions of sexuality, which mark South Africa's new democracy, have had a number of highly contradictory consequences for women and men, as old notions of masculinity and male privilege have been destabilized. The transition to democracy has precipitated a crisis of masculinity. Orthodox notions of masculinity are being challenged and new versions of masculinity are emerging in their place. Some men are seeking to be part of a new social order, while others are defensively clinging to more familiar routines. Drawing on in-depth interviews with young African working class men, this paper explores new masculinities in contemporary South Africa. It examines how men negotiate their manhood in a period of social turbulence and transition. Masculinity, male sexuality, and the expectations which men have of themselves, each other, and women are contested and in crisis.

Walsh, Shannon and Claudia Mitchell
2006 'I'm too Young to Die': HIV, Masculinity, Danger and Desire in Urban South Africa. Gender and Development 14(1): 57-68.
In the South African urban areas of Atlantis and Khayelitsha, men and boys see gang membership and violence (including gang-related violence) as part of 'being a man'. In this context, life itself is perilous and vulnerable. This article draws on the narratives of boys about their lives, and explores some key questions relating to gender, development, and HIV. These include: how are men's and boy's ideas about sexuality created, and what does this suggest about the kinds of HIV interventions that should be offered? In particular, how does the reality of everyday life in urban South Africa affect male perceptions of risk in relation to HIV/AIDS? How can men and boys best be targeted in HIV prevention and treatment work?

Win, Everjoice
2001 Men Are Not My Project: A View from Zimbabwe. Development 44(3): 114-116.
The author argues that women still need their own space to work on their own agenda. She endorses a strong resistance by women's groups of the donor push to their organizations which often desire the inclusion of men, oftentimes without a clear strategy of how to effectively involve them.

Wood, Katherine, Fidelia Maforah and Rachel Jewkes
1998 'He Forced Me to Love Him': Putting Violence on Adolescent Sexual Health Agendas. Social Science and Medicine 47(2): 233-242.
Violence against women within sexual relationships is a neglected area in public health despite the fact that, in partially defining women's capacity to protect themselves against STDs, pregnancy, and unwanted sexual intercourse, it directly affects female reproductive health. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted among Xhosa-speaking adolescent women in South Africa which revealed male violent and coercive practices to dominate their sexual relationships. Conditions and timing of sex were defined by their male partners through the use of violence and through the circulation of certain constructions of love, intercourse, and entitlement to which the teenage girls were expected to submit. The legitimacy of these coercive sexual experiences was reinforced by female peers who indicated that silence and submission was the appropriate response. Being beaten was such a common experience that some peers were said to perceive it to be an expression of love. Informants indicated that they did not terminate the relationships for several reasons: beyond peer pressure and the probability of being subjected to added abuse for trying to end a relationship, teenagers said that they perceived that their partners loved them because they gave them gifts of clothing and money. The authors argue that violence has been particularly neglected in adolescent sexuality arenas, and propose new avenues for sexuality research which could inform the development of much-needed adolescent sexual health interventions.

Wood, Katherine and Rachel Jewkes
1997 Violence, Rape, and Sexual Coercion: Everyday Love in a South African Township. Gender and Development 5(2): 41-46.
A research project with pregnant teenagers in a South African township revealed widespread male coercion and violence within sexual relationships. If reproductive health interventions are to be effective, practitioners need to be aware of the level of gender inequity and powerlessness women experience in particular social contexts and design interventions which challenge male violence.

Abrahams, Naeemah and Rachel Jewkes
1997 Men on Violence Against Women. Urbanization and Health Newsletter #34. Cape Town: Medical Research Council.

Abrahams, Naeemah, Rachel Jewkes, and Ria Laubsher
1999 'I Do Not Believe in Democracy in the Home': Men's Relationships With and Abuse of Women. Cape Town: Medical Research Council Technical Report.
Violence against women has for too long been seen only a women's problem despite the fact that it involves men abusing women, offering some explanation as to why men have not been targeted in prevention strategies. At the same time, nobody knows the extent of the problem in South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abuse as reported by men, as well as the risk factors associated with abuse which can be used in the development of programs aimed at reducing violence against women. No single deterministic factor for male violence against women has been identified and preventive interventions are required at many levels, from changing personal perceptions and behavior of gender and gender roles to addressing the historical and social realities of a deep rooted patriarchal society which accepts violence as a means of resolving conflict. Since men are the primary instigators they should bear the primary responsibility to reverse their behavior and intensive investment should be directed to working directly with men to address violence in general and violence and men in particular.

Barker, Gary and Christine Ricardo
2005 Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction #26. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Gender is increasingly used as an analytical framework in program and policy development for youth in Africa, but in most cases gender refers almost exclusively to the disadvantages that women and girls face. Given the extent of gender inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa, an almost exclusive focus on women and girls has been appropriate. However, a gender perspective and gender mainstreaming have too often ignored the gender of men and boys. The aim of this paper is to explore what a gender perspective means when applied to young men in Africa focusing on conflict, violence and HIV/AIDS. It explores the construction of manhood in Africa and argues for the application of a more sophisticated gender analysis that also includes men and youth.

Budlender, Debbie and Julia Kuhn
2007 Where is the Money to Address Gender-Based Violence? Gender-Based Violence Programme: The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
This report discusses the trends and patterns of funding for organizations in South Africa that address gender-based violence. Of particular importance to this report is the context in which funding occurs. Worldwide funds have tended to decrease for gender-specific initiatives over the past ten years (Association for Women's Rights in Development (AWID), 2005). Various authors, including the international NGO AWID, suggest that this decline may be due partly to the corporatization of some donor agencies according to neo-liberal capitalist agendas and the increasing marginalization of women's rights in a political environment characterized by religious fundamentalism, militarism, and global capitalism. The widespread shift to a "mainstreaming" approach has also contributed to the decrease in funding. In addition to being affected by these worldwide trends, funding in South Africa has its own specific challenges. After 1994, official funding shifted from civil society to government. The total amount of overseas development assistance (ODA) increased in the first years. However, since 1998, ODA in general has been declining in South Africa. CSOs in the GBV sector have not been unaffected by this. The South African government has shown commitment to addressing gender inequality and GBV. It has also recognized CSOs' role in providing services to communities. However, state support for these initiatives is uncoordinated and difficult to access.
Campbell, Catherine
1992 Identity and gender in a changing society: the social identity of South African township youth. Ph.D. diss., University of Bristol.

Chant, S. and M. Gutmann
2000 Mainstreaming Men into Gender and Development: Debates, Reflections and Experiences. Oxfam Working Papers. London: Oxfam GB
Based on research commissioned by the World Bank, this book's primary focus is on incorporating men in gender and development interventions at the grass roots level. It draws attention to some of the key problems that have arisen from "male exclusion" as well as to the potential benefits of, and obstacles to, men's inclusion. The book then moves on to explore how far "men in development" has been a feature in the practices of development organizations. The book concludes with suggestions on the ways in which gender and development policy might realistically move towards a more gender-based, male-inclusive approach.

Ferguson, Harry et al.
2004 Ending Gender-Based Violence: A Call for Global Action to Involve Men. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
In this report, seven masculinity researchers write about masculinity in different parts of the world and about how masculinity is often linked to violence. These acts of violence are committed not only against women and children, but also against other men. The writers suggest a number of ways in which men can be involved in working to combat men's violence.

Greig, Alan, Michael Kimmel, and James Lang
2000 Men, Masculinities and Development: Broadening our Work towards Gender Equality. Gender and Development Monograph Series # 10. United Nations Development Programme.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss men's possible relationships to the process of transformative change by exploring the meanings and uses of 'masculinity'. Discussions of masculinity provide a place in which men's involvement in producing and challenging inequalities and inequities in gender and other social relations can be investigated. Masculinity renders gender visible to and for men. Understanding the definitions and discourses surrounding masculinity can help in the analysis of how political, economic, and cultural inequalities are produced and distributed not only between but also within the genders. Above all, an inquiry in to the 'politics of masculinity' offers an opportunity to rethink men's strategic interest in challenging the values and practices that create gender hierarchy.

Hearn, J.
1997 "Searching for the Centre of Men and Men's Power". Paper presented at the Colloquium, "Masculinities in Southern Africa". Durban: University of Natal.

International HIV/AIDS Alliance
2003 Working with Men, Responding to AIDS: Gender, Sexuality and HIV – A Case Study Collection. Brighton, U.K.: International HIV/AIDS Alliance
This case study collection helps projects conduct work with men by presenting experiences and lessons from a range of different projects. By showcasing experiences and lessons from the field in the form of case studies, this collection offers inspiration, ideas, and models for working with different kinds of men in a range of contexts. These case studies not only describe HIV/AIDS projects that are working with men, but also other kinds of projects that address other issues and problems relating to men (e.g., gender identity, sexuality, violence).

Jackson, Louise
1997 Recent Initiatives in Addressing Gender Violence in South Africa. Occasional Paper #14. Crime and Policing Policy Project, Institute for Security Studies.
The National Crime Prevention Strategy has expressed a commitment to victims, and particularly women and children. The central importance of addressing the needs of victims of crime has been emphasized elsewhere in the world, and in South Africa these needs have primarily been recognized by non-government organizations. A small number of special police units have been set up to deal with the needs of victims of gender violence, but for the most part, the response of the South African Police Service (SAPS) has been inadequate. In response to growing concern, training programs aimed at addressing the needs of victims of gender violence have been initiated. This paper concentrates on the existing support systems for victims of gender violence and those envisaged by the Ministry of Safety and Security. It also examines training programs for SAPS members that seek to change bias among policemen and enable officers to deal more effectively with those who have suffered gender crimes.

Jewkes, Rachel, L. Penn-Kekana and J. Levin
1998 Gender Violence in South Africa: An Emerging Public Health Issue. Paper presented at the National Conference of the Epidemiological Society of South Africa, October.

Jewkes, Rachel, et al.
2009a Understanding Men's Health and Use of Violence: Interface of Rape and HIV in South Africa. Medical Research Council Policy Brief. Cape Town: Medical Research Council.
South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape reported to the police in the world and the largest number of people living with HIV. The rate of rape perpetration is not known because only a small proportion of rapes are reported to the police. There is considerable concern about the links between these two problems. Obviously HIV can be transmitted in the course of rape and this compounds the human rights violation of the rape. Research has established that men who rape and are physically violent towards partners are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking than other men and this has raised a concern that they are more likely to be infected with HIV. The aim of this research was to understand the prevalence of rape perpetration in a random sample of community-based adult men, to understand factors associated with rape perpetration, and to describe intersections between rape, physical intimate partner violence, and HIV.

Jewkes, Rachel, et al.
2009b Preventing Rape and Violence in South Africa: Call for Leadership in a New Agenda for Action. Medical Research Council Policy Brief. Cape Town: Medical Research Council.
South Africa faces a globally unprecedented problem of violence against women and girls, as well as men and boys, which is undermining the national development and hindering the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. With rates of homicide, rape, and childhood and domestic violence well above those of comparable other countries, the problem of violence is undermining the nation's health, economic, and social development. These high levels of violence are an enduring legacy of a colonial and apartheid past, driven by social dynamics formed during the years of racial and gender oppression, with systematic impoverishment, under-education, rampant violence, and destruction of normal family life. Preventing and reducing levels of violence has been a missing piece in the national transformation agenda. It needs now to be addressed vigorously as a cross-cutting national priority.

Kaufman, Michael
2004 Transforming our Initiatives for Gender Equality by Addressing and Involving Men and Boys: A Framework for Analysis and Action. In Gender Equality and Men: Learning from Practice, ed. S. Ruxton, 19-27. London: Oxfam GB. -6.pdf
Among NGOs, governments, and international institutions such as the United Nations, there has been a tremendous surge of interest in the last few years in the subject of men and boys. This interest reflects several overlapping perspectives. There are those who understand we must reach men so that interventions for women and girls are not derailed by male resistance. There are those who see the quest for gender equality as being enhanced by specific initiatives aimed at men and boys, such as awareness campaigns to end gender-based violence. And there are those who realize that meeting certain needs of men and boys will actually enhance an equity and equality agenda (and vice versa). This chapter endorses all these approaches, and therefore rejects the competing view that the rush to improve the lives of women has resulted in males being ignored or even harmed. It also discusses a framework for such approaches, drawing on some examples from the White Ribbon Campaign, a campaign that aims to engage men and boys in the struggle to end men's violence against women.

Lazarus, Sandy et al.
2008 An Exploratory Study into the Theoretical Frameworks for Investigating Risk and Protective Factors to Male Interpersonal Violence. Cape Town: Medical Research Council Technical Report.
This research project focused on identifying the risk and protective factors to male interpersonal violence, for the purposes of developing a firm theoretical and methodological foundation for follow-up studies aimed at developing a prevention intervention framework for male interpersonal violence in South Africa. The exploratory study had a two-fold aim and therefore two parallel processes. First, it aimed to identify and understand the risk and protective factors to interpersonal violence in youth and adult South African men, and to investigate theoretical and metatheoretical approaches linked to this focus, based on an analysis of national and international literature and documents. Second, it aimed to determine the feasibility of using various existing data sets in order to determine risk and protective factors to violence in South Africa, using statistical analysis, and to map the results using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. This Executive Summary provides an overview of the findings linked to the first of the two aims.

Mathews, Shanaaz et al.
2004 "Every Six Hours a Woman is Killed by Her Intimate Partner": A National Study of Female Homicide in South Africa. Medical Research Council Policy Brief. Cape Town: Medical Research Council.
The killing of women by intimate partners (also known as intimate female homicide or intimate femicide) is the most extreme form and consequence of violence against women. Globally, gender differences are found in homicide patterns. Men are at greater risk of being killed than women and this is mainly done by other men. Women, on the other hand, are primarily killed by the opposite gender (Goetting, 1988). The murder of women by an intimate partner accounts for between 40-70% of all female homicides (Dahlberg & Krug, 2002). This form of violence has received very little attention and the few studies that have been conducted have been mainly in developed countries. The only previous study conducted in South Africa was a pilot study in the Gauteng region which found that a woman is killed every six days in by an intimate partner (Vetten 1996). Given the high levels of gender-based violence and the excessive rates of homicide in South Africa, it is critical to establish the size of the problem and the pattern of intimate femicide in South Africa. This policy brief reports on the finding of the first national homicide study.

Pattman, Rob and D. Bhana
2005 How Bad are Black Boys in South Africa? Paper presented at the Childhood Conference, June 29-July 3, in Oslo.

Peacock, Dean
2003 Men as Partners: Promoting Men's Involvement in Care and Support Activities for People Living with HIV/AIDS. Paper prepared for the The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality United Nations Expert Group Meeting, October 21-24, in Brazil.
Contemporary gender roles increase women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in a number of well-documented ways. Much attention has been paid to the ways in which contemporary gender roles condone men's violence against women and compromise women's ability to make choices about their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, many programs across the world have begun to work with men to end male violence and to encourage men to negotiate the terms and conditions of sex. Less attention, however, has been granted to the ways in which gender roles also create the expectation that women will assume the burden of responsibility for taking care of family and community members weakened or made ill by HIV/AIDS. As such, little has been done to date to develop interventions that explicitly encourage men to play a more active role in care and support activity.

Peacock, D. and B. Khumalo
2007 'Bring me My Machine Gun': Contesting Patriarchy and Rape Culture in the Jacob Zuma Rape Trial. Paper presented at the Linking Lessons from HIV, Sexuality and Reproductive Health with Other Areas for Rethinking AIDS, Gender and Development International Symposium, October 15-18, in Dakar, Senegal.

Rasool, S. et al.
2002. Violence Against Women: A National Survey. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.

Rivers, K. and P. Aggleton
1999 Gender and the HIV Epidemic: Adolescent Sexuality. New York: HIV and Development Program, UNDP.

Salo, Elaine
2005 Mans is Ma Soe: Ideologies of Masculinity, Gender and Generational Relations, and Ganging Practices in Manenberg, South Africa. Paper presented at Men and Masculinities meeting, January 26-27, at University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Simpson, G.
1991 Explaining Sexual Violence: Some Background Factors in the Current Socio-Political Context. Johannesburg, South Africa: Project for the Study of Violence.

Simpson, Graeme and Gerald Kraak
1998 The Illusions of Sanctuary and the Weight of the Past: Notes on Violence and Gender in South Africa. In Development Update 2(2).
It is axiomatic that violence against women in South Africa is endemic. Most observers attribute it to the disintegration of the social fabric under apartheid and during the violent upheavals of the political transition. The authors argue that while the experience of apartheid may have exacerbated the levels of violence against women, it has been an enduring feature of the social order, equally prevalent in pre-colonial and contemporary societies. They also contend that skewed gender relations are not only expressed through violence against women in particular, but are an aspect of all social violence. Violence has become a vehicle for men to assert their authority, which they perceive to have been undermined by economic and social change. Unless it is recognized that this is what violent men are trying to do, and unless strategies to redress gender inequality include engaging with the insecurities of younger men in particular, the violence may not diminish.

Widmer, M., G. Barker, and C. Buchanan
2006 Hitting the Target: Men and Guns. Revcon Policy Brief. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue: Geneva, Switzerland.
This policy brief explores the diverse roles that men and boys play in relation to guns, as perpetrators, victims, survivors, and agents of change, and suggests the need to encourage more positive and peaceful expressions of masculinity. It calls on States gathered at the Review Conference on the implementation of the Program of Action on small arms to adopt a more holistic approach to gender in their statements and in the outcome document, in order to recognize the diverse roles and needs of men and women, girls and boys. Rectifying the omission of the alarming rates of victimization of men and boys from small arms related violence is well within the reach of government officials. The focus of this brief on men and boys does not minimize the particular impacts of the uncontrolled arms trade and armed violence on women and girls, including sexual violence at gunpoint of small arms and light weapons. Nor does it underestimate the diverse roles played by women and girls in armed conflict and violent crime, as victims, carers, perpetrators, and survivors. The distinction between 'victim' and 'perpetrator' is not always clear in the case of gun violence, and does not necessarily follow gender fault lines. In sum, it challenges the common but inaccurate view that women and girls are always the victims of gun-related and other forms of gender-based violence, and that boys and men are always the perpetrators.

Xaba, Thokozani
1997 Masculinity in a Transitional Society: The Rise and Fall of "The Young Lions." Paper presented at Masculinities in Southern Africa conference, June, in Durban, South Africa.

On-Line Resources
Since 1995, EngenderHealth's work in South Africa has focused most notably on transforming men's attitudes and behaviors to reduce gender-based violence. They have also worked to improve reproductive health services, including screening for and treating sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV.
Involving Men As Partners®
In an effort to address gender-based violence – part of a larger effort to reduce the spread of HIV – EngenderHealth launched its landmark Men As Partners® (MAP) in South Africa in 1996. The program, which includes a series of workshops, peer-education initiatives, and media outreach, challenges men's attitudes and behaviors that compromise their own health and safety, as well as the health and safety of women and children. Through its groundbreaking work, this program works with men to play constructive roles in promoting gender equity and health in their families and communities.
Gender and Women's Studies for Africa's Transformation
The African Gender Institute (AGI) at the University of Cape Town has established a website with detailed resources pertaining to a range of gender topics with hopes of promoting their inclusion in teaching and research. One of the teaching resources offered focuses exclusively on gender based violence and provides an overview of the subject, a fully accessible position paper on the subject, profiles of organizations and activists who concentrate on gender violence, and a bibliography with key publications.

One Man Can Campaign
The One Man Can Campaign supports men and boys to take action to end domestic and sexual violence and to promote healthy, equitable relationships that men and women can enjoy passionately, respectfully, and fully. The campaign encourages men to work together with other men and with women to take action, to build a movement, to demand justice, to claim their rights, and to change the world.

Sonke Gender Justice Network: HIV/AIDS, Gender Equality, Human Rights
The Sonke Gender Justice Network works with men, women, youth, and children in southern, eastm and central Africa to achieve gender equality, prevent gender based violence, and reduce the spread of HIV and the impact of AIDS.

One Man Can Campaign
The One Man Can Campaign supports men and boys to take action to end domestic and sexual violence and to promote healthy, equitable relationships that men and women can enjoy passionately, respectfully, and fully. The campaign encourages men to work together with other men and with women to take action, to build a movement, to demand justice, to claim their rights, and to change the world.
XY is a website focused on men, masculinities, and gender politics. It serves as a space for the exploration of issues of gender and sexuality, the daily issues of men's and women's lives, and practical discussion of personal and social change. Included is a forum for debate and discussion, including commentary on contemporary and emerging issues in gender and sexual politics; a resource library/clearinghouse for key reports, manuals, and articles; and a toolkit for activism, personal transformation, and social change. Over 200 articles on key 'men's issues', from fathering and men's health to the relationships between masculinity, class, race and sexuality, to domestic violence are featured. XY makes available key national and international guides and manuals to working with men and boys and engaging men and boys in projects of building gender equality, ending violence against women, and striving for social justice. There are also personal stories, book reviews, and links to related websites.


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