Small World Map

Masculinity in a Global Perspective

Compiled by Drew Yamanishi; Updated by Kevin Penzien (2003), and Erin Drummond (2007)

While attention to the status of women in developing countries has improved in recent years, the efforts of most major development organizations to improve women's status and access to resources have largely been characterized as an "add women and stir" approach. Because gender relations are a fundamental dynamic of all societal change, pro-women policies directed towards "women's issues" have not been enough to improve the lives of women across the globe. Recently a shift has occurred away from a focus solely on women to an approach centering on gender relations and critical analyses of men and masculinities. This bibliography contains a collection of resources that addresses masculinities in the context of international development, including books, journal articles, research monographs, and Internet resources. The theoretical, empirical, and political research offered here holds significant policy implications for development efforts aimed at improving the status and well-being of women.

Key Volumes




Key Volumes

Abbott, Franklin, 1998
Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
This anthology chronicles the transition from boyhood to manhood, with contributions by authors from around the globe, including Nigeria and the Philippines. Entries include personal narratives and poems, exploring subjects that range from growing up gay to experiencing war as a child.

Archetti, Eduardo P., 1998
Masculinities: Football, Polo and the Tango in Argentina. London: Berg Publishing.
In this book, Archetti questions the assumption that male concepts of courage and virility are at the core of nationalism. He advances the debate through an empirical analysis of masculinity in the context of same-sex(football and polo) and cross-sex (tango) relations. The discussion in this book poses important comparative questions and theoretical issues, such as the interplay of morality and ritual, and the comparison between the popular and the aristocratic.

Banerjee, Sikata, 2005
Make Me a Man! Masculinity, Hinduism, and Nationalism in India. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Make Me a Man! argues that ideas about manhood play a key role in building and sustaining the modern nation. It examines a particular expression of nation and manliness: masculine Hinduism. This ideal, which emerged from India’s experience of British imperialism, is characterized by martial prowess, muscular strength, moral fortitude, and a readiness to go to battle. Embodied in the images of the Hindu soldier and the warrior monk, masculine Hinduism is rooted in a rigid “us versus them” view of nation that becomes implicated in violence and intolerance. Masculine Hinduism also has important connotations for women, whose roles in this environment consist of the heroic mother, chaste wife, and celibate, masculinized warrior. All of these roles shore up the “us versus them” dichotomy and constrict women’s lives by imposing particular norms and encouraging limits on women’s freedom.

Bledsoe, Caroline, Susana Lerner and Jane I. Guyer, Editors, 2000
Fertility and Male Life Cycle in the Era of Fertility Decline. London: Oxford University Press.
Traditionally, women have been the sole focus of fertility studies. Ranging broadly over ethnographies, national surveys, and historical texts, this volume breaks imaginative new ground in grappling with immense variation in male reproduction across the world.

Brandes, Stanley, 2002
Staying Sober in Mexico City. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Staying sober is a daily struggle for many men living in Mexico City, one of the world’s largest, grittiest urban centers. In this engaging study, Brandes focuses on a common therapeutic response to alcoholism, Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.), which boasts an enormous following throughout Mexico and much of Latin America. Over several years, Brandes observed and participated in an all-men’s chapter of A.A. located in a working class district of Mexico City. Employing richly textured ethnography, he analyzes the group’s social dynamics, therapeutic effectiveness, and ritual and spiritual life. Brandes demonstrates how recovering alcoholics in Mexico redefine gender roles in order to preserve masculine identity. He also explains how an organization rooted historically in evangelical Protestantism has been able to flourish in Roman Catholic Latin America.

― 1980
Metaphors of Masculinity: Sex and Status in Andalusian Folklore. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Brandes demonstrates the ways in which Andalusian male masculinities are formed in relation to and through local folklore. With anthropological methods, he shows how folklore reinforces and teaches the local notions of masculinity.

Brod, Harry and Michael Kaufman, Editors, 1994
Theorizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
A compilation of works from a variety of disciplines exploring theoretical approaches to the study of masculinity.  The editors attempt to integrate new areas of diversity into the field of men’s studies with work concerning masculinities and their relation to areas of theory like sexuality, class, or race.

Brownell, Susan and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Editors, 2002
Chinese Femininities/Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
The past two centuries have witnessed tremendous upheavals in every aspect of Chinese culture and society. At the level of everyday life, some of the most remarkable transformations have occurred in the realm of gender. Chinese Femininities/Chinese Masculinities is a mix of illuminating historical and ethnographic studies of gender from the 1700s to the present. The essays in this highly creative collection are organized in pairs that alternate in focus between femininity and masculinity, between subjects traditionally associated with feminism (such as family life) and those rarely considered from a gendered point of view (like banditry). The chapters provide a wealth of interesting detail on such varied topics as court cases involving widows and homosexuals; ideal spouses of early-twentieth-century radicals; changing images of prostitutes; the masculinity of qigong masters; sexuality in the era of reform; and the eroticization of minorities. While most of the essays were specifically written for this volume, a few are reprinted as a testament to their enduring value.

Brusco, Elizabeth E., 1995
The Reformation of Machismo: Evangelical Conversion and Gender in Colombia. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
A study documenting the effects of conversion to evangelical Protestantism on Columbian society, Brusco argues that the religious changes act as a movement to empower women and destabilize Colombian male hegemony.  She describes how the process of conversion is somewhat “a domestication of men.”

Bujra, Janet, 2000
Serving Class: Masculinity and the Feminisation of Domestic Service in Tanzania. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
In colonial Tanganyika, when housework was transformed into wage labor, the only available labor force was predominantly male, so men became domestic servants and even nursemaids to babies. Paradoxically there were also militant domestics, in an occupation usually characterized by passivity and inability to organize. Exploring the institution of domestic service, the author discloses processes of postcolonial class formation both as exploitation and cultural elaboration.

Carrier, Joseph, 1995
De Los Otros. New York: Columbia University Press.
Anthropologist Carrier summarizes the socio-cultural background of sex roles, family life and homosexuality among Mexican men, and chroniclizes male/male eroticism and complex social and sexual relations.

Carver, Terrell, 2002
“Men and IR/Men in IR.” In Gendering the International, edited by Louiza Odysseos and Hakan Seckinelgin. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
In this essay, Carver echoes the charges of fellow feminists in international relations (IR) that the field is dominated professionally and conceptually by men, and that traditional approaches have considered gender relations and inequalities irrelevant. More specifically, this chapter presents a response to the non-feminist, hyper-reductionist approach to gendered international relations (IR) as seen in Adam Jones’s work on ‘gendercide’, the gendered aspects of mass killings. Carver asserts that reducing gender to a synonym of sex will not contribute to our understanding of men as gendered agents in the field of IR. The author advocates a more accurate approach to men in IR that conceptualizes gender as a socially and sexually constructed identity, gender as a power structure rather than a biological ordering.

Clatterbaugh, Kenneth, 1990
Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In this accessible introduction to masculinity studies, the author outlines and compares differing standpoints on gender relations, including conservative, profeminist, men’s rights, spiritual, socialist, and group-specific (gays, blacks) perspectives on masculinities. This book presents an objective and balanced presentation of a scope of conservative and progressive perspectives on men and masculinity, while acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The book concludes with the author’s predictions for the future of each perspective, as well as expected coalitions and conflicts between camps.

Cleaver, Frances, Editor, 2003
Masculinities Matter!: Men, Gender and Development. London: Zed Books.
This book provides a collection of policy-oriented case studies of masculinities in both development theory and practice. The contributors present an interesting assortment of geographical cases from Vietnam to Namibia, as well as various thematic areas such as education, sexual health, nationalism, and the intersections between masculinities, race, and class. From these diverse case studies, the book presents a coherent argument on why and how to include men as strategic partners in development.

Clements, Barbara Evans, Rebecca Friedman and Dan Healey, Editors, 2002
Russian Masculinities in History and Culture. Houndmills, NY: Palgrave.
This collection takes as its subject the conceptualizations of masculinity in Russian history, the ways in which these ideas were expressed in the behavior of Russian men and women, and the ways in which they affected and were affected by social change.  The contributors cover the years from Muscovy through to the Soviet period, but their main concentration is on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Connell, R.W., 2000
The Men and the Boys. London: Polity Press.
In recent years, questions about men and boys have aroused remarkable media interest, public concern and controversy. Across the world, health services are noticing the relevance of men’s gender to problems as diverse as road accidents, diet, and sexually transmitted disease. Teachers are increasingly preoccupied with the poor educational performance of boys, and criminologists have begun to explore why men and boys continue to dominate the crime statistics. In this timely new volume, Connell helps explain these developments, and make sense of the multiplying issues about men and boys. Five years on from the publication of his seminal study, Masculinities, Connell reflects on the growing social scientific research in this area. He assesses its strengths and weaknesses and explores its implications for contemporary problems from boys’ education and men’s health to international peacemaking.

― 1995
Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Connell analyzes how notions of masculinity have evolved in psychoanalysis, social science, and history in the creation of a global economy. The author also seeks to counteract the recent ascendance of masculinity-related pop psychology, which has provided a cover for conservative factions to challenge the recent advancements of women and gay men. The three sections of the book address the history of masculinity in social science and political movements, the author’s field studies of four groups of men, and the global history of masculinities in comparison to modern gender relations in the West. The author concludes by integrating social science, feminist theory, gay theory, and psychoanalysis to develop a new theory of masculinity politics.

Cornwall, Andrea and Nancy Lindisfarne, Editors, 1994
Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London and New York: Routledge.
This book brings together a critical set of papers on men and masculinities that raise important new questions on gender studies. In a sustained cross-cultural enquiry, local experiences of “hegemonic masculinity” are deconstructed to reveal the complexities of gendering and gendered difference. In both the theoretical and ethnographic chapters, the contributors – through a discussion of embodiment, agency, and subordinate masculinities – challenge essentialist and constructionist arguments, which underwrite dominant ideologies of masculinity.

Correia, Maria C. and Ian Bannon, Editors, 2006
The Other Half of Gender: Men’s Issues in Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This book is an attempt to bring the gender and development debate full circle, from a much-needed focus on empowering women to a more comprehensive gender framework that considers gender as a system that affects both women and men. The chapters in this book explore definitions of masculinity and male identities in a variety of social contexts, drawing from experiences in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. It draws on a slowly emerging realization that attaining the vision of gender equality will be difficult, if not impossible, without changing the ways in which masculinities are defined and acted upon. Although changing male gender norms will be a difficult and slow process, we must begin by understanding how versions of masculinities are defined and acted upon.

de la Mora, Sergio, 2006
Cinemachismo: Masculinities and Sexuality in Mexican Film. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
In this book, de la Mora offers the first extended analysis of how Mexican cinema has represented masculinities and sexualities and their relationship to national identity from 1950 to 2004. He focuses on three traditional genres (the revolutionary melodrama, the cabaretera prostitution melodrama, and the musical comedy “buddy movie”) and one subgenre (the fichera brothel-cabaret comedy) of classic and contemporary cinema. By concentrating on the changing conventions of these genres, de la Mora reveals how Mexican films have both supported and subverted traditional heterosexual norms of Mexican national identity. In particular, his analyses of Mexican cinematic icons Pedro Infante and Gael García Bernal and of Arturo Ripstein’s cult film El lugar sin límites illuminate cinema’s role in fostering distinct figurations of masculinity, queer spectatorship, and gay male representations. De la Mora completes this exciting interdisciplinary study with an in-depth look at how the Mexican state brought about structural changes in the film industry between 1989 and 1994 through the work of the Mexican Film Institute (IMCINE), paving the way for a renaissance in the national cinema.

Derne, Steve, 2000
Movies, Masculinity, and Modernity: An Ethnography of Men’s Filmgoing in India. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Men in India are attracted to Hindi films partly because of their attraction to depictions of “modern” lifestyles. Derne argues that films help men handle their ambivalence about modernity by rooting their sense of “Indianness” in women’s acceptance of traditional food habits, clothing, and gender subordination. The book is one of the first ethnographic studies of filmgoing and one of the first to focus on mainstream male audiences.

― 1995
Culture in Action: Family Life, Emotion, and Male Dominance in Banaras, India. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Derne explores the interconnections between male dominance, joint-family living, Indian emotional life, and a cultural focus on pressure groups. Derne’s suggestion that Indian men’s cultural focus on the group limits men’s and women’s strategies for breaking cultural norms offers a new approach to understanding their experiences.

Dudink, Stefan, Josh Tosh and Karen Hagemann, Editors, 2004
Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
In this collection, a group of historians explores the role of masculinity in the modern history of politics and war. Building on three decades of research in women’s and gender history, the book opens up new avenues in the history of masculinity. The essays by social, political, and cultural historians therefore map masculinity’s part in making revolution, waging war, building nations, and constructing welfare states. Although the masculinity of modern politics and war is now generally acknowledged, few studies have traced the emergence and development of politics and war as masculine domains in the way this book does. Covering the period from the American Revolution to the Second World War and ranging over five continents, the essays in this book bring to light the many “masculinities” that shaped ― and were shaped by ― political and military modernity.

Dunbar Moodie, T., 1994
Going for Gold: Men, Mines, and Migration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
This book tells the story of the lives of migrant black African men who work in the South African gold mines, told from their own point of view and, as much as possible, in their own words. Moodie examines the operation of local power structures and resistances, changes in production techniques, the limits and successes of unionization, and the nature of ethnic conflicts at different periods and on different terrains of struggle. He treats his subject thematically and historically, examining how notions of integrity, manhood, sexuality, work, power, solidarity, and violence have all changed over time, especially with the shift to a proletarianized work force in the mines in the 1970s. Moodie integrates analyses of individual life-strategies with theories of social change, illuminating the ways in which these play off each other in historically significant ways. He shows how human beings (in this case, African men) build integrity and construct their own social order, even in situations of apparent total repression.

Elson, Diane, Editor, 1995
Male Bias in the Development Process. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This book offers an exploration of sexism in the process of development, but departs from the traditional WID approach in favor of a focus on ‘gender relations.’ This theoretical framework draws attention to the structures that perpetuate male advantage, rather than viewing ‘women’ as an agent easily incorporated into the development process. This strategy allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the ways women experience gender, which varies significantly as the result of differences in class, race, or sexual preference. Following an introductory chapter on this theoretical paradigm, the book includes a variety of case studies that examine male advantage in development, and concludes with strategies to contest male bias.

Friedman, Rebecca, 2005
Masculinity, Autocracy and the Russian University, 1804-1863. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
This is the first book-length study of masculinity in Imperial Russia. By looking at official and unofficial life at universities across the Russian empire, this project offers a picture of the complex processes through which gender ideologies were forged and negotiated in the nineteenth century.

Gardiner, Judith Kegan, Editor, 2002
Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions. New York: Columbia University Press.
This book is a broad and intensive review of one of the recent debates in contemporary gender studies. The compilation contributes new facets to our understanding of gender relations by examining the role of masculinities in art, spirituality, pedagogy, and race. The included essays accurately present masculinity studies not as anti-feminist backlash, but as a derivative of and ally to feminist theory.

Geng, Song, 2004
The Fragile Scholar: Power and Masculinity in Chinese Culture. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
The Fragile Scholar examines the pre-modern construction of Chinese masculinity from the popular image of the fragile scholar (caizi) in late imperial Chinese fiction and drama. The book is an original contribution to the study of the construction of masculinity in the Chinese context from a comparative perspective. Its central thesis is that the concept of “masculinity” in pre-modern China was conceived in the network of hierarchical social and political power in a homosocial context rather than in opposition to “woman.” In other words, gender discourse was more power-based than sex-based in pre-modern China, and Chinese masculinity was androgynous in nature. The author explains how the caizi discourse embodied the mediation between elite culture and popular culture by giving voice to the desire, fantasy, wants, and tastes of urbanites.

Ghoussoub, Mai and Emma Sinclair-Webb, Editors, 2006
Imagined Masculinities: Male Identities and Culture in the Modern Middle East. London: Saqi Books.
Writings on gender in the Middle East have tended to focus overwhelmingly on the status of women, on the rise of Islamist politics and veiling, and on the social construction of female identity. In the process issues of male identity in a region which has seen enormous social transformations over the past thirty years have been somewhat neglected. This book looks at the process by which stereotypical male identities get constructed, reproduced, and contested in different parts of the Middle East.

Gilmore, David D., 1990
Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. London and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gilmore presents a cross-cultural comparative collection of ethnographic work dealing with cultural conceptions of manhood.  The author deals with the question of what a “real man” is through a sampling of various cultures.

Gutmann, Matthew C., 1996
The Meaning of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
An in-depth ethnography of machismo and men in Mexico, Gutmann provides a broad look at Mexican men’s lives that attempts to debunk many stereotypes. Gutmann touches on several aspects of life, including social conditions, sex and sexuality, fatherhood, and violence.

Gutmann, Matthew C., Editor, 2003
Changing Men and Masculinities in Latin America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
This recently published anthology articulates the similarities and differences of dynamic masculinities in Latin American societies. The authors avoid blind regurgitation of the stereotypes of the “Latin male,” and instead attempt to outline recent changes in traditional gender relations and the hegemonic notion of masculinity. Despite its focus on men and masculinity, the book’s professed objective remains a pro-feminist critique of social inequality between women and men in Latin America.

Hatty, Suzanne E., 2000
Masculinities, Violence and Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This unique analysis links the growing sociological and psychological literature on masculinity with contemporary criminological research. Hatty critically examines the major biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological models of masculinity and violence and formulates an integrated theoretical approach to the relationship between violence and masculinity.

Haynes, John, 2003
New Soviet Man: Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This is the first full-length study of masculinity in Stalinist Soviet cinema. A detailed analysis of Stalinist discourse examines the imagined relationship between the patriarch Stalin and his “model sons” in the key genre cycles of the era: from the capital to the collective farms, and ultimately to the very borders of the Soviet state. Informed by contemporary and present day debates over the social and cultural significance of cinema and masculinity, this book draws on a range of theoretical and comparative material to produce engaging and accessible readings accounting for both the appeal of ― and the inherent potential for subversion within ― films produced by the Stalinist culture industry.

Heald, Suzette, 1999
Manhood and Morality: Sex, Violence and Ritual in Gisu Society. London and New York: Routledge.
Manhood and Morality explores issues of male identity among the Gisu of Uganda in the context of the moral dilemma faced by men who define themselves in terms of their capacity for violence. Drawing extensively on twenty years of fieldwork experience and informed by psychological theory, Heald’s discussion encompasses circumcision, Oedipal feelings, witchcraft, deviance, joking, sexuality, and ethnicity. In examining the power of masculinity to set the moral agenda, this ethnographic study challenges our preconceptions of manhood, especially African virility, inviting a wider re-evaluation of masculinity. The book comprises self-contained sections in which the narrative is contextualized within contemporary debate, providing an engaging and highly readable text.

Herdt, Gilbert H., 1994
Guardians of the Flutes, Volume I: Idioms of Masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
In the first systematic documentation of New Guinea rituals of manhood, Herdt places the homosexual customs of the Sambia in their ecological and ideological contexts while exploring what they mean to the individuals who practice them. Raising a host of issues concerning gender identity, hostility between the sexes, and the relationships between myth, culture, and personal experience, Herdt provides a vivid and convincing portrait of how Sambia men experience their sexual development.

― 1993
“Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea.” In Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, edited by Caroline B. Brettell and Carolyn F. Sargent. Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall, Inc.
This chapter deals with the Sambia people of Papua New Guinea and their practice of male initiation.  Herdt gives an ethnographic description of the cultural concept of manhood as being earned or imparted, and the rituals surrounding this process.

Hobson, Barbara, Editor, 2002
Making Men into Fathers: Men, Masculinities, and the Social Politics of Fatherhood. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Fatherhood is on the political agenda in many countries, often cast in terms of crisis. One side of the policy debate focuses on fathers as deadbeat dads who do not provide financial support and care for their children. The other revolves around making men into active and engaged fathers. However, these policies are often at odds with the employers’ reluctance to accommodate work schedules to fathers’ needs. In Making Men into Fathers, prominent scholars in gender studies and the critical studies of men consider how varied institutional settings and policy logics around cash and care contour the possibilities and constraints for new models of fatherhood, determining the choices open to men. From different historical and societal perspectives, the authors provide new insights into the studies of men as gendered subjects, including the role of transnational and global issues of fatherhood, and the emergence of men’s movements, contesting and reimaging fatherhood.

Hofstede, Geert, Editor, 1998
Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Regarding the concept that nations have many psychological dimensions, this compilation of works examines the somewhat controversial dimension of nations as masculine or feminine.  A cross-cultural work in psychology, the contributors apply the masculine/feminine dimension as it applies to “Culture’s Consequences.”  Besides a definition and validation of the dimension, the contributors relate it to issues like gender roles and relations, and to rarely touched areas like religion and sexuality.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2000
Manly States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hooper explores how the theory and practice of international relations produces and sustains masculine identities and masculine rivalries. This volume asserts that international politics shapes multiple masculinities rather than one static masculinity, positing an interplay between a hegemonic masculinity and other subordinated, feminized masculinities.

Huang, Martin W., 2006
Negotiating Masculinities in Late Imperial China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Why did traditional Chinese literati so often identify themselves with women in their writing? What can this tell us about how they viewed themselves as men and how they understood masculinity? How did their attitudes in turn shape the martial heroes and other masculine models they constructed? Huang attempts to answer these questions in this valuable work on manhood in late imperial China. He focuses on the ambivalent and often paradoxical role played by women and the feminine in the intricate negotiating process of male gender identity in late imperial cultural discourses. Two common strategies for constructing and negotiating masculinity were adopted in many of the works examined here. The first, what Huang calls the strategy of analogy, constructs masculinity in close association with the feminine; the second, the strategy of differentiation, defines it in sharp contrast to the feminine. In both cases women bear the burden as the defining “other.” In this study, “feminine” is a rather broad concept denoting a wide range of gender phenomena associated with women, from the politically and socially destabilizing to the exemplary wives and daughters celebrated in Confucian chastity discourse.

Hudson, Valerie M. and Andrea M. den Boer, 2004
Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia’s Surplus Male Population. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
In this provocative book, Hudson and den Boer argue that, historically, high male-to-female ratios often trigger domestic and international violence. Most violent crime is committed by young unmarried males who lack stable social bonds. Although there is not always a direct cause-and-effect relationship, these surplus men often play a crucial role in making violence prevalent within society. Countries with high male-to-female ratios also tend to develop authoritarian political systems. Hudson and den Boer suggest that the sex ratios of many Asian countries, particularly China and India ― which represent almost 40 percent of the world’s population ― are being skewed in favor of males on a scale that may be unprecedented in human history. Through offspring sex selection (often in the form of sex-selective abortion and female infanticide), these countries are acquiring a disproportionate number of low-status young adult males, called “bare branches” by the Chinese. Hudson and den Boer argue that this surplus male population in Asia’s largest countries threatens domestic stability and international security. The prospects for peace and democracy are dimmed by the growth of bare branches in China and India, and, they maintain, the sex ratios of these countries will have global implications in the twenty-first century.

Huggins, Martha K. and Mika Haritos-Fatouros, 1998
“Bureaucratizing Masculinities Among Brazilian Torturers and Murderers.” In Masculinities and Violence, edited by Lee H. Bowker. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Huggins and Haritos-Fatouros explore two different constructions of masculinity found among former torturers and murderers from Brazil’s authoritarian military state, from 1964-1985.  The ‘lone-wolf’ masculinity was typical of the early days of military rule among the police forces, where the officer acted as an individual with a commitment to what he was doing, independent of bureaucracy.  In contrast, the ‘institutional functionary’ masculinity was found in the later years of military rule.  These men mostly hailed from the military, and were loyal to the organization and its bureaucracy at the cost of their individuality.  Huggins and Haritos-Fatouros show how each of these masculinities were able to commit horrible acts of violence, but for very different reasons.  The lone-wolf believed he was doing what was right; the institutional functionary was following orders.  The authors show that the institutional functionary was preferred during military rule as they were easier to control and could be subordinated to the state’s interests, whereas the lone wolf obeyed his own conscience.  Interestingly, upon the return to ostensible democracy, the number of lone wolf officers increased once again.

Irwin, Robert McKee, 2003
Mexican Masculinities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
This book traces literary representations of masculinity in Mexico from independence in 1810 to the 1960s, and shows how these intersect with the constructions of nation and nationality. The rhetoric of “Mexicanness” makes constant use of images of masculinity, though it does so in shifting and often contradictory ways. Irwin’s work follows these shifts from the male homosocial bonding that was central to notions of national integration in the nineteenth century, to questioning of gender norms stirred by science and scandals at the turn of the century, to the virulent reaction against gender chaos after the Mexican revolution, to the association of Mexicanness with machismo and homophobia in the literature of the 1940s and 1950s ― even as male homosexuality was established as an integral part of national culture. As the first historical study of how masculinity and, particularly, homosexuality were understood in Mexico in the national era, this book not only provides “queer readings” of most major canonical texts of the period in question, but also uncovers a variety of unknown texts from queer Mexican history.

Jackson, Cecile, 2001
Men at Work: Labour, Masculinities, Development. London and New York: Routledge.
Gender analysis of development focuses on gender relations, rather than women and men as separate gender categories, but it has necessarily been women-orientated in its concerns with subordination. This work moves gender analysis towards a fuller understanding of men’s diverse gendered identities, and how these are implicated in their everyday working lives in developing country contexts. The questions addressed in the papers range from conceptual and methodological issues of definitions and measurement of men’s work, to case studies of working men in specific settings, but all are concerned with the recognition of gendered vulnerabilities of (some) men as men, as well as with a re-thinking of gender relations in the light of consideration of the subjectivities of specific groups of men.

Jackson, Peter A., 1996
Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand. Bangkok and San Francisco: Bua Luang Publishing Company.
Jackson’s book analyzes a unique corpus of texts, and provides a series of insights into a society that has hardly been analyzed in relation to homosexuality.  This is a rare book that discusses sexual orientation and gender identification in a positive manner outside of a Western context, and gives a historical perspective of positive homosexuality outside of ancient Greece.

Jerome, Roy, 2001
Conceptions of Postwar German Masculinity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
This book examines the issue of masculinity and masculine identity in German culture, society, and literature from 1945 to present. Utilizing men’s studies theories, feminism, historicism, psychoanalysis, and literary studies, the book provides a resource for understanding how masculinity informs homosocial, male-female, and adult-child relations.

Jones, Adam, Editor, 2006
Men of the Global South: A Reader. London: Zed Books.
This Reader is designed to fill a glaring gap in the proliferating literature on gender and development, gender and international political economy, and gender and conflict. While there is now a broad and sophisticated feminist literature on the lives and experiences of Third World women and their role in development, there has been a tendency either to ignore men as gendered subjects, or to consign them to negative and stereotypical gender roles, often as victimizers and exploiters of Third World women. While it is vital not to overlook men’s roles in crime, exploitation, and violence, it is obvious that a more nuanced and empathetic portrait of Third World men remains to be painted. This perspective makes this Reader a genuinely original intervention into the study of both gender and development.

Kimmel, Michael S., Jeff Hearn and R.W. Connell, Editors, 2004
Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This handbook is an interdisciplinary and international culmination of the growth of men’s studies that also offers insight about future directions for the field. The Handbook provides a broad view of masculinities primarily across the social sciences, with the inclusion of important debates in some areas of the humanities and natural sciences. The various approaches presented in this text range across different disciplines, theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and conceptualizations in relation to the topic of men. The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities examines the construction of masculinities in four different frames: the social organization of masculinities in their global and regional iterations; the institutional reproduction and articulation of masculinities; the ways in which masculinities are organized and practiced within a context of gender relations; and the ways in which individual men express and understand their gendered identities. The Handbook is organized in a way that moves from the larger, global, and institutional articulations of masculinities, to the more intimate and personal expressions.

Klein, Laura F., 2004
Women and Men in World Cultures. New York: McGraw Hill.
This book provides students a comprehensive and coherent anthropological perspective on gender relations. The introductory chapters of the book present a highly detailed yet accessible review of gender theory. The next section examines the place of men and women in a variety of contexts, using multinational case studies. The third section looks at the role of gender in power, family, and religion. The book’s final chapters map out the gendered aspects of colonialization, globalization, and contemporary identity.

Knauss, Peter R., 1987
The Persistence of Patriarchy: Class, Gender, and Ideology in Twentieth Century Algeria. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Knauss presents a political science look at the system of patriarchy as it exists in post-revolution Algeria after 1962.  With an extensive historical background, Knauss argues that nationalist Algerian reaction to French cultural and political domination resulted in a renewed emphasis on hegemonic patriarchy.

Lancaster, Roger N., 1992
Life is Hard: Machismo, Danger and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lancaster provides an ethnography of post-Sandinista Revolutionary Nicaragua that follows the lives of three families.  He pays particular attention to an idea of multiple systems of power (such as machismo or U.S. imperialism), which affect the lives and hardship of Nicaraguans.  This is done in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of poverty, injustice, and powerlessness in Nicaragua.

Lindsay, Lisa and Stephan F. Miescher, 2003
Men and Masculinities in Modern Africa. Sandton, South Africa: Heinemann.
This collection is the first to analyze the concepts and issues involved in exploring African men and the constructions of masculinity in sub-Saharan Africa.

Louie, Kam, 2003
Asian Masculinities: The Meaning and Practice of Manhood in China and Japan. London and New York: Routledge.
This book shows how East Asian masculinities are being formed and transformed as Asia becomes increasingly globalized. The gender roles performed by Chinese and Japanese men are examined not just as they are lived in Asia, but also in the West. The essays collected here enhance current understandings of East Asian identities and cultures as well as Western conceptions of gender and sexuality. While basic issues such as masculine ideals in China and Japan are examined, the book also addresses issues including homosexuality, women’s perceptions of men, the role of sport and food, and Asian men in the Chinese diaspora.

― 2002
Theorising Chinese Masculinity: Society and Gender in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
This book attempts to establish a theoretical framework on Chinese masculinity in order to replace inaccurate Western interpretations of Asian men and sexuality. The author does this through the theorization of masculinity using the concepts of wen (cultural attainment) and wu (martial valour), the mental and physical ideals of Chinese manhood. Chinese masculinity has traditionally been associated with a more cerebral and sensitive ideal male, which has been considered effeminate and neutered from the standard Western and macho perspective on masculinity. Louie also proposes an alternative to the common yin-yang gender theory, which is too fluid and dynamic to realistically represent the male-only aspects of Chinese men. The overall argument provides an important reminder that masculinity is not universal, but culturally and historically defined.

Lumsden, Ian, 1995
Machos, Maricones, and Gays: Cuba and Homosexuality. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
This remarkable account of gays in Cuba links the treatment of male homosexuality under Castro with prejudices and preconceptions prevalent in Cuban society before the Revolution. Lumsden argues that much of the present discussion does not acknowledge the significant improvements that have occurred in the last decade. Lumsden explores the historic roots of the oppression of homosexuals through such issues as race, religion, and gender. He considers the cultural history and current erosion of traditional “machismo,” the correlation between traditional women’s roles and the relationships between gay men, and homosexuality as defined by the law and as presented in typical sexual education. He addresses the international controversy over state-imposed sanatoriums for HIV/AIDS patients, and details the social scene, the varying ideals among different generations of gay Cubans, gay life and family ties, and the difference between being publicly and privately gay in Cuba.

MacInnes, John, 1998
The End of Masculinity: The Confusion of Sexual Genesis and Sexual Differences in Modern Society. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
This text seeks to explain why commentators have found it impossible to define masculinity. MacInnes asserts that this is because no such thing exists and challenges established ways of thinking about sex, gender, and masculinity within the social sciences, history, and philosophy.

Marsigilio, William, 1995
Fatherhood: Contemporary Theory, Research and Social Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers theoretical analysis and empirical research from a number of social sciences on what it means to be a father in times of changing families and gender roles at work and society at large. The essays include race and poverty, life-course patterns, and comparisons between perceptions towards fathers’ roles.

Mellström, Ulf, 2003
Masculinity, Power and Technology: A Malaysian Ethnography. Hampshire, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Drawing on fieldwork carried out among male motor mechanics in the Chinese diaspora of Penang, Malaysia, this informative volume explores the links between technology and the masculinization of power.  Malaysia shares an obsession with modernity by way of technological development and a “can do” entrepreneurial spirit where technology is held in high esteem. Technology holds such positive connotations in Malaysian society that it is therefore a source of individual and national empowerment. Technology and modernity are therefore important factors when understanding contemporary Malaysian society.  Just as there is very much a masculine ethos pervading Malaysia’s spirit and belief in modernity and progress, this insightful and rewarding book focuses on technology and machines in relation to masculinity to provide an innovative, anthropological perspective of Malaysian society and the Chinese diaspora.

Mirande, Alfredo, 1997
Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This book provides an ethnographic look at Latino and Mexican masculinity and concepts of “macho” and “machismo.”  Mirande attempts to reexamine traditional societal and social science characterizations of Latino machismo and masculinity as a “pathological” or “dysfunctional” system.

Morrell, Robert, 2001
From Boys to Gentleman: Settler Masculinity in Colonial Natal, 1880-1920. Pretoria, South Africa: UNISA Press.
A century ago there was a small white settler population in the colony of Natal. This book looks at that section concentrated around the capital, Pietermaritzburg, where they developed into a tight-knit community. At its centre was the idealized unit called the ‘Old Natal Family,’ with a white man at the helm. This book is the first on South African history to focus on the concept of masculinity which catalogues and explores the significance of the political and public dominance of white men. It argues that a particular type of masculinity, settler masculinity, was constructed and became dominant as a prescription for proper male behavior. It excluded and silenced rival interpretations of ‘being a man’ and promoted the development of a closed and racially exclusive colonial society. This book examines how the forces of race and class were expressed in gendered ways, and how children were raised to learn to embrace their roles.

Morrell, Robert, Editor, 2001
Changing Men in South Africa. London: Zed Books.
The political transition from apartheid to democracy disturbed the established gender order of South Africa. This book looks at the way in which men, under apartheid and in the transition period responded to, were affected by and themselves contributed to the transitions in Southern Africa. The book examines different forms of masculinity, highlighting the importance of race and class. The contributors explore how the position of men has changed.

Mosse, George, 1998
The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. London: Oxford University Press.
Mosse provides an historical account of the masculine stereotype, tracking the evolution of the idea of manliness to reveal how it came to embody physical beauty, courage, moral restraint, and a strong will. He finds that the manly ideal incorporated mixed elements from the past, the aristocracy, and newer sciences like anthropology and sexology. Mosse also discusses how the masculine image is being challenged today.

O’Donnell, Katherine and Michael O’Rourke, 2006
Queer Masculinities, 1550-1800. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
This book offers the most up to the minute snapshot of scholarship on queer/gay historiographies in a number of geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. It features the work of the most established scholars in the field of the history of same-sex desire and promises to take the study of same-sex relations in the early modern period in radical new directions.

Oetomo, Dédé, 2000
“Masculinity in Indonesia: Genders, Sexualities and Identities in a Changing Society.” In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality and Power, edited by Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa and Peter Aggleton. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Oetomo discusses the various constructions of masculinity in Indonesia, focusing on the banci and waria, constructed ‘third genders’ within Indonesian society.  In discussing the relation between and among these third genders and men, Oetomo reveals the power differentials that dominate sexual relations in Indonesian society, as well as create and define sexual identities and preferences.

Osella, Filippo and Caroline Osella, 2006
Men and Masculinities in India. London, New York, and Delhi: Anthem Press.
Men and Masculinities in India aims to increase understanding of gender within South Asia, and especially South Asian masculinities, a topic whose analysis and ethnographizing in the region has had a very sketchy beginning and is ripe for more thorough examination. This ground-breaking study covers a range of areas including work, cross-sex relationships, sexuality, men’s friendships, religious practices, and leisure. This book is especially concerned with issues arising from debates which broadly argue over the differences and merits of approaches to gender ― more broadly, identity ― rooted in essentialism versus performativity. The authors present a range of original ethnography and explore the tensions between different types of theoretical stance and competing local discourses on gender and how it is made.

Osella, Filippo, Caroline Osella and Radhika Chopra, Editors, 2004
South Asian Masculinities: Context of Change, Sites of Continuity. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
What it means to be a man ― in word, flesh, deed, and affect ― in the various arenas of social life in South Asian societies is the thread that runs through the essays in this volume, the first of its kind on masculinity. These essays deal with different planes of experience, and various modes of expression: films, national history, ethnography, and literature are examined within a range of methodological and theoretical orientations. Regional differences as well as similarities between the societies of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka are carefully observed and analyzed.

Ouzgane, Lahoucine, Editor, 2006
Islamic Masculinities. London: Zed Books.
This innovative book outlines the great complexity, variety, and difference of male identities in Islamic societies. From the Taliban orphanages of Afghanistan to the cafés of Morocco, from the experience of couples at infertility clinics in Egypt to that of Iraqi conscripts, it shows how the masculine gender is constructed and negotiated in the Islamic Ummah. It goes far beyond the traditional notion that Islamic masculinities are inseparable from the control of women, and shows how the relationship between spirituality and masculinity is experienced quite differently from the prevailing Western norms. Drawing on sources ranging from modern Arabic literature to discussions of Muhammad’s virility and Abraham’s paternity, it portrays ways of being in the world that intertwine with non-Western conceptions of duty to the family, the state, and the divine.

Ouzgane, Lahoucine and Robert Morrell, Editors, 2005
African Masculinities: Men in Africa from the Late 19th Century to the Present. Houndsmill, NY: Palgrave.
With African Masculinities, Ouzgane and Morrell have secured solid ground for the emerging field of critical men’s studies in Africa. The chapters they have selected for this volume provide the latest multidisciplinary research on African men and masculinities from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. This book is necessary reading for anyone interested in understanding gender politics and practices as they have emerged in Africa during the postcolonial era. The chapters thoughtfully address key issues such as the reconfiguration of masculinities resulting from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the negotiations of gay African masculinities, and the impact of globalization on masculine practices from historical, sociological, literary, economic, and political perspectives.

Pease, Bob and Keith Pringle, Editors, 2001
A Man’s World?: Changing Men’s Practices in a Globalized World. London: Zed Books.
This book approaches the study of gender relations through an examination of men’s gender roles and practices. It provides a comparative analysis of the dynamics of men’s practices in diverse socio-cultural contexts, incorporating case studies from South Africa and India to Western democracies. Additionally, special emphasis is placed on how transnational interactions are changing men’s practices in a variety of ways. While this collection of essays demonstrates some commonalities of male gender roles across borders and time, it avoids asserting broad generalizations without supporting evidence.

Ramirez, Rafael, Peter Guarnaccia and Rosa Casper, 1999
What It Means to Be a Man: Reflections on Puerto Rican Masculinity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Ramirez critically reviews anthropological and social science literature on masculinity and male sexualities. He practices cultural reflexivity and suggests new approaches to understanding masculinity in Puerto Rico and more widely.

Reddock, Rhoda E., Editor, 2004
Interrogating Caribbean Masculinities: Theoretical and Empirical Analyses. Kingston, Jamaica: University Press of the West Indies.
This anthology of new Caribbean scholarship on masculinities establishes masculinity studies as an important new area of research and theorizing in the Caribbean. The content of this volume reflects a range of disciplinary approaches, including anthropology, history, international relations, literary criticism, and art and installation.  Special attention is paid to the interaction of power and sexuality in the construction of masculine identities. To understand how men express and exert power, it is necessary to include the analysis of power in the context of structural relationships: the class system, political and economic inequalities, racism, colonialism, homophobia, and other systems of oppression and exclusion.

Richter, Linda and Robert Morrell, 2006
Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council.
Authors from a range of backgrounds and disciplines break new ground in this collection of essays exploring the centrality of fatherhood in the lives of men and the experiences of children. The book is separated into sections that address different ways that the presence or absence of a father affects both the man and the family, from the conceptual questions of fatherhood to historical perspectives — including the input of class and race issues — to the portrayal of fathers in the media. By turning attention to aspects of fatherhood, each study illuminates the role of the male parent, making the ultimate argument that the contribution of men to their families can be a positive force for change in society as a whole.

Roberson, James and Nobue Suzuki, 2002
Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Beyond the Urban Salaryman Model. London and New York: Routledge.
This book is the first comprehensive account of the changing role of men and the construction of masculinity in contemporary Japan. The book moves beyond the stereotype of the Japanese white-collar businessman to explore the diversity of identities and experiences that may be found among men in contemporary Japan, including those versions of masculinity which are marginalized and subversive. The book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of contemporary Japanese society and identity.

Ruxton, Sandy, Editor, 2004
Gender Equality and Men: Learning From Practice. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
In international debates on gender equality there is a growing emphasis on men, not only as holders of privileges or as perpetrators of violence, but also as potential and actual contributors to gender equality. The conclusions of the 48th session of the UN commission on the Status of Women in 2004 urged key stakeholders to promote action at all levels in fields such as education, health services, training, media, and the workplace to increase the contribution of men and boys to furthering gender equality. Based on examples of interventions in five fields (reproductive and sexual health, fatherhood, gender-based violence, livelihoods, and work with young men) from a range of countries, Gender Equality and Men aims to provide a critical account of practical experience of work with men for gender equality and to share knowledge and expertise gained from programs run by Oxfam GB and other organizations.

Sabo, Donald and David F. Gordon, Editors, 1995
Men’s Health and Illness: Gender, Power and the Body. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Contributors from the social, medical, and biological sciences draw on both qualitative and quantitative research to demonstrate that gender is a key factor for understanding the pattern of men’s health risks, the ways men perceive and use their bodies, and their psychological adjustment to illness.

Schade-Poulsen, Marc, 1999
Men and Popular Music in Algeria: The Social Significance of Raï. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Raï music is often called the voice of the voiceless in Algeria, a society currently swept by tragic conflict. Raï is the voice of young Algerian men caught between generations and classes, in political strife, and in economic inequality. In a ground-breaking study, anthropologist Schade-Poulsen uses this popular music genre as a lens through which he views Algerian society, particularly male society. He situates raï within Algerian family life, moral codes, and broader power relations. The lyrics deal with male-female relationships but also with generational relationships and the problems of youth, as they struggle to find a place in a conflicted society. The study, in its innovative approach to music as a template of society, helps the reader understand the two major movements among today’s Algerian youth: one toward the mosque and the other toward the West.

Schmitt, Arno and Jehoeda Sofer, Editors, 1992
Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.
Until now there has existed a lack of solid information about sexuality in Islamic society, but this volume portrays very clearly the relationship between same-sex eroticism and the ideal of the man as penetrator. As a result, Sexuality and Eroticism illuminates not only homosexuality but the whole sexual culture and role of gender in the Muslim world. Despite its occurrence in this region of the world, sex between males is not considered to be “homosexuality” by most men ― a concept that is reiterated in chapter after chapter. In addition to major differences in the attitudes toward homosexual acts in Muslim countries and the West, this enlightening book also shows great differences among the Muslim countries themselves, depending upon the degree to which Islamic law is enforced, the impact of different Western colonial influences and legal systems, and the sheer impact of cultural variation within so vast a geographic area.

Seidler, Victor J., 2006
Young Men and Masculinities: Global Cultures and Intimate Lives. London: Zed Books.
The lives of young men in a globalized world are influenced by the mass circulation of images of men’s bodies, desires and sexualities, and the cultural masculinities of particular histories, cultures, and traditions. Questioning universalist theories of ‘hegemonic masculinities,’ Young Men and Masculinities argues that young men often feel caught between prevailing masculinities and how they want to define themselves. It explores how the idea of men as ‘the First Sex’ has been established within the West and how young men affirm their male identities in different cultures and societies. It draws on the experience of young men in different continents in creating their own male identities and establishing more equal relationships within a world of intense inequalities.

Silverman, Eric Kline, 2001
Masculinity, Motherhood, and Mockery: Psychoanalyzing Culture and the Iatmul Naven Rite in New Guinea. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
This book analyzes the relationship between masculinity and motherhood in an Eastern Iatmul village along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea. It focuses on a metaphorical dialogue between two countervailing images of the body, dubbed by literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin as the “moral” and the “grotesque.” Throughout this work, Silverman details the dialogics of mothering and manhood throughout Eastern Iatmul culture, including in his analysis cosmology and myth; food and childraising; architecture and canoes; ethnophysiology and sexuality; shame and hygiene; marriage and kinship; and perhaps most significantly, a ceremonial locus classicus in anthropology: the famous Iatmul naven rite. This book provides the first sustained examination of naven since Bateson, presenting new data and interpretations that are based entirely on original, first-hand ethnographic research.

Sinha, Mrinalini, 1995
Colonial Masculinity: The ‘Manly Englishman’ and the ‘Effeminate Bengali’ in the Late Nineteenth Century. New York: Manchester University Press.
This text explores how the British resisted Bengali empowerment through stereotyping them as effeminate, and therefore unable to wield power in colonial India.  Sinha explores Bengali resistance through historical deconstruction of four controversies that took place in British colonized India in the 1880s.

Smith, Richard, 2005
Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of National Consciousness. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This groundbreaking study explores the dynamics of race and masculinity to provide fresh historical insight into the First World War and its imperial dimensions, by examining the experiences of Jamaicans who served in British regiments. Despite their exclusion from the battlefield, the author shows that the experience of war was invaluable in allowing veterans to appropriate codes of heroism, sacrifice, and citizenship in order to wage their own battles for independence on their return home, culminating in the nationalist upsurge of the late 1930s.

Sparke, Matthew, 1996
“Displacing the Field in Fieldwork: Masculinity, Metaphor and Space.” In Bodyspace: Dislocating Geographies of Gender and Sexuality, edited by Nancy Duncan. London and New York: Routledge.
A critique of the “heroic masculinity of the spatial practice of fieldwork,” Sparke notes how metaphors and conceptualizations of the field in masculinist terms need to be destabilized for future geographical research. He argues in favor of a more progressive form of fieldwork based on the “space of between-ness.”

Srivastava, Sanjay, 2004
Sexual Sites, Seminal Attitudes: Sexualities, Masculinities, and Culture in South Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book situates current research into the sexual cultures of South Asia within a cross-cultural perspective. The book argues that in societies undergoing rapid social and cultural change, the construction of sexuality and the discourses that gather around it have a fundamental connection with an entire range of processes ― social, cultural, economic, political and global ― with which people must engage. The contributors have studied sexuality as a site around which social and cultural ideas may be expressed.

Streets, Heather, 2005
Martial Races: The Military, Race and Masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857-1914. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
This book explores how and why Scottish Highlanders, Punjabi Sikhs, and Nepalese Gurkhas became identified as the British Empire’s fiercest soldiers in nineteenth century discourse. As “martial races” these men were believed to possess a biological or cultural disposition to the racial and masculine qualities necessary for the arts of war. Because of this, they were used as icons to promote recruitment in British and Indian armies ― a phenomenon with important social and political effects in India, in Britain, and in the armies of the Empire.

Sweetman, Caroline, Editor, 2003
Gender, Development and Marriage. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Marriage is now acknowledged as an institution of key relevance to development policy, practice, and research. Yet marriage experienced by men is very different from marriage for women. This is because marriage is, in all male-dominated societies, an institution imbued with inequality, in which husbands and fathers rule the roost. The collection of articles traces the economic and social impact of inequality in marriage on women, men, and wider society, and considers its implications for development. Topics include child marriage; the link between women’s economic contribution and equality within marriage; NGO responses to domestic violence; and the need to understand particular forms of marriage as prerequisite for appropriate development policy.

― 2001
Men’s Involvement in Gender and Development Policy and Practice: Beyond Rhetoric. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
This study presents several papers that explore the ways in which development organizations have addressed gender and development in the past, the problems they have faced, and possible ways of working which will take account of future concerns. The two key questions addressed are: In what sectors should gender and development work involve men as beneficiaries? What issues face men who work in activities which have a commitment to gender equality and feminist perspectives?

― 1997
Men and Masculinity. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
Over the last decade, researchers from many different disciplines have taken an increasing interest in studying men’s gender identity and role. This collection of articles by development practitioners and theorists explores new ground by considering the implications of male gender identities for the rights of both men and women, and for gender-equitable development. The authors examine the concept of masculinity, drawing on experiences from Trinidad, South Africa, and around the world.

Taggart, James M., 1997
The Bear and His Sons: Masculinity in Spanish and Mexican Folktales. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
James Taggart contrasts how two men ― a Spaniard and an Aztec-speaking Mexican ― tell such tales as “The Bear’s Son.” He explores how their stories present different ways of being a man in their respective cultures. He also focuses on how fathers reproduce different forms of masculinity in their sons, showing how fathers who care for their infant sons teach them a relational masculinity based on a connected view of human relationships.

Tuzin, Donald, 1997
The Cassowary’s Revenge: The Life and Death of Masculinity in a New Guinea Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tuzin spent time in the New Guinea village of Ilahita during the aftermath of a startling event: the village’s men voluntarily destroyed their secret cult that had allowed them to dominate women for centuries. The book is an account of how Ilahita’s men and women think, emote, dream, and explain themselves. Tuzin also explores how the death of masculinity in a remote society raises implications for gender relations in our own society.

Vale de Almeida, Miguel, 1996
The Hegemonic Male: Masculinity in a Portuguese Town. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Vale de Almeida examines the cultural construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity ― straight, white, and patriarchal ― in the context of the Alentejo region in southern Portugal. His goal is to show how hegemonic masculinity is constituted and reproduced through a series of different social relations and symbolic constructs, and he describes and analyses how masculinity is rooted in social processes of work and leisure.

Waetjen, Thembisa, 2004
Workers and Warriors: Masculinity and the Struggle for Nation in South Africa. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
In this compact, powerful new study, Waetjen explores how gender structured the mobilization of Zulu nationalism in South Africa as anti-apartheid efforts gained force during the 1980s. Undercutting assumptions of male power and nationalism as monolithic, Workers and Warriors demonstrates the ways that masculinities may be plural, conflict-ridden, and crucial not only to the formation of loyalty but also to why some nationalisms fail.

Whitehead, Stephen and Frank J. Barrett, Editors, 2001
The Masculinities Reader. London: Polity Press.
The Masculinities Reader provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the key debates informing the study of masculinity. Structured in an accessible format, the book makes available in a single text some of the most important work on a range of subjects including male power; patriarchy; management and organizations; sexualities; gay friendships; sport; intimacy; identity; hegemonic masculinity; violence; schooling; language; homophobia; Black, Latino and Chicano masculinities; families; media; postmodernism; and subjectivity. The book opens with a substantive introductory chapter that looks at masculinity in crisis, post-feminism, men’s power, changing men, nature/nurture debates, and concepts of identity. Recognizing the global dimensions of gender change, the book draws on research from many corners of the world.

Zalewski, Marysia and Jane Parpart, Editors, 1998
The “Man” Question in International Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This book compiles a diverse body of works to deal with gender issues in international relations. The theme is to specifically problematize men and masculinities in order to solve the theoretical question of whether gendering international relations studies is best done with modernist or post-modernist feminist theory.

Zarkov, Dubravka and Cynthia Cockburn, Editors, 2002
The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities, and International Peacekeeping. London: Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.
This feminist analysis of the postwar movement in Bosnia argues that a crucial but often overlooked factor in the successful reconstruction of societies after conflict is the level of importance accorded to transforming gender power relations. Focusing on two countries, Bosnia and the Netherlands, linked through a “peacekeeping operation,” the contributors illuminate the many ways in which processes of demilitarization and peacekeeping are structured by notions of masculinity and femininity. Several chapters also analyze the self-questioning provoked in the Netherlands after the Dutch contingent of the UN peacekeeping forces was widely held responsible for failing to prevent the Srebrenica massacre; these provide a rich source of insights into relationships between soldiering and masculinities, war-fighting, and peacekeeping.

Zhong, Xueping, 2000
Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the Late Twentieth Century.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
In Masculinity Besieged, Zhong looks at Chinese literature and films produced during the 1980s to examine male subjectivities in contemporary China. Reading through a feminist psychoanalytic lens, Zhong argues that understanding the nature of male subjectivities as portrayed in literature and film is crucial to understanding China’s ongoing quest for modernity.

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Abraham, Janaki, 2006
“The Stain of White: Liaisons, Memories, and White Men as Relatives.” Men and Masculinities, 9(2):131-151.
During British colonial rule some matrilineal Thiyya women in North Kerala, India, had liaisons with British men. While the response of the caste to these liaisons shifted over time, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century many women who had liaisons and their families were excommunicated. A “white connection” became a stain and kinship with the white man was denied or shrouded. This article looks at the ways in which both the liaisons and the denial of the white man as father or relative were located within practices of matrilineal kinship. Furthermore, this article seeks to understand how these liaisons are remembered today and how the presence of the white man as a relative is layered over by processes of forgetting and remembering.

Agadjanian, Victor, 2002
“Men Doing ‘Women’s Work’: Masculinity and Gender Relations Among Street Vendors in Maputo, Mozambique.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):329-342.
Gender inequality in sub-Saharan urban settings is perpetuated through the differences in men’s and women’s positions in the labor market. However, rising unemployment and increasing informalization of the economy that result from both the demographic structure and the structural adjustment reforms undermine men’s economic advantage by pushing them into low-income and low-prestige “women’s” occupations, such as street commerce. Men’s entry into such niches of the labor market leads to both de-gendering and re-gendering of the workplace, which in turns questions the broader gender hierarchy and stereotypes and transforms gender relations. The author analyzes these occupational dynamics and their profound implications for gender identity and relations drawing primarily on in-depth interviews conducted with men street vendors in Greater Maputo, Mozambique, in 1999.

Ahmed, S.M.F., 2006
“Making Beautiful: Male Workers in Beauty Parlors.” Men and Masculinities, 9(2):168-185.
Many competing sociological debates intersect in the world of beauty parlors. There is an increasing proliferation of male or “gents” parlors — a space where a new formation of the male self is being produced and established through new cultures of care and work. Because “work” has always been understood as central to the lives of men, a major basis of their identity, it is often seen as being identified with masculinity. “Beauty” and “caring,” on the other hand, are often viewed as something intrinsically feminine. This article weeds out such notions by presenting life histories of men in “beauty work” and argues that just as different work situations produce different models of masculinities, the same work situation also may prove an arena of a variety of masculinities. The article also explores the possibilities and potentials of understanding gender relations in South Asia that will prove helpful in making comparisons with other masculinity studies.

Allen, Michael, 1998
“Male Cults Revisited: The Politics of Blood Versus Semen.” Oceania, 68(3):189-200.
Allen focuses on the differential emphasis that was placed on blood-letting as against semen-ingesting as the key means whereby boys were believed to be transformed into men in Melanesia.

Allison, Edward and Janet Seeley, 2004
“HIV and AIDS Among Fisherfolk: A Threat to ‘Responsible Fisheries’?” Fish and Fisheries, 5(3):215-234.
Fishing communities are often among the highest-risk groups in countries with high overall rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS stems from complex, interacting causes that may include the mobility of many fisherfolk, the time fishermen spend away from home, their access to daily cash income in an overall context of poverty and vulnerability, their demographic profile, the ready availability of commercial sex in fishing ports, and the subcultures of risk taking and hypermasculinity among some fishermen. HIV/AIDS in fishing communities was first dealt with as a public health issue, and most projects were conducted by health sector agencies and NGOs, focusing on education and health care provision. More recently, as the social and economic impacts of the epidemic have become evident, wider social service provision and economic support have been added.

Alméras, Diane, 2000
“Equitable Social Practices and Masculine Personal History: A Santiago Study.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):139-156.
The issue of shared family responsibilities is central to the actual process of rethinking gender relations because it is one of the main expressions of the sexual division of labor which still rules the organization of most human groups. In all patriarchal societies, the attribution of the private domain to women and the hegemony of men on the public space have reciprocally generated and strengthened themselves in a vicious circle. In most Latin American societies, the uneven distribution of roles inside the household is becoming the main obstacle to women’s equality of opportunities in social life. While problems of formal access to areas of social participation such as education and work are confronted with growing success, it is now the quality of this integration which remains unsolved ― and this is a question which is closely related both to the mechanics of the sexual division of labor and to its role in the construction of gender identities.

Alter, Joseph S., 2004
“Indian Clubs and Colonialism: Hindu Masculinity and Muscular Christianity.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 46(3):497-534.
Following Edward Said’s Orientalism, there has been considerable interest in studying gender images and engendered practices that emerged out of colonialism, both during the era of colonialism and subsequently.  Many of these studies have shown how colonized women were subject to the gendered and often sexualized gaze of Western men, and how colonized men were often regarded as either effeminate or ‘martial’ by virtue of their birth into a particular group.  Arguably, the latent ambiguity of regarding all colonized men as effete, and yet categorizing some colonized men as strong and aggressively virile, points to one of the many complex contradictions manifest in the cultural politics of colonialism.  A similar point could be made with regard to nationalism, wherein women, and the image men want women to present of themselves, reflects masculine ambivalence about modernity.  In any case, even when colonial discourse essentializes the virile masculinity of various subject groups ― in particular the so-called martial castes of South Asia ― the putative masculinity of these groups is ascribed to breeding and latent ‘savagery,’ and is rarely, if ever, conceived of as an achieved status, much less something an individual from some other group might achieve on the basis of training or practice.

― 1997
“Seminal Truth: A Modern Science of Male Celibacy in Northern India.”  Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 11(3):275-298.
Many scholars have noted that brahmacharya (celibacy) is an important concept in Hindu notions of male identity.  Although the psychological basis of this concept has been studied, there is very little in the literature on the “medical mechanics” of becoming and being a brahmachari.  Nor is there a comprehensive account of the precise relationship between sex and the meaning of physical health in modern urban India.  Through an examination of the popular Hindi literature on brahmacharya, interpreted within the context of therapeutic celibacy as put in practice by a modern yoga society, this article shows how a discourse about sex, semen, and health is conceived of in terms of embodied truth.  Using Foucault’s critique of Western sexuality as a contrasting frame of reference, the author argues that the “truth” about sex in modern North India is worked out in somatic rather than psychological terms, in which morality is problematically defined by male physiology and gendered conceptions of good health.

Andrade, Xavier, 2001
“Machismo and Politics in Ecuador: The Case of Pancho Jaime.” Men and Masculinities, 3(3):299-315.
This article explores the political uses of machismo and dominant notions of masculinity as tools for constructing agendas for popular redemption in Guayaquil, Ecuador.  The focus is on the life and work of Pancho Jaime (1946-1989), the most controversial and widely known independent journalist in Guayaquil.  Between 1984 and his assassination in 1989, Jaime illegally produced political magazines using gossip, pornographic caricatures, and obscene language to comment on the corruption of politicians and oligarchs.  Jaime’s strategy was to make connections between the conduct of powerful figures in public office and the “deviant” sexuality of these same individuals.  This large body of cultural material is interpreted as part of a politics of masculinity historically linked to everyday life and local populist traditions.  Analyzing images and audience responses to Jaime’s grotesque visual and aggressive textual discourses, ethnographic findings are discussed in relation to concepts of vulgarity, the performance of masculinity in the public sphere, and carnivalesque inversions of power.

Attwood, Lynne, 1995
“Men, Machine Guns, and the Mafia: Post-Soviet Cinema as a Discourse on Gender.” Women’s Studies International Forum, 18(5-6):513-521.
Recent Russian cinema has been dominated by representations of the mafia, a catch-all term embracing anyone involved in organized crime, protection racketeering, etc.  A number of Russian film critics have offered a symbolic reading of such films, arguing that the mafia represents the political chaos and the breakdown in public order in post-Soviet society.  This essay suggests an alternative reading: that these films can be understood as a discourse on gender.  Analyzing six recent films, the author seeks to demonstrate that although they do no overtly applaud the actions of the mafia, they do celebrate traditional conceptions of masculinity, and they can be said to accord with the perception, widespread in post-Soviet Russia, that the move to the market ― with its resurrection of individualism, entrepreneurship, risk-taking, and ruthlessness ― is releasing men from decades of feminization wrought by the ‘nanny state.’

Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella, 2004
“The Struggle for Mapuche Shaman’s Masculinity: Colonial Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Southern Chile.” Ethnohistory, 51(3):489-533.
Bacigalupo questions Western notions of sexual and gender identity as dichotomous and unchanging by analyzing the differences in conceptions of gender identity between the native Mapuche and colonial Spaniards.  While Spanish gender norms viewed men and women as fixed and distinct categories with little overlap, the Mapuche accepted ‘co-gendered’ identities and a more fluid conception of gender norms.  The author relates Spanish views on gender norms to their systems of gendered power, justifying Spanish oppression of the Mapuche by their failure to internalize Spanish masculinity and thus capitalize on masculine privilege. 

Bahsin, Kamla, 1997
“Gender Workshops with Men: Experiences and Reflections.” Gender and Development, 5(2):55-61.
This article describes the experiences of gender trainers that organized gender-sensitivity workshops with male decision-makers in several South Asian development NGOs. Their unique program combined theoretical discussion about sex, gender, and patriarchy with personal reflection. Also included were analyses of various development policies and programs. Although the workshops sessions had mixed results, reactions from men were usually positive and helped introduce them to issues of gender inequality.

Bandyopadhyay, Mahuya, 2006
“Competing Masculinities in a Prison.” Men and Masculinities, 9(2):186-203.
This article draws on fieldwork conducted in a central prison in Kolkata, India, which is an overwhelmingly male space. This ethnographic material demonstrates the nature of the male space and the practices through which male identities were made and defined within this space. The author argues that the experience of the prison and incarceration is one in which the dominant norms of maleness are challenged. Through the processes of divestiture of rights implicit in imprisonment, the image of a man as an independent agent of his destiny, as protector of his family, as a worker and bread earner, or even as a strong and influential man in the neighborhood are displaced. This article explores the ways male prisoners deal with this “less than a man” image within the prison. The gendered nature of the prison as an organization emerges when examining contexts in which male identities are enacted and made.

Banerjee, Sikata, 2006
“Armed Masculinity, Hindu Nationalism and Female Political Participation in India: Heroic Mothers, Chaste Wives, and Celibate Warriors.” International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1):62-83.
Male and female bodies as well as societal ideas defining cultural interpretations of masculinities and feminities are potent metaphors for expressing nation.  This article examines two cultural expressions of nation and manliness ― the Hindu soldier and warrior monk ― disseminated in Hindu nationalist organizations in India.  These images, among others, emerged from India’s experience of British imperialism and are defined by values of martial prowess, muscular strength, a readiness to go to battle and moral fortitude.  This article argues that this masculinized vision of nation carries important implications for women.  Women enter this masculine environment through roles such as heroic mother, chaste wife, and celibate warrior.  Although divergent in their articulation at the grassroots, all three models of female behavior articulate two social themes.  One, women’s bodies represent national honor, and two, this embodiment only works if women are chaste and virtuous.  Indian feminists view such feminine activism with suspicion because the considerable empowerment women may derive from Hindu nationalist politics ultimately does not challenge the gendered power imbalances within the patriarchal Hindu family.

Barker, Gary, 2001
“‘Cool Your Head, Man’: Preventing Gender Based Violence in Favelas.” Development, 44(3):94-98.
Barker presents results from an action-research project that sought to identify more gender-equitable young men in a low income setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where violence against women was common. The research identified factors that may have contributed to the young men’s alternative values and were incorporated into a community intervention that seeks to change young men’s attitudes toward women.

Battaglia, Debbora, 1985
“‘We Feed Our Father’: Paternal Nuture Among the Sabarl of Papua New Guinea.”  American Ethnologist, volume 12, number 3, pp. 427-441.
Among matrilineal peoples in Papua New Guinea, power symmetries and asymmetries, with their bases in indigenous models of gender and generation-based relations, are often revealed in the way paternal nurture is conceptualized and the way people act in relation to it.  In the case of the Sabarl, these relations are marked in “paths” of symbolic action and embodied concretely in the movement of ritual foods and objects featured in affinal exchanges.  The ritual action and exchange scene is especially elaborate and circumscribing at death, when the contribution of males to the reproductive process is formally acknowledged.  The position of males within the matrilineal system is examined here in relation to the larger theme of societal and cultural continuity.

Beattie, Peter M., 2002
“Beyond Machismos: Recent Examinations of Masculinities in Latin America.” Men and Masculinities, 4(3):303-308.
This article is an overview of recent literature examining Latin American masculinities, drawing from both literary criticism and anthropology.

Boellstorff, Tom, 2004
“The Emergence of Political Homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and National Belonging.” Ethnos, 69(4):465-486.
This article explores an unprecedented series of violent acts against ‘gay’ Indonesians beginning in September 1999.  Indonesia is often characterized as being ‘tolerant’ of homosexuality.  This is a false belief, but one containing a grain of truth.  To identify this grain of truth the author distinguishes between ‘heterosexism’ and ‘homophobia,’ noting that Indonesia has been marked by a predominance of heterosexism over homophobia.  The author examines the emergence of a political homophobia directed at public events where gay men stake a claim to Indonesia’s troubled civil society.  That such violence is seen as the properly masculine response to these events indicates how the nation may be gaining a new masculinist cast.  In the new Indonesia, male-male desire can increasingly be construed as a threat to normative masculinity, and thus to the nation itself.

Bracewell, Wendy, 2000
“Rape in Kosovo: Masculinity and Serbian Nationalism.” Nations and Nationalism, 6(4):563-590.
Accusations of Albanian rape of Serbs in Kosovo became a highly charged political factor in the development of Serbian nationalism in the 1980s.  Discussions of rape were used to link perceptions of national victimization and a crisis of masculinity, and to legitimate a militant Serbian nationalism, ultimately contributing to the violent break-up of Yugoslavia.  The article argues for attention to the ways that nationalist projects have been structured with reference to ideals of masculinity, the specific political and cultural contexts that have influenced these processes, and the consequent implications for gender relations as well as for nationalist politics.  Such an approach helps explain the appeal of Milošević’s nationalism; at the same time it highlights the divisions and conflicts that lie behind hegemonic gender and national identities constructed around difference.

Brison, Karen, 1995
“Changing Constructions of Masculinity in a Sepik Society.” Ethnology, 34(3):155-175.
Changing conceptions of person and community among the eastern Kwanga of the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea are analyzed to examine the “politics of identity.”  Experiences under the colonial system and now in the independent nation of Papua New Guinea have caused the Kwanga to view male strength in a more negative light than they once did.

Brown, Jill, James Sorrell and Marcela Raffaelli, 2005
“An Exploratory Study of Constructions of Masculinity, Sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Namibia, South Africa.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(6):585-598.
The goal of the current study was to explore notions of masculinity and their linkages to HIV/AIDS among Owambo men and women in Namibia, where an estimated one-fifth of 15–49 year-olds have acquired HIV. Thirteen open-ended interviews and three focus groups were conducted with 50 male and female participants aged 19–50 in rural and urban Namibia. Qualitative analysis revealed six central themes: the evolving meanings of masculinity, power dynamics between men and women, women as active agents, the tension between formal and informal education and HIV transmission, alcohol and masculinity, and the blending of masculinity and explanations of HIV and AIDS. The findings suggest both direct and indirect linkages between notions of masculinity and AIDS, and highlight the need for prevention efforts that focus on providing alternative avenues for attaining culturally recognized markers of masculinity.

Brown, Matthew, 2005
“Adventurers, Foreign Women and Masculinity in the Colombian Wars of Independence.” Feminist Review, 79(1):36-51.
This paper examines changing conceptions of honor and masculinity during the Colombian Wars of Independence in the early 19th century. It explores the position of the foreign women who accompanied British and Irish expeditions to join the war against Spanish rule, and shows how colonial, imperial, and republican conceptions of masculinity were affected by the role that women played in these volunteer expeditions and in the wars in general. The paper considers women’s experiences during war and peace, and examines their experiences in the light of changing conceptions of masculinity at home, in the British empire and in Hispanic America in the early nineteenth century. The social mobility of the Wars of Independence shifted the ground on which these concepts rested for all groups involved. The participation of foreign women alongside male adventurers was a further ingredient in this disorientating period.

Campbell, C., 1997
“Migrancy, Masculine Identities and AIDS: The Psychosocial Context of HIV Transmission on the South African Gold Mines.” Social Science and Medicine, 45(2):273-281.
Levels of HIV infection are particularly high amongst migrant workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a case study of one such vulnerable group of migrants ― underground workers on the South African gold mines ― and highlights the psychosocial context of HIV transmission in the mining setting. On the assumption that social identities serve as an important influence on peoples’ sexual behavior, the study examines the way in which miners construct their social identities within the parameters of their particular living and working conditions. It also identifies some of the key narratives used by miners to make sense of their experience in the realms of health, ill-health, HIV, and sexuality. Masculinity emerged as a leading narrative in informants’ accounts of their working life, health, and sexuality, and the paper examines the way in which the construction of masculine identities renders miners particularly vulnerable to HIV. The implications of these findings for HIV educational interventions are discussed.

Carter, Marion and Ilene S. Speizer, 2005
“Pregnancy Intentions among Salvadoran Fathers: Results from the 2003 National Male Reproductive Health Survey.” International Family Planning Perspectives, 31(4):179-182.
In El Salvador, fathers less commonly say that pregnancies are unintended than mothers do.  However, men’s pregnancy intentions are not understood as well as women’s.  Data from 425 fathers participating in the 2003 National Male Reproductive Health Survey of El Salvador were analyzed to examine their intentions in regard to partner’s pregnancies that had ended in a live birth in the last five years.  They were asked whether they had been trying to avoid pregnancy at the time of conception, whether they had been trying to get their partner pregnant, how they felt about the pregnancy, and what they thought their partner’s pregnancy intentions had been.  A quarter of the pregnancies had been unintended from the men’s perspective ― 13% had been mistimed, and 11% had been unwanted.  Almost half of unintended pregnancies had been conceived when the father was trying to avoid pregnancy.  However, 36% of men reporting an unintended pregnancy said they had been happy when they found out about it.  For 20% of all pregnancies, men perceived that their partner’s pregnancy intentions differed from their own.  Thus, family planning services in El Salvador need improvement, and services and outreach should target men.  Men’s experiences with unintended pregnancies ― in particular, contraceptive failures and discordance within couples about pregnancy intentions ― are complex and merit further investigation.

Carter, T., 2001
“Baseball Arguments: Aficionismo and Masculinity at the Core of Cubanidad.” International Journal of the History of Sport, 18(3):117-138.
Baseball has been the national sport of Cuba since it struggled for independence from Spain in the nineteenth century. The links between baseball and the nation provide Cubans with definitive ideals of masculinity displayed in their passion for the sport of baseball. Rather than focusing on baseball players as the embodiment of Cuban masculinity, however, this article examines one current group of baseball fans’ constructions of their own masculinity and Cubanness. Through their passions for their sport, fans forge social links on an individual basis and larger group identities, in this instance gender and national identities. Such constructions are based on individual articulateness, memory, and location, all of which are determined by a particular set of historical circumstances.

Chant, Sylvia, 2000
“From ‘Woman-blind’ to ‘Man-kind’: Should Men Have More Space in Gender and Development?” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):7-17.
This article considers a series of conceptual, practical, and strategic reasons why gender and development policy and planning might benefit from incorporating men to a greater degree than has been the case thus far. The article is divided into three main sections. The first sketches some of the background to the emergence of interest in ‘men in GAD.’ The second outlines some of the main problems associated with the exclusion of men from gender planning at institutional and grassroots levels. The third identifies how a more active and overt incorporation of men as gendered and engendering beings in gender policy and planning has the potential of expanding the scope of gender and development interventions, and of furthering struggles to achieve greater and more sustained equality between men and women.

― 2000
“Men in Crisis? Reflections on Masculinities, Work and Family in North-West Costa Rica.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):199-218.
Based on interviews conducted with 80 low-income men in the province of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica, this paper explores men’s relationships with work and family. The discussion highlights the causes of an emergent ‘crisis of masculinity’ among men in the region, and its interconnections with employment, gender, and conjugal relationships. The main argument of the paper is that while the ‘family’ in Guanacaste has always been an unstable entity to some degree and a source of stress for women and children, this is presently becoming a problem for men as well, whose traditional bases of power and identity in family units are being undermined by changes in the labor market and legislative/policy initiatives in women’s interests. Men’s current ‘crisis’ in Guanacaste is strongly tied to their loss of power within families rather than the break-up of family units per se, and to the fact that decisions within and about households are increasingly being taken out of their own hands. The paper concludes with pointers to the need for social policy to assist in creating space for new familial masculinities and more egalitarian and cooperative relations between men and women.

Chapman, Kris, 2004
Ossu! Sporting Masculinities in a Japanese Karate Dojo.” Japan Forum, 16(2):315-335.
By taking the ethnographic example of a Tokyo karate dojo (training hall), this article explores the social construction of gendered identities in sporting contexts.  Describing the masculine hegemony that prevails in the dojo and more generally in sporting environments both within and beyond Japan, the extent to which masculine ideals are embedded in sporting culture is acknowledged and problematized.  The ‘naturalness’ of male physical superiority is not questioned through a physiological comparison of male and female sporting capabilities.  Instead, it is suggested that masculine hegemony in sport is contingent rather than inherent, and the dialectic between hegemonic cultural constructions of masculinity and personal expressions of gendered performance forms the central analytical theme of this paper.  Exploring the potential for the subversion of the traditional masculine hegemony through individual agency, the author suggests the possibility for types of involvement in sports which, rather than being gender-free, are non-gender-specific and thus equally open to participants whatever their sex.

Charsley, Katherine, 2005
“Unhappy Husbands: Masculinity and Migration in Transnational Pakistani Marriages.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1):85-105.
This article, based on fieldwork in the Pakistani Punjab and with predominantly Punjabi families in Bristol, is concerned with the common practice of British Pakistanis marrying Pakistani nationals. Informants stress the risks that such marriages hold for women, but this research highlights the social, cultural, and economic difficulties faced by migrant husbands, comparing their position to that of the ghar damad (house son-in-law). Whilst women are instructed from a young age on the adjustments the move to their husband's household will entail, male migrants are often unprepared for this situation. A lack of local kin support can combine with the culturally unusual proximity of the wife’s family to restructure gendered household relations of power. Frustrations experienced by such men may help to explain instances where such marriages have ended in the husband's violence, desertion, or taking a second wife, but the model of the unhappy ghar damad is also significant in understanding the experiences of many other migrant men and their British wives.

Chopra, Radhika, 2006
“Invisible Men: Masculinity, Sexuality, and Male Domestic Labor.” Men and Masculinities, 9(2):152-167.
This article addresses the issue of gendering the veil in the Middle East and North Africa and argues that veiling must expand beyond the primary focus on clothing and must be viewed as a system that frames bodily styles, speech forms, and the language of gestures.  Veiling has feminine and masculine forms but evokes different things for men and women and is experienced in dual-gendered ways.  The ethnography focuses on the lives of male domestic workers who are liminal and incomplete members of contemporary urban households to address the issue of the performance of maleness and male veiling practices by the partial members of social units such as households to argue that we must understand veiling as a way of undoing gender.  The intersections of class, sexuality, and gender within interior spaces of domesticity reconfigure relations of gender. Work as a site within which masculinity, identity, and power are constituted enables us to view male veiling beyond the shame and honor discourse to address the bodies and dispositions of men who labor.

Clark, Marshall, 2004
“Men, Masculinities and Symbolic Violence in Recent Indonesian Cinema.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35(1):113-131.
This article investigates images of men and masculinities in post-New Order Indonesian popular culture, focusing on a recent and path-breaking Indonesian film, Kuldesak. The theoretical sociology of Pierre Bourdieu is utilized to suggest that if Indonesian women are to be assisted in their efforts to resist the gender inequality of Indonesia’s patriarchal gender regime, then the social gendering of men and masculinity must also be understood.

Cleaver, Frances, 2000
“Analysing Gender Roles in Community Natural Resource Management: Negotiation, Life Courses and Social Inclusion.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):60-67.
This article considers the absence of convincing analyses of gender roles in thinking about community-based natural resource management. It suggests that policies and approaches are inadequately gendered and particularly omit the relational nature of gender. Such approaches are further criticized for promoting women’s development to the neglect of men, for perpetuating normative generalizations about men and women, and for an excessive focus on public manifestations of gendered participation and decision making. This results in policies which overlook the changing and negotiated nature of gender roles, the intersection of productive and reproductive concerns in gendered decision making, and the costs to women and men of inclusion in and exclusion from public life. This article draws on examples of gendered decision-making and negotiation over the management of land, livestock, and water in Zimbabwe. It argues for a more sophisticated conceptualization of the roles of men and women which takes account of their capacities as individual agents as well as the different structural constraints operating on them. The article suggests areas where further analysis is urgently required.

Connell, R.W., 2003
“Masculinities, Change and Conflict in Global Society: Thinking About the Future of Men’s Studies.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 11(3):249-266.
Contemporary men’s studies arises from a history of debates about gender relations, men, and masculinities, yet represents a new departure based on social analysis of gender and close-focus empirical work. This approach is now becoming world-wide, and has found important practical applications in areas such as education and health. Problems are increasingly recognized in the field, including dilemmas of research method and debates about ways of theorizing masculinities. New approaches emphasize discursive and situational analysis and demand a clearer recognition of global forces. Gender relations have a global dimension that shapes contemporary masculinities, for instance emerging patterns of business masculinity. The connection between violence and masculinity is a key contemporary issue. Recent research shows both institutional bases and situational triggers of gendered violence, which are important in understanding contemporary global conflict and developing strategies for peace.

Conway-Long, Don, 2002
“Sexism and Rape Culture in Moroccan Social Discourse.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):361-371.
In March 1993, Hajj Mustapha Tabit was arrested in Morocco for abusing his power as a police commissioner by abducting and sexually assaulting hundreds of women over a period of 13 years. The reaction in the local Moroccan press is examined here, demonstrating a structure of discourse that blamed female victims, elevated the male offender to a kind of cult status, and generally contributed to the perpetuation of a sexist subjectivity in a nation that was only beginning to deal with crimes against women in any organized manner. The specifics of the case study are placed in the general context of women’s struggle for emancipation in Morocco.

Cornwall, Andrea, 2000
“Missing Men? Reflections on Men, Masculinities and Gender in GAD.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):18-27.
This article explores the implications of missing men for gender and development. Men, in all their diversity, are largely missing from representations of ‘gender issues’ and ‘gender relations’ in GAD. Mainstream development purveys its own set of stereotypical images of men, serving equally to miss the variety of men who occupy other, more marginal, positions in households and communities. Men remain residual and are often missing from institutionalized efforts to tackle gender inequity. Portrayed and engaged with only in relation to women, men are presumed to be powerful and are represented as problematic obstacles to equitable development. Men’s experiences of powerlessness remain outside the frame of GAD, so threatening is the idea of marginal man. Amidst widespread agreement that changing men, as well as women, is crucial if GAD is to make a difference, new strategies are needed. This article suggests that rather than simply ‘bringing men in,’ the issues raised by reflecting on men, masculinities, and gender in GAD require a more radical questioning of the analytical categories used in GAD, and a revised politics of engagement.

― 1997
“Men, Masculinity and Gender in Development.” Gender and Development, 5(2):8-13.
This article focuses on the implications of recent work in feminist theory, and on questions of masculinity, stressing the need to take account of the complex and variable nature of gender identities, and to work with men on exploring the constraints of dominant models of masculinity.

Derné, Steve, 2002
“Globalization and the Reconstitution of Local Gender Arrangements.” Men and Masculinities, 5(2):144-164.
This article explores how globalization shapes the construction of masculinity among nationalist Indian men, filmgoing men in India, and diasporic Indian men in Fiji.  These men are often attracted to transnational media depictions of male violence as the basis of male identity.  But bureaucratic transnational forms and transnational media celebrations of cosmopolitan lifestyles also engender anxieties about national identity.  Men often handle these anxieties by rooting their own national identity in women’s acceptance of food habits, clothing, and gender subordination that men regard as traditional.  Although partcipation in bureaucratic economies is an important source of men’s anxieties about globalization, men address these anxieties in the realm of interpersonal gender relations over which they have some control.

Doss, D.B. and J.R. Hopkins, 1998
“The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale: Validation from Three Cultural Perspectives.” Sex Roles, 38(9-10):719-741.
The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (MMIS) measures an individual’s adaptation and internalization of a culture’s norms about how men should act. This study extends previous research on masculinity ideology by generating a scale representing multiple cultural perspectives using 190 Chilean, 283 Anglo-American, and 296 African-American undergraduates. Two components consistent across cultures emerged: Hypermasculine Posturing and Achievement. In addition, there were culturally-specific components: Toughness, Pose, and Responsibility among Chileans; Sensitivity among Anglo-Americans; and Sexual Responsibility among African-Americans. Results indicate that the MMIS can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to culture and masculinity.

Downes, Aviston, 2005
“From Boys to Men: Colonial Education, Cricket and Masculinity in the Caribbean, 1870-c.1920.” The International Journal of the History of Sport, 22(1):3-21.
This article contends that elite middle-class schools established in the Caribbean from the latter half of the nineteenth century played a central role in masculine identity formation in the region. Like the English public schools after which they were modelled, sport, especially cricket, reinforced by popular juvenile literature and paramilitarism was at the core of the creation of this masculine identity. Boys were taught that the sports field and the battlefield were arenas for proving their manhood. Although the elite schools catered primarily to the white elite and a selected few from the non-white middle class, the masculine games ethos assumed a hegemony across Caribbean societies. Black men in the Caribbean, like their white counterparts at home and across the empire, enthusiastically embraced the sporting codes and enlisted to defend imperial interests in the First World War. Racial discrimination, however, fragmented any notion of a common British transatlantic manhood. The emergence of ‘bodyline’ bowling in West Indian cricket from the 1920s reflected a challenge to entrenched notions of white colonial and imperial masculinities.

Duncan, J.S., 2000
“The Struggle to be Temperate: Climate and ‘Moral Masculinity’ in Mid-Nineteenth Century Ceylon.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 21(1):34-37.
This paper examines a particular type of imperial literature, the writing of the plantation in mid-nineteenth century Ceylon. These writings, by and for the male planting community, were written to recruit, instruct, and entertain, and drew upon discourses of tropicality and moral masculinity. But discourses are constrained by the material conditions under which they are put into practice. Consequently, writings about a place such as highland Ceylon recognised the divergence of this place from the archetypal tropics. Accounts, nevertheless, remained within the conceptual grid that Livingstone has termed the “morality of climate.” These texts were also pervaded by the discourse of moral masculinity. More particularly, the narrative structure of these writings was inflected by the masculinist adventure novel, which was cross-cut by concerns of race, class, religion, and nationality. The tropical highlands were represented as an adversary that presented a moral test of the planters’ manhood, race, and class.

Duwury, Nata and Madhabika B. Nayak, 2003
“The Role of Men in Addressing Domestic Violence: Insights From India.” Development, 46(2):45-50.
The authors outline a broad framework for understanding domestic violence and masculinity based on emerging data from an ongoing multi-site project in India. They highlight the links between norms and practices of masculinity and violence and the affects of socio-cultural, political, and economic processes.

Ehrenreich, Nancy, 2004
“Disguising Empire: Racialized Masculinity and the ‘Civilizing’ of Iraq.” Cleveland State Law Review, 52:131-138.
The author explores the gender-based messages conveyed by current popular discourse on the recent American invasion of Iraq.  The author argues that this discourse on war and terrorism enacts and reinforces an image of masculinity as nationalistic, racially aggressive, homophobic, and sexist.  Yet this discourse also disguises these negative attributes by presenting masculinity as principled, civilizing, and beneficient.  Media coverage in particular has expressed and reinforced this construction of masculinity, disguising American imperialism as noble expressions of manly, civilizing power.

Elliston, Deborah, 2004
“A Passion for the Nation: Masculinity, Modernity, and Nationalist Struggle.” American Ethnologist, 31(4):606-630.
In the mid-1990s, young Polynesian men emerged at the frontlines of pro-independence sentiment and mobilization in the Society Islands of France’s overseas territory, French Polynesia.  In this article, the author asks why.  In purusing that question, she argues for the theoretical and empirical productivity of shifting the associations between masculinity and nationalist struggle out of the realm of common sense and into that of the sociological; that is, of moving away from the analytics of gender foundationalism and into interrogations of the very social processes through which gender differences, masculinities more specifically, are produced.  Through ethnographic analysis of gendered labor practices and their mediation by and through households, the author tracks how young men’s positioning within most local arenas of social action shaped their engagements with competing local formulations of ‘tradition,’ ‘modernity,’ and, through those engagements, their commitments to large-scale nationalist struggle.

Engle, Patrice L., 1997
“The Role of Men in Families: Achieving Gender Equity and Supporting Children.” Gender and Development, 5(2):31-40.
This article surveys the role of fathers in development initiatives designed to increase the wellbeing of wives and children. The author argues that while much of the development literature and projects stress the importance of women in the lives of children, more effective interventions need to recognize the unique roles of men in families.

Epprecht, Marc, 2005
“Black Skin, ‘Cowboy Masculinity’: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(3):253-266.
This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe’s anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the ‘cowboy’ culture of white Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

― 2002
“Male-Male Sexuality in Lesotho: Two Conversations.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):373-389.
Lesotho has an assertively heteronormative and ‘macho’ culture. Indeed, Basotho men have long possessed a reputation in southern Africa for being among the fiercest gangsters, toughest workers, and most incorrigible womanizers of all the African peoples of the region. In 1907 an official enquiry into ‘unnatural vice’ at the South African mines exonerated the Basotho of homosexual behavior. Yet by 1941 another report found that the Basotho were not only enthusiastically participating in inkotshane (male-male sexual relationships) but also public cross-dressing and same-sex marriage ceremonies. Given that Lesotho was almost entirely lacking in industrial development and any significant white or Asian immigration and tourism during the colonial era, it makes an interesting test case regarding the ‘spreadability’ of modern homosexual relations in African societies. This article examines the changes to Basotho male sexuality that took place in relation to the migrant labor system. It assesses whether, and why, male-male sexual relations were as ‘contagious’ as some people today fear.

― 1998
“The ‘Unsaying’ of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity.” Journal of Southern African Studies, 24(4):631-651.
Many black Zimbabweans believe that homosexuality was introduced to the country by white settlers and is now mainly propagated by ‘the West’.  The denial of indigenous homosexual behaviors and identities is often so strong that critics have been quick with accusations of homophobia.  Yet those critics unfairly impose a rather crude and ultimately unhelpful analysis.  Without denying that violent forms of homophobia do exist in Zimbabwe, the invisibility of indigenous homosexualities has more complex origins.  This article examines the many, overlapping discourses that are constructed into the dominant ideology of masculinity and that contrive to ‘unsay’ indigenous male-to-male sexualities.  It seeks in that way to gain insight into the overdetermination of assertively masculinist behavior among Zimbabwean men today.  It also draws lessons for researchers on the importance of interrogating the silences around masculinity.

Falabella, Gonzalo, 1997
“New Masculinity: A Different Route.” Gender and Development, 5(2):62-64.
This article formed part of a presentation made by the Chilean sociologist Gonzalo Falabella at the First Citizens’ Forum for Tolerance and Non-Discrimination, which took place in Santiago de Chile in March 1995. The subject arose out of the experiences and conversations of a group of professional men, who were searching for a new identity.

Färnsveden, Ulf and Anders Rönquist, 2000
“Why Men? A Pilot Study of Existing Attitudes Among SIDA’s Staff Toward Male Participation in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Development.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):79-85.
There is today a call for a broader view on gender relations and there are also some signs that men are becoming increasingly involved in the promotion of gender equality. An important principle of SIDA’s policy for working to promote equality between women and men is the need for a gender approach that focuses on both women and men and the relationships between them rather than an exclusive focus on women. To what extent is this stated objective reflected in the attitudes and practices of SIDA employees towards male participation in gender work? Although we believe that the threats and risks with having more men in GAD have to be taken into serious consideration, our findings suggest support among colleagues for our own belief that male participation is indeed positive for the strengthening of equal rights and opportunities. There seems to be a general belief that gender equality concerns everyone, men as well as women. Our respondents have stated that men must be participating actively if real changes in gender relations are to be brought about. Finally, it was our impression from our talks with SIDA’s employees that the organization’s staff felt that the organization’s work with promoting gender equality would be further reinforced by active male participation.

Figueroa, Mark, 2000
“Making Sense of the Male Experience: The Case of Academic Underachievement in the English-speaking Caribbean.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):68-74.
During the twentieth century, gender achievement in education has undergone a major transformation in the English-speaking Caribbean. Males are now the underachievers on global indicators, especially at the higher levels of the system. Yet males still overachieve in many fields where they have traditionally dominated. Although females’ achievement in formerly male-dominated areas gets a lot of attention, the failure of males to make any headway in fields traditionally dominated by females has been ignored. The current situation is best understood as differential gender achievement connected to an underlying historic male privileging rather than male underachievement due to some form of male marginalization. This proposition is explored drawing on a wide range of Caribbean research. A dynamic analysis is presented on how socio-economic change has impacted on academic achievement through factors operating at the level of the household and community, in school and at the workplace. Implications for policy are also discussed indicating the different approach adopted by the competing perspectives on gender and educational achievement.

Fonseca, Claudia, 2001
“Philanderers, Cuckolds, and Wily Women.” Men and Masculinities, 3(3):261-277.
In this essay on working-class families in an urban Brazilian neighborhood, it is considered how, through jokes and gossip about sexual transgression, men and women use and are affected by culturally accepted definitions of masculinity.  Focusing on spontaneous speech events and placing the husband-wife relationship within a social context in which mothers and sisters exert enormous influence over their male relatives, new dimensions of male-female power relations are glimpsed that might be overlooked by methodologies more centered on hegemonic norms.  The observations suggest that particular economic and political circumstances have contributed to a situation in which images of masculine honor, although ostensibly reinforcing male privilege, are wielded by women as effective weapons against their husbands as well as against female rivals.

Fox, Diana J., 1999
“Masculinity and Fatherhood Reexamined: An Ethnographic Account of the Contradictions of Manhood in a Rural Jamaican Town.” Men and Masculinities, 2(1):66-86.
This article examines contradictory perspectives on fatherhood in an agricultural community in Jamaica.  In recent years, scholars of the Caribbean family have focused on fatherhood as part of a general island-wide concern over the development of positive male images.  To date, studies of rural Jamaica have focused on female-headed households, generating some fairly stereotypical profiles of Caribbean men as irresponsible fathers and unfaithful, abusive partners, on the margins of family life.  The article revisits this image, reflecting on gender roles and relationships through an ethnographic case study of one particular father.  Richard, a hatter with three children, lives in a common-law marriage.  At the time of research, he was at the center of community controversy which challenged his responsibility as a father.  A study of the controversy reveals that fatherhood is contested terrain where an emerging cultural disposition toward nurturing fathers competes with conventional notions of the aloof disciplinarian.

Fuller, Norma, 2001
“The Social Construction of Gender Identity Among Peruvian Men.” Men and Masculinities, 3(3):316-331.
Through analysis of 120 in-depth interviews carried out among men from the middle-class and popular sectors, this article reconstructs the representations of masculinity of a sample of men living in three cities in Peru.  The central question posed is how men reaffirm and constitute their gender identities in a context in which, despite the fact that men continue to maintain a monopoly over the political and economic life of the country as well as authority within the family, some qualities and roles traditionally assigned to them have lost their legitimacy as a result of the democratization of values, changes in family structure and the status of women, and the emergence of new discourses of masculinity and gender relations.  Two additional issues are also analyzed: the way that discourses regarding masculinity intersect with regional, class, and generational identities, and how gender identity is linked to macrosocial processes.

― 2000
“Work and Masculinity Among Peruvian Men.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):93-114.
This article analyzes the representations of masculinity and work that characterize the contemporary urban culture of men in Peru. The central question is how men constitute their gender identities in the context of a diminishing monopoly of the labor market, due to changing gender relations and neoliberal economic reforms which have thrown men out of their jobs and forced large numbers of women to enter the job market. To this end, the author interviewed 120 men living in three Peruvian cities. Her results show that, among Peruvian men, work is the key dimension of masculine identity and is represented as a masculine space. While paid labor remains a sphere of gender relations that has undergone dramatic changes during the last decades, this has not brought about an elimination of the close association between masculine identity and work. Now, working and middle-class men have become underemployed workers who need the contribution of each family member, male or female, in order to subsist. Although these changes have profound consequences that affect their self-esteem, they have not led Peruvian men to question the hegemonic model of masculinity.

Garda, Robert, 2001
“‘I Want to Recover Those Things I Damaged’: The Experience of Men’s Groups Working to Stop Violence in Mexico.” Development, 44(3):104-106.
The author describes his work with the Colectivo de Hombres por Relaciones Igualitarias, an NGO that works with men who are violent in the home.  With the Colegio de México, this group is sensitizing health personnel to the issues of masculinity, working with four men’s groups in four cities in Mexico.  The author explores how the construction of masculinity can lead to men’s violence in the home and some of the issues that have arisen in the running of men’s groups.  He argues that it is important to listen to men’s experiences as they open up to new viewpoints and hence to the need to change.

George, Annie, 2006
“Reinventing Honorable Masculinity: Discourses From a Working-Class Indian Community.” Men and Masculinities, 9(1):35-52.
This article argues that, contrary to received notions in Indian communities about women’s bodies and actions being the primary sites of male honor, women, too, hold men responsible for male honor and that men’s honor is also shaped by women’s discourses on men’s actions.  Additionally, the forms of masculinities men seek to shape have to be considered contemporaneously with the forms of femininities that are at work around them.  Traditional male authority, which rested on the axes of men’s economic provisioning, control over wives, and violence against women, is eroding in newer social conditions in which women are more autonomous.  In this fluid situation, men and women, respectively, use concepts of sexual control and understanding to describe and normalize an emerging form of masculinity that allows for men to claim honor when practicing nontraditional gendered actions.

Gerami, Shahin, 2003
“Mullahs, Martyrs, and Men: Conceptualizing Masculinity in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Men and Masculinities, 5(3):257-274.
A core component of the Islamic Revolution’s ideology was reformulation of gender discourse wrapped around an Islamic hypermasculinity.  Attention has been focused on women’s roles and rights in the Islamic Republic, and men are assumed to universally have benefited from the regime’s policies.  This hypermasculinity of the Republic has revised pre-revolutionary ideals promoting new ideals of manhood.  Mullahs are the sage interpreters of the Qur’an and Shari‘at.  The young men who bide the dictates of the Mullahs and sacrifice themselves for the Republic are martyrs.  Then there are the ordinary men.  The Shari‘at favors them at the level of the family and civil society, but such a blanket vision ignores the costs paid by all men depending on their social class.  High unemployment, inflation, oppression, and rampant drug use assails all men.  They all pay for gender discrimination against all women in general and women in their social group in particular.

Gill, Lesley, 1997
“Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia.” Cultural
Anthropology, 12(4):527-550.
In this article, Gill examines the connections between the construction of masculinity and military service in Bolivia. She argues that through compulsory military service, these men shape a positive sense of masculine identity that is linked to collusion with their own subordination and tied to other gendered patterns of social degradation.

Goldsmith, Meredith, 2002
“Of Masks, Mimicry, Misogyny, and Miscegenation: Forging Black South African Masculinity in Bloke Modisane’s Blame Me on History.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):291-307.
This essay analyzes the dilemma of black male South African intellectuals of the 1950s, of whom autobiographer Bloke Modisane was a pivotal example. Exiled in the aftermath of the harsh apartheid laws of the 1960s, these artists were trapped on a precarious divide between the white artistic world and the black political milieu, never fully belonging to either. Modisane uses the strategies of masking to reclaim a sense of masculinity erased by racist and colonialist exploitation; simultaneously, however, he displaces his own anxieties about acceptance by whites through misogyny, particularly toward black women. I theorize my work on Modisane through recourse to the work of Martinican psychoanalyst Frantz Fanon, who analyzes the results of a racist gaze on black male identity formation, and postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha, who posits mimicry as a mode of partial self-affirmation for colonized subjects.

González-López, Gloria, 2004
“Fathering Latina Sexualities: Mexican Men and the Virginity of their Daughters.” Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5):1118-1130.
Mexican men have been traditionally misrepresented in or omitted from fatherhood scholarship, sexuality and reproductive health-related research, and immigration studies. Based on in-depth tape-recorded interviews with 20 immigrant men living in Los Angeles, this study examined Mexican fathers’ views of virginity as they educate their daughters in the United States. Results indicate that fathers’ perceptions of a daughter’s virginity are shaped by regional expressions of patriarchy and masculinity, and the socioeconomic segregation of inner-city barrios. Protecting their daughters from a sexually dangerous society and improving their socioeconomic future is of greater concern to these men than preserving virginity per se. These men’s narratives challenge stereotypical images and archetypes of the Latino macho father.

Gosine, Andil, 2007
“Marginalization Myths and the Complexity of ‘Men’: Engaging Critical Conversations about Irish and Caribbean Masculinities.” Men and Masculinities, 9(3):337-357.
This article considers conversations about men and masculinity being pursued in the English-speaking Caribbean and the Republic of Ireland.  The author engages structural-materialist analysis to evaluate claims circulating in both contexts that suggest men are being marginalized because of their sex-gender and employs cultural analysis to examine the representation of men’s experiences in dominant discursive frameworks.  Through reference to two programs that have attempted responses that address the alleged ‘crisis of masculinity’ ― Ireland’s Exploring Masculinities program and Saint Lucia’s Men’s Resources Centre ― the author identifies some of the implications of a limited analysis and also discusses some of the ways in which these programs provide potential opportunities for a more critical conversation about the situation of men and the production of masculinities.

Greene, Margaret E., 2000
“Changing Women and Avoiding Men: Gender Stereotypes and Reproductive Health Programmes.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):49-59.
Health care researchers have documented that in many settings male social prerogatives powerfully condition women’s relationship to health care systems. Particularly in the area of reproductive health care, the decision-making privileges enjoyed by men fundamentally affect women’s health status. Yet population policy and reproductive health programming has been slow to respond to this insight. Unrecognized or unacknowledged assumptions about women’s ‘natural’ responsibility for child-bearing and child-rearing, coupled with an acceptance of the rights of men to make family health care decisions, have impeded policy responses to these research findings. By accepting these static characterizations of men rather than assuming that gender relations are dynamic and that men are as capable of change as women, research and programs have often implicitly accepted men’s power and women’s subordination. Effective reproductive health care programming needs to recruit men’s support and participation in creative ways.

Greig, Alan, 2000
“The Spectacle of Men Fighting.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):28-32.
The meaning of male violence should be a central concern of Gender and Development (GAD) discourse and practice. Explanations of the nature, and limits, of men’s responsibility for such violence increasingly center on their socialization into a masculine identity. By counter-posing the ‘individual’ and the ‘social,’ attention becomes fixed on identity as the surface that connects these two realities on which is inscribed the masculinity of men. The task of responding to the spectacle of men fighting then appears to be one of re-inscribing a new non-violent masculine identity. This paper argues that GAD practitioners should be wary of this kind of politics of identity. Focusing on identification as relation, rather than identity as boundary, clarifies the violent politics of difference at the heart of masculinity. Addressing violence means approaching a new politics of difference. This is a politics of alliance and coalition, a transgressing of sectoral and institutional boundaries in recognition of the common bases of oppression and their plural manifestations in women’s and men’s lives. GAD can address the politics of identification(s) by approaching questions of responsibility for and complicity in male violence as personal-communal issues. Depending on what they choose to fight for, the spectacle of men fighting can be a sight, and site, of real political potency.

Gutmann, Matthew C., 1997
“The Ethnographic (G)ambit: Women and the Negotiation of Masculinity in Mexico City.” American Ethnologist, 24(4):833-855.
How should we conceive, in a nontrivial manner, the cultural relation that women have to the construction of masculinities?  Ethnographic fieldwork on how male identities are developed and transformed by men and women in a colonia popular of Mexico City is contrasted to other conceptual and methodological approaches employed by anthropologists to study manhood.  Examining men as engendered and engendering is presented, not as a complement to the study of women, but rather as integral to understanding the ambiguities of gender differences.

― 1997
“Trafficking in Men: The Anthropology of Masculinity.” Annual Review of Anthropology, 26:385-409.
This article explores how anthropologists understand, utilize, and debate the category of masculinity by reviewing recent examinations of men as engendered and engendering subjects.  This article lists the four distinct ways anthropologists define and use the concept of masculinity and provides information that disapproves masculinity and femininity as being inherent.  It also shows how imperative it is to provide a balance of both women’s and men’s point of views when looking at masculinity.

Hammill, Jan, 2001
“The Culture of Masculinity in an Australian Indigenous Community.”  Development, 44(3):21-24.
Hammill relates the evolution of undisciplined masculinity in a former Australian Aboriginal reserve.  Decades of suppression and oppression have resoluted in a contemporary social environment where violence in many forms is endemic and normalized.  An intervention to encourage father/child interactions, although not successful in its intent, had positive repercussions for the young people of the community.

Haque, Md. Mozammel, and Kyoko Kusakabe, 2005
“Retrenched Men Workers in Bangladesh: A Crisis of Masculinities?” Gender, Technology and Development, 9(2):185-208.
This study explores changing masculine identities and gender relations in households, taking the case of men workers retrenched by a state-owned newsprint paper mill in Bangladesh.  It analyzes their post-retrenchment condition characterized by considerable income loss and its wider ramifications by comparing men in stable income-earning occupations and in unstable income-earning occupations.  This study argues that although men at different levels define their masculine identity differently in response to their personal crises, they are all determined to maintain that identity.  Two types of masculinities are identified: public masculinity ― socializing with other men and acting smart in teashops, and household masculinity ― their status as family providers.  In a situation with limited resources, men give up the former and uphold the latter.  The men’s retrenchment does not always provide empowerment opportunities for their female partners through their participation in gainful paid work.

Hardin, Michael, 2002
“Altering Masculinities: The Spanish Conquest and the Evolution of the Latin America Machismo.” International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 7(1):1-22.
Machismo, a stereotype that emphasizes hypermasculinity and associated with the Latin American male, was a legacy of the Conquest of the Spanish conquistadores and their interpretation of and reaction to the indigenous two-spirit.  It was the product of the rape of indigenous women, the response to indigenous imperial ritual, and the sublimation of indigenous male sexuality.  It was a response to social and religious control of the male body.  As such, it is not something that is easily eradicated.  Through an understanding of the complex roots of this variant of masculinity, however, it may be possible to filter out some of the negative traits and highlight the more positive.  This essay examines the interactions between the Spaniards and indigenous peoples of the Americas and the interpretations of indigenous sexualities, genders, and social roles by the Spanish authorities, and how it all participates in the construction of the Latin American machismo.

Harrison, Elizabeth, 2000
“Men, Women and Work in Rural Zambia.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):53-71.
This paper is concerned with time allocation of men and women in the Luapula Province of Zambia. It discusses the discrepancies between a detailed quantitative survey and the more qualitative information gained through diaries. The paper focuses in particular on the diary kept by one individual, and argues for a nuanced picture of the social relations behind time allocation practices. This means understanding the conditions which shape the choices, values, and subjective meanings attached to different activities. It is argued that Zambian men are not simply idle and that considerable time devoted to social activities should not be dismissed as ‘leisure.’ On the other hand, the individual benefits from investments in what could be characterized as social reproduction cannot be neatly read off as household benefits. Male social activity enables men to better engage in particular discourses of development which may be of eventual benefit to them, materially or symbolically. The differential impacts of such activity reflect gendered differences in the ability to act and make choices.

Hassan, Waïl S., 2003
“Gender (and) Imperialism: Structures of Masculinity in Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North.” Men and Masculinities, 5(3):309-324.
The seamless continuity between racism, colonialism, and patriarchy makes it imperative for postcolonial criticism to question the foundational category of gender.  As Judith Butler argues, gender postulates a normative masculinity poised against a femininity construed as lack or deviation.  This normative masculinity asserts itself in colonial discourse, which, as Edward Said observes, represents a masculine Europe dominating a feminized Orient.  At the same time, racial discourse represents African men as hypermasculine, as Frantz Fanon and Cornel West, among others, have observed.  Thus, the African man occupies at once masculine and feminine subject positions and, likewise, the European woman figures ambivalently as both masculine and feminine.  Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North depicts such ambivalent spaces that enable a critique of patriarchal and colonial notions of gender.

Henfry, Lee-Anne, 2006
“Macho Minority: Masculinity and Ethnicity on the Edge of Tibet.” Modern China, 32(2):251-272.
This article explores the role of masculinity in articulating ethnic Tibetan identity in China.  Based on interviews with Tibetans and Han Chinese in a Tibetan autonomous prefecture in China’s southwest and on an examination of recent Chinese publications, the study explores the dialogue between Tibetans’ own perceptions of their ethnic identity and public representations of that identity.  While previous scholarship has highlighted the role that ethnic minorities play in constructing a Chinese national identity, the author demonstrates that minorities, too, construct their ethnic identities in contradistinction to a majority Other.  This process is integral to the production of a local knowledge and history that runs parallel to state-sponsored discourses of the nation and its composite.

Hill, Kim et al., 1985
“Men’s Time Allocation to Subsistence Work Among the Ache of Eastern Paraguay.” Human Ecology, 13(1):29-47.
Quantitative data on men’s time allocation among the Ache of Paraguay are presented in this article.  The data indicate that Ache men work almost 7 hours daily in direct food acquisition, which is the major daily activity.  The amount of time Ache men work is compared with the amount reported for other modern hunter-gatherers and tribal horticulturalists.  The characteriztion of hunter-gatherers as the “original affluent society” does not agree with currently available data.  The results show high variance across societies, both hunting and horticultural, and suggest that time spent in subsistence work is not simply a function of food “needs.”  The authors propose that the value of time spent in potential alternative activities must be considered in order to predict time spent in subsistence tasks.

Hodgson, Dorothy, 1999
“‘Once Intrepid Warriors’: Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities.” Ethnology, 38(2):121-150.
This article analyzes the historical articulation of modernity with the shifting production of Maasai masculinities in Tanzania. Combing ethnographic and historical sources, Hodgson explores the shifting meanings, referents, and experience of two Maasai masculinities which refract the modern/traditional dichotomy imposed and sustained during the colonial and postcolonial periods.

Hokowhitu, Brendan, 2004
“Tackling Māori Masculinity: A Colonial Genealogy of Masculinity and Sport.” The Contemporary Pacific, 16(2):259-284.
The primary aim of this paper is to deconstruct one of the dominant discourses surrounding Māori men ― a discourse that was constructed to limit, homogenize, and reproduce an acceptable and imagined Māori masculinity, and one that has also gained hegemonic consent from many tāne (Māori men). The author uses a genealogical approach to outline the historical underpinnings of the image of the Māori man as naturally physical, and the mechanisms, including the confiscation of land and a racist state education system, which served to propound and perpetuate this construction. The contemporary portrayal of the natural Māori sportsman has evolved from these historical roots in what has become a largely subconscious but no less insidious pattern of subjugation through positively framed sporting images.

Hunter, Mark, 2005
“Cultural Politics and Masculinities: Multiple-partners in Historical Perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(4):389-403.
Drawing from ethnographic, archival, and secondary research, this article examines multiple-sexual partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal, a South Africa province where one in three people are thought to be HIV positive. Research on masculinities, multiple-partners, and AIDS has been predominantly directed towards the present day. This paper stresses the importance of unraveling the antecedents of contemporary masculinities, particularly the gendered cultural politics through which they have been produced. Arguing against dominant conceptions of African masculinity as being innate or static, it charts the rise and fall of the isoka, the Zulu man with multiple-sexual partners, over the last century. Showing how the isoka developed through changing conditions occasioned by capitalism, migrant labour, and Christianity, it contends that an important turning point took place from the 1970s when high unemployment threatened previous expressions of manliness, notably marriage, setting up an independent household and becoming umnumzana (a household head). The high value placed on men seeking multiple-partners increasingly filled the void left by men’s inability to become men through previous means. Turning to the contemporary period, the article argues that, shaken by the huge AIDS deaths, men are betraying increasing doubts about the isoka masculinity.

Inhorn, Marcia C., 2006
“‘He Won’t Be My Son’: Middle Eastern Muslim Men’s Discourses of Adoption and Gamete Donation.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(1):94-120.
In the Sunni Muslim world, religious mandates prohibit both adoption and gamete donation as solutions to infertility, including in the aftermath of in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures.  However, both of these options are now available in two Middle Eastern countries with significant Shi’ite Muslim populations (Iran and Lebanon).  On the basis of fieldwork in multisectarian Lebanon, the author examines the attitudes toward both adoption and gamete donation among childless Muslim men who are undertaking IVF with their wives.  No matter the religious sect, most Muslim men in Lebanon continue to resist both adoption and gamete donation, arguing that such a child ‘won’t be my son.’  However, against all odds, some Muslim men are considering and undertaking these alternatives to family formation as ways to preserve their loving marriages, satisfy their fatherhood desires, and challenge religious dictates, which they view as out of step with new developments in science and technology.  Thus, in this article the author examines the complicated intersections of religion, technology, marriage, and parenthood in a part of the world that is both poorly understood and negatively stereotyped.

“Middle Eastern Masculinites in the Age of New Reproductive Technologies: Male Infertility and Stigma in Egypt and Lebanon.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 18(2):162-182.
Worldwide, male infertility contributes to more than half of all cases of childlessness; yet it is a reproductive health problem that is poorly studied and understood. This article examines the problem of male infertility in two Middle Eastern locales, Cairo, Egypt, and Beirut, Lebanon, where men may be at increased risk of male infertility because of environmental and behavioral factors. It is argued that male infertility may be particularly problematic for Middle Eastern men in their pronatalist societies; there, both virility and fertility are typically tied to manhood. Thus, male infertility is a potentially emasculating condition, surrounded by secrecy and stigma. Furthermore, the new reproductive technology called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), designed specifically to overcome male infertility, may paradoxically create additional layers of stigma and secrecy, due to the complex moral and marital dilemmas associated with Islamic restrictions on third-party donation of gametes.

― 2003
“The Worms Are Weak: Male Infertility and Patriarchal Paradoxes in Egypt.” Men and Masculinities, 5(3):236-256.
Male infertility is a major global reproductive health problem, contributing to more than half of all cases of infertility worldwide.  Yet women typically bear the social burden of childlessness when their husbands are infertile.  This article explores the four major patriarchal paradoxes surrounding male infertility in the Muslim Middle Eastern country of Egypt.  There, women in childless marriages typically experience procreative blame, even when male infertility (glossed as ‘weak worms’) is socially acknowledged.  In addition, Egyptian women married to infertile men experience diminished gender identity and threats of male-initiated divorce.  Ironically, the introduction of new reproductive technologies to overcome male infertility has only served to increase this divorce potential.  Although male infertility also presents a crisis of masculinity for Egyptian men, this crisis often redounds in multiple ways on the lives of women, who ultimately pay the price for male infertility under conditions of Middle Eastern patriarchy.

― 2002
“Sexuality, Masculinity, and Infertility in Egypt: Potent Troubles in the Marital and Medical Encounters.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):343-359.
In Africa, high rates of infertility are due to infection and many other factors. This article explores male sexual dysfunction as both a cause and consequence of infertility in Egypt. Because sexual dysfunction is profoundly emasculating in a country where hegemonic masculinities are competitive, sexually troubled men in childless marriages do not routinely seek treatment from male physicians, leaving their wives to seek treatment for purported ‘infertility.’ However, the medical encounter between elite male physicians and poor women patients is characterized by a “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, rendering sexual problems invisible. Furthermore, women are culturally prohibited from initiating sex, but infertility therapies often require them to do so. Marital difficulties in both the performance of sex and gender are the result. The article concludes with speculations on the future of male sexual dysfunction in the era of expanding sex education, sex therapy, Viagra, and new reproductive technologies.

Jackson, Cecile, 2000
“Men at Work.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):1-22.
This introductory essay argues that a consideration of gender divisions of labor with a focus on men might move gender analysis in a direction which delivers greater attention to the relational, a more animated and agentic approach to those processes which produce divisions of labor, and a broadening of temporal frames and notions of reciprocity, as the context within which perceptions of gender equity are embedded. It argues that class variation is absolutely critical to the linkages between employment and gender power experienced by men, and that money management is key to successful achievement of adult manliness, but beset with contradictory messages. The paper makes a number of methodological points: that invisibility might also afflict some kinds of male work, that work definitions manifest exclusions, and that embodied understandings of work are as relevant to men’s as women’s work, before going on to raise questions about the meaning and value of provider identities.

― 1999
“Men’s Work, Masculinities and the Gender Divisions of Labour.” The Journal of Development Studies, 36(1):89-108.
This article argues for a greater conceptual emphasis, in studies of gender divisions of labor, on embodied subjectivities, agency, and the complexity of gender domination, and for further methodological critique of definitions and measurements of work. Through a discussion of mainly south Asian examples it is suggested that specific groups of men experience well-being threats as a consequence of high work intensity.

Janey, Bradley A. et al., 2006
“Masculinity Ideology in Russian Society: Factor Structure and Validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 14(1):93-108.
This study explores the factor structure and evaluates the validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (Doss & Hopkins, 1998) using a sample of Russian students (N = 207) from two large public universities. Oblique rotation revealed four factors: Achievement Pose, Emotional Availability/Stability, Composed Sexuality, and Dedicated Provider. Validity indicators were mixed, with Achievement Pose and Dedicated Provider demonstrating the strongest psychometric properties. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Joshi, Chitra, 2002
“On ‘De-industrialization’ and the Crisis of Male Identities.” International Review of Social History, 47:159-175.
The last two decades in India have seen the decline of traditional factory industries and a growing process of informalization and casualization of labor.  The crisis of industries like textiles and steel has meant a virtual decimation of a working class in old industrial centers.  This article looks at the phenomenon of de-industrialization and its implications for a laboring population whose lives were intimately connected with industrial work.

Kama, Amit, 2005
“An Unrelenting Mental Press: Israeli Gay Men’s Ontological Duality and Its Discontent.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 13(2):169-184.
This study explores the linkages among 45 Israeli gay men’s social circumstances and their intra- and inter-personal communication patterns and media use. The study focused on these gay men’s life stories. One of the most striking themes uncovered in these autobiographies was the common thread of ontological duality: the dichotomous split between “normal” and “abnormal.”

Kanaaneh, Rhoda, 2005
“Boys or men? Duped or ‘made’? Palestinian Soldiers in the Israeli Military.” American Ethnologist, 32(2):260-275.
Several thousand Palestinian citizens of Israel currently volunteer to serve in various branches of the Israeli security apparatus.  Members of this small group of mostly men are commonly perceived by other Palestinians as traitors to their people and are socially marginalized.  Even soldiers who strain and sometimes break the limits of social acceptance, however, relate to their communities in dominant gendered terms.  The critiques, explanations, and, occasionally, defenses of soldiering represent much larger concerns about the relationship of Palestinian citizens to the Israeli state, particularly concerns about ‘Israelization,’ but are measured in relation to a family-centered provider of masculinity.  What the state offers or withholds from Arab soldiers plays a powerful role in shaping Palestinian discourses on masculinity and citizenship.

Kempf, Wolfgang, 2002
“The Politics of Incorporation: Masculinity, Spatiality and Modernity Among the Ngaing of Papua New Guinea.” Oceania, 73(1):56-77.
In this paper, the author argues that the way in which masculinity and spatiality are reconstituted among the Ngaing men of Madang Province (Papua New Guinea) is pivotally implicated in how they articulate their ongoing claim to incorporation in modernity.  The manner in which they strive for progress is indicative of identifications coupling Christianity and whiteness with the hope of redemption from a condition of blackness, inferiority, and marginality.  With the help of recent discourses and secret ritual practices in which Christian components combine with local cultural patterns, the men make clear that indigenous participation in modernity is prefigured on the inside of external manifestations of body and space.  This discursive and ritual empowerment of the men rests on a culturally specific construction of the inside and the outside in which the knowledge, power, and mobility possessed by whites are construed as an integral part of the local world.

Kitiarsa, Pattana, 2005
“‘Lives of Hunting Dogs’: Muai Thai and the Politics of Thai Masculinities.” South East Asia Research, 13(1):57-90.
In this article, the author uses case studies of muai Thai (Thai boxing) to engage critically with the current trend of gender studies in Thailand. The article argues that muai Thai, with its historical and cultural prominence, presents itself as an ideal candidate for Thai studies practitioners and students to rethink the culture of Thai men as well as to challenge pre-existing knowledge and understanding of male identities and masculinities in contemporary Thailand. Muai Thai offers itself as a promising cultural space to explore the ideas of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ or ‘masculine domination’ and its ramifications in a postmodern world. Through the narratives of young Thai boxers from the countryside, who have been widely perceived in Thai society as the ‘hunting dogs’ in the world of Thai boxing, the author contends that the forms and practices of masculinity in Thailand are plural, fluid, highly contested and contingent upon specific historical and cultural contexts. Indeed, there hardly exists an uncontested singular, fixed, overgeneralized, negative, or oppressive Thai masculinity, as claimed by many specialists and students of Thai gender and sexuality. Muai Thai construes the culturally negotiated ideology and disciplinary practices of ‘technologies of the self,’ which encourage men to work or perform their manly duties.

Klein, Uta, 1999
“‘Our Best Boys’: The Gendered Nature of Civil-Military Relations in Israel.” Men and Masculinities, 2(1):47-65.
Several scholars view the military to be a most forceful institution in constructing images of masculinity for society at large.  Usually, military service can be described as a rite of passage to male adulthood, teaching toughness, and trying to eliminate what is regarded to be effeminate.  Israel serves as an interesting case study to investigate the connections between gender and the military.  Although participation in the military is compulsory for men and women and motivation to serve in the military is high, meaning that the military socializes most Jewish Israelis, this national duty is highly gendered.  The author discusses the historical background of the Jewish Israeli ideal of manliness, its reinforcement by times of conflict and war, and its impact on the private and public sphere.

Koblitz, Ann Hibner, 2006 
“Male Bonding Around the Campfire: Constructing Myths of Hohokam Militarism.”  Men and Masculinities, 9(1):95-107.
The Hohokam people of central Arizona and their neighbors have long been of interest to archaeologists of the Southwest.  The prevailing image of them has varied significantly over time.  Lately there has been a shift among some scholars toward viewing the Hohokamas as constantly embroiled in warfare.  This article analyzes this trend in archaeological writing in terms of the modern American culture of aggressive masculinity.  The author argues that testosterone-driven fantasies appear to have influenced the theory formation of a significant group of archeologists.  On the basis of scant evidence, they have created a story of war and militarism that harmonizes well with early twenty-first century U.S. political culture.  Whether this warlike image has much bearing on the actual lives and pursuits of indigenous Southwest populations of the eleventh through fifteenth centuries is, however, open to doubt.

Kronja, Ivana, 2006
“The Aesthetics of Violence in Recent Serbian Cinema: Masculinity in Crisis.” Film Criticism, 30(3):17-38.
The honest treatment of the story of ordinary people trapped in hopelessness and violence, fine psychological nuancing of characters, creative use of genre cinema elements and popular iconography of the period, and considerate construction of suffering, deprived masculinity as a powerful metaphor for decaying society set Serbian films apart as some of the most challenging responses to the issue of violence in Serbian cinema of the decade. During the 1990s Serbian society faced difficult historical circumstances: the disintegration of their state and bloody civil war characterized by genocide, ethnic cleansings and war atrocities, economic and cultural sanctions and isolation, stigmatization of their country, the Kosovo conflict and NATO bombing in 1999, the oppression of Milosevic’s authoritarian regime, and the extreme criminalization of ordinary life.

Kwon, Insook, 2001
“A Feminist Exploration of Military Conscription: The Gendering of the Connections Between Nationalism, Militarism and Citizenship in South Korea.” International Feminist Journal of Politics, 3(1):26-54.
Despite its political, cultural, and personal saliences, military conscription in South Korea has attracted surprisingly little social research. Mainly, such research has been left to military institutions. Also, few South Korean feminist analysts, until recently, have tried to fill this notable gap in political analysis. Without understanding the subtle gendering of conscription, we will not be able to make adequate sense of the persistence of a culture of militarism today, even after the end of the cold war, even after a pro-democracy movement pushed the military out of power. Therefore, the author seeks to demonstrate how male military conscription lies at the core of what most members of society believe it means to be an ‘authentic’ South Korean in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Kwon shows that compulsory male military service has played a crucial role in constructing citizenship, nationhood, masculinity, femininity, motherhood and fatherhood, and in creating the essential ‘glue’ that binds each of these six potent ideas to the concept of the nation-state in contemporary South Korea. In addition, Kwon reveals how employing a feminist analysis to explore the meaning and consequence of military conscription in present day South Korean society can have potential value for those researchers investigating the dynamics of political culture in other societies, past and present.

Kynoch, Gary, 2001
“‘A Man Among Men’: Gender, Identity and Power in South Africa’s Marashea Gangs.” Gender & History, 13(2):249-272.
This article explores gender and power relations in a South African criminal society through an examination of the legend surrounding a prominent leader.  Tseule Tsilo achieved a degree of notoriety in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s.  Tsilo’s legend lives on in the lore of the Marashea, the criminal organization to which he belonged.  However, rather than being embraced by the entire Marashea, Tsilo is a hero only to men.  The legend was created, and is sustained, by men and for men, a discursive development that mirrors the gendered nature of power within the Marashea.

Lane, Jennifer M. and Michael E. Addis, 2005
“Male Gender Role Conflict and Patterns of Help Seeking in Costa Rica and the United States.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(3):155-168.
This study examined the relationship between male gender role conflict and willingness to seek help for depression and substance abuse from a variety of potential helpers in a sample of U.S. and Costa Rican men. Results revealed variability in men’s willingness to seek help across both culture and type of helper. Restrictive emotionality and restrictive affectionate behavior between men were related to decreased willingness to seek help from several helpers, whereas success, power, and competition were positively related to help-seeking ratings for some targets (Internet, mothers) and negatively related to ratings for male friends. These results suggest that the relationship between masculine gender socialization and help-seeking behaviors may depend on a variety of factors surrounding different problems and help-seeking opportunities.

Large, Judith, 1997
“Disintegration Conflicts and the Restructuring of Masculinity.” Gender and Development, 5(2):23-30.
Much of the literature on gender and armed conflict implies that men control decision-making relating to armed conflict and that fighting is an exclusively male domain, while women are portrayed as victims. This article asserts that this depiction oversimplifies men’s and women’s roles in violent conflicts. The author claims that gender analysis and conflict resolution policies will need to reflect issues of male gender identity.

Laurie, Nina, 2005
“Establishing Development Orthodoxy: Negotiating Masculinities in the Water Sector.” Development and Change, 36(3):527-549.
Despite important work in development studies on the ‘male bias in the development process,’ it is generally recognized that gender and development analyses have been slow to engage with masculinities.  Focusing attention on the nexus between identity and globalizing development discourses, this article explores the relationship between masculinities and development through an analysis of the gendering of water paradigms.  By analyzing the example of the recent Cochabamba water wars in Bolivia, and placing them in historical context, the author explores how gendered representations and language are used to downplay and upgrade particular understandings of modernity as they relate to water management, and examines the mechanisms through which specific gendered identities become associated with the most successful versions of ‘modern’ development.

Lee, Romeo, 2006
“Filipino Experience of Ritual Male Circumcision: Knowledge and Insights for Anti-Circumcision Advocacy.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 8(3):225-234.
Male circumcision is a well-publicised phenomenon, but much of what is known at the international level concerns neonatal medical circumcision in some Western countries and ritual circumcision among young men entering into adulthood in certain countries in Africa. This paper aims to add to this understanding by focusing on Filipino men’s experience of ritual circumcision. Data were derived from a 2002 Philippine circumcision study ― a component in a Southeast Asian research study of genital enhancement practices with an advocacy purpose. As part of the study, interviews were conducted with 114 circumcised Filipino males, of varying ages, who were selected purposively. The report highlights the important links in this context between circumcision, masculinity, and male identity. It points too the role of the broader community in sustaining such practices and the challenges that must be faced by anti-circumcision campaigners in making their efforts culturally appropriate.

“Filipino Men’s Familial Roles and Domestic Violence: Implications and Strategies for Community-Based Intervention.” Health & Social Care in the Community, 12(5):422-429.
Men’s gender roles have contributed to family violence, but the ramifications of these roles in the development of community-based programmes for men have not been given much attention. A small-scale qualitative examination of the familial context of Filipino men’s positions and roles, and their domestic violence experiences and attitudes was carried out using eight discussion groups. Discussants saw themselves as being at the helm of their families. Men were knowledgeable of and took responsibility for their gender roles exerting control over the focus and direction of all their family affairs, including the gender roles of their wives/partners. This control demonstrated facets of their hegemonic masculinity such as sexual objectification and dominance. Men in this society come from a traditional position of power, dominance, and privilege. They will be particularly sensitive to interventions aimed at reducing violence against women which will enquire into their private lives. In their view, such interventions were both a direct challenge to their family leadership and a basis for ‘losing face’. Strategies for positive interventions include the need for male-sensitive and male-centred approaches which avoid demonizing or stereotyping men.

Lemon, J., 1995
“Masculinity in Crisis?” Agenda, 25:61-71.
Socio-historical overview of the rise of the crisis of masculinity theory in the 1960s and 1970s. Critically examines the underlying assumptions of the theory and questions its validity and relevance in patriarchal societies.

Levant, Ronald et al., 2003
“Masculinity Ideology Among Russian and U.S. Young Men and Women and Its Relationship to Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Among Young Russian Men.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(1):26-36.
One aim of this study was to further investigate the empirical support for the social constructionist perspective on gender roles.  A second aim was to explore the relationship between Russian men’s endorsement of traditional masculine ideology and their engagement in behaviors that may put their health at risk.  Russian respondents endorsed traditional masculine ideology, developed for a U.S. sample, to a higher degree than did their American counterparts.  Overall, women endorsed a less traditional perspective of masculine ideology for men; however, this result was more pronounced amoung U.S. participants.  Using a modification of the Susceptibility to Stress Scale, results yielded one variable associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits among Russian men: lower socioeconomic status.

Levy, Caren, Nadia Taher and Claudy Vouhé, 2000
“Addressing Men and Masculinities in GAD.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):86-96.
The GAD approach in both concept and practice has been inconsistent in its treatment of men and masculinities. In their work on mainstreaming gender in policy and planning, the authors have tried to confront these inconsistencies in a number of ways. This article reviews the way men and masculinities have been addressed in GAD, drawing primarily on the Development Planning Unit (DPU), University College London’s academic, training, and advisory work in this field. This article is structured around four main areas. The first places the DPU’s approach in the wider WID/GAD debates of the 1990s, and discusses the rationale for incorporating men and masculinities into a transformative view of GAD. The next section discusses the ways in which men and masculinities have been incorporated into the concepts and tools which make up the DPU’s gender mainstreaming methodology. Taking the example of training, the third section focuses on men and masculinities through the experience of working with women and men as trainees and trainers. In conclusion, the authors summarize their view of the dangers and positive reasons for the incorporation of men and masculinities into gender mainstreaming methodologies.

Lim, David, 2006
“Cruising Mat Moto: Malay Biker Masculinity and Queer Desire in/through KL Menjerit.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 7(1):62-80.
This paper examines the construction of working-class Mat Motor (Malay biker) masculinity and queer desire in/through KL Menjerit, a commercial biker film that exudes the unmistakably aura of working-class kejantanan (masculinity). Specifically, the author focus on how the film ― or more precisely the ‘queer moments’ it contains ― resonates in ways that are not necessarily obvious to the disinterested heterosexual public eye. The discussion takes into account both filmic elements and the sexual geography of Kuala Lumpur (KL), where shifting biker spaces sometimes intersect with homosexual cruising sites. Lim’s argument is that the film’s representation of the Mat Motor protagonist as unbendingly straight and heterosexually jantan ― while imaginably gratifying to the core audience of Mat Motors ― actually belies the opposite reality of KL’s ‘forgotten’ underside, where gender and sexuality are much more fluid and malleable than is sanctioned by society and the state.

Lipset, David, 2004
“Modernity Without Romance? Masculinity and Desire in Courtship Stories Told by Young Papua New Guinean Men.” American Ethnologist, 31(2):205-224.
Romance has been theoretically associated with the estrangements created by modern individualism. As demonstrated in courtship stories told by young men from the Murik Lakes in Papua New Guinea, the relationship of Murik culture to modernity has not resulted in narratives that privilege a construction of courtship in which the self merges with the beloved. Desire is not defined in terms of romantic love but is set amid events that are scrupulously fixed in the foregrounds of specific times and exact locations. In these tales, representations of personhood are organized by a Homeric chronotope rather than by a romantic one. Although masculinity in Murik culture has undergone important transformations in the 20th century, its sociology has not given way to the discourse of modern individualism.

Liu, Jenny X. and Kyung Choi, 2006
“Experiences of Social Discrimination Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai, China.” AIDS and Behavior, 10:25-33.
In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increasingly high risk for HIV. However, prevention efforts targeting this population may be hindered because of the stigma associated with homosexuality in traditional Chinese culture.  The authors conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Shanghai to better understand the types and sources of stigma and discrimination and how MSM respond to them. The stigma associated with homosexuality can be traced back to four culturally based factors: social status and relationships, the value of family, perceptions of immorality and abnormality, and gender stereotypes of masculinity. In particular, the centrality of the family and the importance of maintaining key relationships caused stress and anxiety, contributing to more frequent encounters with felt stigma. In response, MSM often evaded the scrutiny of family members through various tactics, even prompting some to leave their rural homes. Implications of these findings on HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed.

Louie, Kam, 2000
“Constructing Chinese Masculinity for the Modern World: with Particular Reference to Lao She’s The Two Mas.” China Quarterly, 164:1062-1078.
In the first comprehensive analysis of Chinese masculinity in the Western world, Louie uses the concepts of wen (cultural attainment) and wu (martial valour) to explain attitudes to masculinity. This revises most Western analyses of Asian masculinity that rely on the yin-yang binary.

― 1999
“Sexuality, Masculinity and Politics in Chinese Culture: The Case of the ‘Sanguo’ Hero Guan Yu.” Modern Asian Studies, 33(4):835-859.
This paper examines the sexual composition of the hero (yingxiong) in traditional China and how this sexuality is projected onto the political plane.  Existing scholarship on the Chinese hero has provided Sinology with excellent material on a number of issues, from those which link the hero with Chinese concepts of chivalry, to those which discuss the hero as ‘revolutionary’ and ‘mass-based.’  One of the major lacunae in all of these studies, however, has been an analysis of the importance of sexuality to the successful construction of a ‘hero.’  Before Chinese studies drew on more recent methodologies, such as those developed by feminist criticism, the yingxiong’s sexuality was casually dismissed.  It was asserted that, in contrast to Western chivalric romances, where love is often the most important inspiration for heroic deeds, love (and by implication sex) in traditional Chinese chivalric tales ‘plays no such important part.’

Luyt, Russell, 2005
“The Male Attitude Norms Inventory – II: A Measure of Masculinity Ideology in South Africa.” Men and Masculinities, 8(2):208-229.
This article describes the development of the Male Attitude Norms Inventory – II (MANI-II).  Empirical findings and theoretical debate contributed toward the development of a measure of South African masculinity ideology.  339 male participants, drawn from universities across greater Cape Town, were included in the study.  Exploratory factor analysis rendered a three-factor model of traditional masculinity.  This accounted for 31.44 percent of total item variance.  Results informed the development of a total scale (α = 0.90) as well as three subscale measures (Toughness, α = 0.81; Control, α = 0.82; and Sexuality, α = 0.85).  The MANI-II displayed satisfactory convergent validity with the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI) (r = 0.84; p < 0.001).  The MANI-II and MRNI subscales were also meaningfully interrelated.  The MANI-II offers a contextually sensitive and multidimensional measure of masculinities.  Further research should include a representative sample, establish test-retest reliability, and further examine total and subscale construct validity.

Magazine, Roger, 2004
“Both Husbands and Banda (Gang) Members: Conceptualizing Marital Conflict and Instability among Young Rural Migrants in Mexico City.” Men and Masculinities, 7(2):144-165.
In this article, the author suggests a novel approach to the conceptualization of marital conflict and instability among rural migrants in Mexican cities.  In previous studies, authors have attributed conjugal strife to men’s efforts to express their independence and dominate their wives.  Using ethnographic data collected among a specific category of young migrants in Mexico City, the author posits that their marital dynamics as well as husbands’ attempts at domination can be better understood by employing a unity of analysis that extends beyond the household itself to include husbands’ relationships to other men in groups they call bandas (gangs).  In the banda, men try to obligate each other to spend time and resources that could otherwise be directed toward conjugal relationships.  When wives make demands on the same limited resources and husbands refuse, making claims to a dominant and independent masculinity, they are responding to, while also obscuring, their obligations to other men.

Mager, Anne, 2005
“‘One Beer, One Goal, One Nation, One Soul’: South African Breweries, Heritage, Masculinity and Nationalism 1960-1999.” Past and Present, 188:163-194.
This article explores how South African beer advertising has reflected changing conceptions of (and has in turn helped to change) masculinity and gender norms in the move from apartheid to inclusive democracy.  From using sporting imagery, popular among both European and African man, to sell beer in the early days of mass advertising, the industry eventually became more sophisticated to sell not just beer, but to manufacture an image and identity.  Mager suggests that the multi-racial image that emerged in late 20th century beer advertising mirrored and cemented the move away from apartheid as consumers internalized the images they saw in their favorite brand of beer ads.

Magubane, Zine, 2002
“Mines, Minstrels, and Masculinity: Race, Class, Gender, and the Formation of the South African Working Class, 1870-1900.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):271-289.
This paper argues that the discovery of diamonds in South Africa in the late 19th century facilitated the rapid growth of Kimberley as an urban center where Black and White males were forced into close and unpredictable proximity, and where they forged relationships that alternated between mutual cooperation and dependence and fierce rivalry and competition. The rapidity with which economic relations changed threw conventional class and social relationships into upheaval and resulted in a tremendous amount of class-based anxiety and insecurity on the part of European males. These anxieties and insecurities were not only caused by the presence of Black men as sources of economic competition but were also projected onto them in the form of fantasies about hyper-sentient Black male bodies. The figure of the “Dandy,” a trope from the American blackface minstrelsy tradition, became a cultural symbol for expressing and managing class and race insecurity.

Mahalik, James R., Hugh D. Lagan and Jay A. Morrison, 2006
“Health Behaviors and Masculinity in Kenyan and U.S. Male College Students.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 7(4):191-202.
Approaching men’s health behaviors from a gender socialization framework, the authors hypothesized that (a) men’s health behaviors would significantly relate to their conformity to traditional masculine norms, (b) these behaviors would significantly differ as a function of their nationality, and (c) masculinity and nationality would significantly interact to predict men’s health behaviors. 546 male college students (384 Kenyan men, 162 U.S. men) completed the Health Behavior Inventory and the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. ANCOVA results indicated that 30 of 52 health behaviors were associated with traditional masculinity, nationality, or their interaction. The discussion focuses on masculinity’s relationship to harmful health behaviors. In addition, limitations and potential interventions to improve men’s health behaviors are discussed.

Malam, Linda, 2004
“Performing Masculinity on the Thai Beach Scene.” Tourism Geographies, 6(4):455-471.
This paper presents a new framework for researching the identities and power relationships between locals and tourists in developing countries. Moving away from conceptualizing identities as tied into binary frameworks, this paper conceptualizes identities as fluid, multiple, and context-specific. Based on ethnographic fieldwork from 1999 to 2001, this research explores the everyday lived experiences of Thai men working in the bars and bungalows of Had Rin peninsula on Koh Phangan island in southern Thailand. In this paper Malam maps the ways that the identities of these men shift and change as they move between the different social geographies that overlie their everyday lived spaces on Had Rin peninsula. In highlighting the ways that the men’s identities shift as they move through space Malam argues for the importance of space and context in theorizing identities, demonstrating that dualistic representations of identity are inadequate attempts to capture identities which are actually very complex, multiple, and subject to change.

Massad, Joseph, 1995
“Conceiving the Masculine: Gender and Palestinian Nationalism.”  The Middle East Journal, 49(3):467.
A case study of Palestinian nationalism, this article examines how masculinity as a colonial model is figured into nationalist discourse.  Nationalist agency is constituted through performances that are said to be its results, and nationalist masculinity is a new type of masculinity available to men.

McGuire, Meredith, 2003
“Masculinity, Bollywood-Ishtyle.” India Currents, 17(1):28-29.
The Bollywood hero is not just a Momma’s boy; he’s in willing bondage to her apron strings, whether he’s playing Romeo or a tough-as-nails commando.  Americans raised on Lethal Weapon and Die Hard expect their action heros to have dysfunctional family histories and bottles of whiskey stashed beneath their beds.  In turn, Bollywood offers gun-toting teetotalers who fire away in Momma’s name.  The Bollywood hero is emotionally open, deeply passionate, and when he is in love, he admits it, often in breathtaking verse.  When the Bollywood hero cries openly, we don’t think he’s a sissy.  We cry with him.  It’s an entirely different brand of masculinity, and it works because the Bollywood hero’s demeanor leaves no room for allegations of effeminacy; rather, he brazenly flaunts his maleness.  Suggestive dance moves, tight leather pants and see-through shirts, arm-baring vests and shirtless strutting invite ― nay, demand ― that the female audience ogle them.  Emotions are on display, but male sexuality joins them in the front window.

Mehta, Deepak, 2006
“Collective Violence, Public Spaces, and the Unmaking of Men.” Men and Masculinities, 9(2):204-225.
Drawing from fieldwork in a shantytown called Dharavi in Bombay, this article considers the effects of communal violence between Hindus and Muslims in December, 1993, and January, 1994. The effects of violence are charted through narrative accounts of residents of Dharavi. The article argues that collective violence brings together the nation, the neighborhood, and bodies of participants. The intersection of these three shows the procedures by which Muslim men are denuded of their masculinity.

Meintjes, Louise, 2004
“Shoot the Sergeant, Shatter the Mountain: The Production of Masculinity in Zulu Ngoma Song and Dance in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Ethnomusicology Forum, 13(2):173-201.
The paper situates Zulu ngoma song and dance within the related worlds of state and gender politics in post-apartheid South Africa. It poses as its problem the difficulty of retaining the presence of individualized expression and stylized body movement in an analysis that also situates “the body” politically and theorizes it phenomenologically. In the midst of unemployment, an AIDS epidemic, and a history of violence in rural KwaZulu-Natal, ngoma is a critical means to attaining responsible manhood.

Mellström, Ulf, 2002
“Patriarchal Machines and Masculine Embodiment.” Science, Technology, & Human Values, 27(4):460-478.
Hegemonic masculinity is a concept that has been of central concern in gender research on different masculinities. However, with the exception of the pioneering work of Wajcman, it has not been widely discussed in relation to studies of science and technology. In this article, which mainly draws on anthropological fieldwork among car and motor mechanics in Penang, Malaysia, a certain form of hegemonic masculinity, based on an intimate embodied interaction with machines, is discussed. Such a masculinity is furthermore founded on an anthropomorphization of the man-machine relationship in which the machines are transformed into subjects in what might be termed a masculine technical sociability. In such a sociability, machines are understood as a means of a performative and embodied communication enabling masculine homosocial bonding linkages.

Mirembe, R. and L. Davies, 2001
“Is Schooling a Risk? Gender, Power Relations, and School Culture in Uganda.” Gender and Education, 13(4):401-416.
This article relates a study of AIDS education in Uganda which used an ethnography of school culture to explore the contradictions in curriculum intervention. The school was found to be a site of an extensive set of gendered practices which constituted a risk in themselves in terms of sexual health. Four forms of control are examined in this article: hegemonic masculinity, gendered discipline patterns, sexual harassment, and ‘compulsory’ heterosexuality. Male domination and power imbalances in the school encouraged attitudes and practices with regard to sexual relationships which negated the official messages of the AIDS curriculum.

Moon, Seungsook, 2005
“Trouble with Conscription, Entertaining Soldiers: Popular Culture and the Politics of Militarized Masculinity in South Korea.” Men and Masculinities, 8(1):64-92.
Gender and military studies focus on Western post-conscription societies, overlooking the significance of military service to the gender order in the larger society.  Concerned with the military’s changing form in industrial and democratic society, military sociology literature argues for the broad trend toward the decline of the conscription-based military and highlights not only economic factors but also geopolitical factors influencing this trend.  Yet this literature overlooks the significance of gender in interpreting such geopolitical factors.  Focusing on the problem of equity in conscription in contemporary South Korea and on one popular cultural response to that problem, this article examines the importance of men’s conscription to the organization of meanings and practices of masculinity (and femininity) in larger society and argues that the geopolitical reality in Korea that justifies militarized national security and the existence of conscription is embedded in the gendered interpretation of what is being threatened and what is to be protected.

Morrell, Robert, 2002
“Men, Movements, and Gender Transformation in South Africa.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(3):309-327.
In the last decade, South Africa has undergone a major political transformation. The ending of apartheid and the installation of a democratically elected, black majority government has had major implications for gender policy and gender relations in the country. This paper examines how men collectively have responded to these changes. It identifies a number of different men’s movements and locates them in terms of their relationship to the goal of gender equity being pursued by government. It draws on the work of Messner to suggest what contributions these movements might, or might not, make to gender transformation in the country. Finally, it examines the importance of race and the apartheid past to suggest that any analysis of men and gender politics should be sensitive to different understandings of gender and location within the current gender order.

― 1997
“Masculinity in South African History: Towards a Gendered Approach to the Past: Colloquium Report.” South African Historical Journal, 37:167-177.
This article reports on a colloquium on masculinities in Southern Africa which was held at the University of Natal, Durban, from 2 to 4 July 1997.  The colloquium was not the curiosity that the public wanted, yet it raised key issues and suggested new ways of thinking about South African history.  This article sketches the theoretical literature which has expanded the ambit of gender studies to include the study of masculinity.

Murray, David A.B., 1999
“Laws of Desire? Race, Sexuality, and Power in Male Martinican Sexual Narratives.” American Ethnologist, 26(1):160-172.
In Martinique, both homosexual and heterosexual narratives of sexual desire reveal the centrality of an orthodox masculinity as a hegemonic force in public articulations about social relations and identity. Race also figures prominently in these narratives, but no straightforward correlative relations exist between race and other sociological categories such as class or education. In this article, Murray argues for the necessity of recognizing the influence of Martinique’s neocolonial relationship with France. This relationship continues to affect cultural and political ideologies. The author also demonstrates the influence of context in determining identity choices in narrative constructions.

Myrttinen, Henri, 2005
“Masculinities, Violence and Power in Timor Leste.” Lusotopie, 12(1-2):233-244.
This article sketches some of the manifestations of violent masculinities which were visible in the Timor Leste conflict from 1975 to 1999. While concentrating on Timorese actors, it points out that this does not in any way mean that Timorese men are inherently more violent than others. In fact, the vast majority of the acts of violence during the conflict were committed by members of the occupying Indonesian security forces. After a brief thematic and historical introduction, the article examines manifestations of violent masculinities within the pro-independence Falintil guerrilla, the pro-Indonesian militias, and the civilian population. As the end of the conflict has not meant an end to, but a “domestication” of violence with extremely high rates of domestic and gender-based sexual violence, the article further examines the impact of the post-conflict situation on violent manifestations of masculinity.

Nagel, J., 1998
“Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(2):242-269.
This article explores the intimate historical and modern connection between manhood and nationhood: through the construction of patriotic manhood and exalted motherhood as icons of nationalist ideology; through the designation of gendered ‘places’ for men and women in national politics; through the domination of masculine interests and ideology in nationalist movements; through the interplay between masculine microcultures and nationalist ideology; through sexualized militarism including the construction of simultaneously over-sexed and under-sexed ‘enemy’men (rapists and wimps) and promiscuous ‘enemy’ women (sluts and whores). Three ‘puzzles’ are partially solved by exposing the connection between masculinity and nationalism: why are many men so desperate to defend masculine, monoracial, and heterosexual institutional preserves, such as military organizations and academies; why do men go to war; and the ‘gender gap,’ that is, why do men and women appear to have very different goals and agendas for the ‘nation’?

Niehaus, Isak, 2000
“Towards a Dubious Liberation: Masculinity, Sexuality and Power in South African Lowveld Schools, 1953-1999.” Journal of Southern African Studies, 26(3):387-407.
This article investigates how masculine sexuality featured as a political issue during the liberation struggle in Impalahoek, a village on the South African lowveld. The starting point of analysis is the repressive regime in primary and high schools during the period of Bantu Education, from 1953 to 1986. The author shows that while teachers strictly prohibited and harshly punished all forms of sexuality between students, male teachers freely engaged in sexual liaisons with schoolgirls. The revolt by Comrades in the schools between 1986 and 1992 was inspired in part by students’ discontent about sexuality. Comrades demanded an end to corporal punishment, expelled teachers who engaged in sex with schoolgirls, and celebrated their own sexual virility in a local campaign to ‘build soldiers.’ Since 1994, the management of sexuality by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government has not inaugurated sexual liberation. Rather, sex education and new medical discourses about sexuality in the era of AIDS have generated new forms of surveillance and contestation. Such historical experiences inform the links between democratization and changing notions of sexuality in South Africa.

Oates-Indruchová, Libora, 2006
“The Void of Acceptable Masculinity During Czech State Socialism: The Case of Radek John’s Memento.” Men and Masculinities, 8(4):428-450.
During Czech state socialism, masculinity in cultural representations was bound up with the official sociology, and thus, it was likely to be discredited in popular perception.  As the dominant ideology took over the main existing models, the concept of masculinity was devoid of any alternative model.  The popular novel published during the last years of state socialism, which this article considers as a case study, fills the void of masculinity with the body as the last resort to which a man seeking an alternative can turn in this situation.

Odendal, Willem, 2001
“The Men Against Violence Against Women Movement in Namibia.” Development, 44(3):90-93.
The author illustrates the experience of The Men Against Violence Against Women Campaign in Namibia, initiated by concerned Namibian men to combat violence against women (VAW).  The National Conference on Men Against Violence Against Women in Namibia, held in February 2000, brought men from all walks of life together to develop strategies of how men in Namibia can sensitize fellow men to the problem of VAW.  The Namibian Men for Change (NAMEC) was brought into life after the conference.  NAMEC functions as an awareness-raising group among young adult men on issues such as masculinity, relationships, parenthood, sexual abuse, and the creation of a non-violent culture in Namibia.  Despite its lack of financial resources, NAMEC has already achieved a significant degress of awareness-raising during its brief period of existence.  The organization is currently active in most of Namibia’s regions, where its members visit schools and organize a range of forums for discussions amongst men.

Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O., Ambrose Akinlo and Joshua A. Ebigola, 2005
“Violence Against Women: An Examination of Men’s Attitudes and Perceptions About Wife Beating and Contraceptive Use.” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 40(3):219-229.
The objective of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of men towards domestic violence and contraceptive use.  Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted between February and May in 2003 in Osun and Ondo states of southwest Nigeria.  The study reveals that: (1) more than 80 percent of men disapprove of a woman deciding to use contraceptives without consulting them; (2) a significant proportion of men view domestic violence as acceptable; and (3) the results therefore signify serious problems concerning the role of men in reproductive issues, which the current efforts in family planning have not adequately addressed.

Omondi, Odhiambo, 1997
“Men’s Participation in Family Planning Decisions in Kenya.” Population Studies, 51(1):29-40.
The effects of men’s participation in family planning decisions in Kenya are studied, and suggestions are made to increase male involvement in the family planning process. Data indicate that men do participate in this process. It is suggested that a lack of communication between husband and wife may be a greater obstacle to the use of contraceptives than men’s opposition.

Ood, Katharine W. and Rachel Jewkes, 1997
“Violence, Rape, and Sexual Coercion: Everyday Love in a South African Township.” Gender and Development, 5(2):41-46.
This article presents findings from a research project with pregnant adolescents in a South African township. The interviews reveal the extent to which male coercion and violence in sexual relationships effect women’s reproductive health. The results suggest that reproductive health programs need to be conscious of these gender inequalities in certain social contexts and include men as participants in projects designed to challenge male violence.

Osella, Filippo and Caroline Osella, 2003
“‘Ayyappan Saranam’: Masculinity and the Sabarimala Pilgrimage in Kerala.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(4):729-754.
Sabarimala ― a South Indian all-male pilgrimage to Ayyappan, a hyper-male deity born from two male gods ― plays a role in constructing male identities, at both external (social-structural) and internal (psychological) levels. The pilgrimage draws creatively on relationships between two South Asian male figures: renouncer and householder, breaking down the opposition between transcendence and immanence to bring into everyday life a sense of transcendence specific to men. Sabarimala merges individual men both with the hyper-masculine deity and with a wider community of men: other male pilgrims, senior male gurus (teachers). This merger is both social and personal. A normal and universal sense of masculine ambivalence and self-doubt has a specific local-cultural resolution, when boys and men experience strengthening of the gendered ego through renunciatory self-immersion in a ‘greater masculine.’ The ostensibly egalitarian devotional community is actually hierarchical: pilgrims surrender themselves to deity and guru, while equality and friendship between men can be celebrated and performed precisely because it is predicated upon a deeper sense of difference and hierarchy ― gender ― with woman as the absent and inferiorized other. Such segregated celebrations of masculinity work both towards masculinity’s reproduction ― through processes of ‘remasculinization’ ― and in the limiting of masculinity to males.

― 2000
“Migration, Money, and Masculinity in Kerala.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(1):117-133.
This article examines migration, styles of masculinity, and male trajectories through the life-cycle in Kerala, South India, in a region with a long history of high migration, most lately to the Persian Gulf states.  Ethnography suggests that migration may be integrated into wider identity projects and form part of local subjectivities.  This article considers four important local categories: the gulfan migrant, typically an immature unmarried male; the kallan, a self-interested maximizer or individualistic anti-social man; the payam, an innocent good-guy, generous to the point of self-destruction; and the status of mature householder, a successful, social, mature man holding substantial wealth, supporting many dependents and clients.  Another theme to emerge is the relationship between masculinity and cash: migration appears as particularly relevant to masculinity in its enhanced relationship with money, an externalizable form of masculine potency: maturity means being able to use such resources wisely.

Özkan, Türker and Timo Lajunen, 2005
“Masculinity, Femininity, and the Bem Sex Role Inventory in Turkey.” Sex Roles, 52(1-2):103-110.
The aim of this study was to examine the masculinity and femininity scales of Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) among Turkish university students. 536 students (280 men and 256 women) volunteered to complete the short-form of the BSRI and answer demographic questions. In factor analyses, the original factor structure was found both in the men’s and women’s data. Comparisons of the factor structures with target rotation and comparison indexes showed no difference between the factor structures found among men and women. The internal consistency of the masculinity and femininity scales was acceptable, and t-tests showed that women scored higher on the femininity scale, and men scored higher on the masculinity scale. There were significant differences between men and women only on two masculinity items, but significant differences were found in 8 (of 10) femininity items.

Patterson, Steven, 2006
“Postcards from the Raj.” Patterns of Prejudice, 40(2):142-158.
Patterson’s article explores aspects of British identity as they relate to depictions of Britons and Indians on postcards during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He argues that these were not innocuous ‘comic’ pieces, as they were intended to be seen at the time, but rather were integrally linked to the justification of the Raj, since they emphasize the civilizing mission of empire and the ‘backwards’ nature of India. Nearly all aspects of imperial life, whether running the bungalow, dispensing justice or even travelling by train, required the British to maintain an imperial façade of control and an aura of invincibility. Part of this process required the British to depict Indians as incapable of self-rule, and the postcards depict the British as natural overlords of India, born ‘booted and spurred’ to rule, while Indians are portrayed ‘saddled and bridled.’ Indians then, due to their ‘Oriental nature,’ are portrayed as too lazy, too effeminate, or too dishonest to run their own country effectively. Another theme that can be explicated through the postcards is that of masculinity. By constantly posing as a more masculine and worthy race, the British laid down an entire grid of civilization in which they could be the only legitimate rulers. This aspect of the White Man’s Burden further bolstered and perpetuated the masculine authority of the Raj, and the postcards became a key component linking empire and metropole for the re-export of imperial ideology to Britain.

Pearson, Ruth, 2000
“All Change? Men, Women and Reproductive Work in the Global Economy.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):219-237.
Gender analysis of globalization has focused exclusively on women and production ― that is, the impact of changes in the global economy on women’s labor force participation. There has been little analysis until now on the implications of globalization on the gender division of labor in reproductive work in paid or domestic labor, in spite of extensive research on the impacts of economic reforms on the public provision of social services. This article argues that a focus on men’s roles is essential in order to capture the wider dimensions of the gendered processes of globalization and to inform the current debate on global social policies in the context of labor flexibility and welfare reform.

― 2000
“Which Men, Why Now? Reflections on Men and Development.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):42-48.
This article interrogates the impulses behind the current interest in men and masculinities within a gender and development framework. It argues that the Women and Development agenda, which was propelled onto the development cooperation stage in the 1970s, was inspired by Second Wave feminism and the anti-imperialist and civil rights movements of that era. However, the men and masculinities agenda does not have a parallel political origin or passion. Whilst feminists and gender analysis are committed to extending the gender agenda to men as well as women, and take a range of positions from male exclusion to male co-option, there is a striking silence from main (male)-stream development experts. Those men who are involved are largely from outside the development cooperation field, but include many who are involved with challenging both politically and academically dominant theories and positionalities of men and masculinities in developing countries and in development institutions and international social science. But the involvement of men from Scandinavian mainstream development agencies also suggests that it is the position of men in particular societies and their relationship with the state and the labor markets, as much as the policy and political relevance of men and masculinities in development practice, which is the key to extending this agenda.

Peletz, Michael G, 1994
“Neither Reasonable nor Responsible: Contrasting Representations of Masculinity in Malay Society.” Cultural Anthropology, 9(2):135-178.
Peletz analyzes kinship and gender among the Malays in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, dispelling the myth that this is a gender-neutral society.  Peletz provides a brief overview of the matrilineal and matrilocal indigenous practices and the imported Islamic concepts of nafsu (‘passion’), devalued and hegemonically associated with women, and akal (‘reason’), valued in Islam and associated with men.  Peletz then deconstructs gender representations into official, hegemonic representations that place men in an inherently superior position to women, and practical representations which portray men as having less reason and responsibility than women as a result of local practices and capitalist state policies which restructure kinship and fuel male irresponsibility.  Further deconstruction of masculinity links practical representations of gender with lower socioeconomic class standing, since poor men are less likely to be able to provide for their families and hence the rate of divorce and abandonment is much higher amongst the lower classes.  Peletz ends his article by exposing obstacles to further destabilization of hegemonic representations of gender, real and perceived, which could undermine the structure of society.

Peng, Yen-Wen, 2007
“Buying Sex: Domination and Difference in the Discourses of Taiwanese Piao-ke.” Men and Masculinities, 9(3):315-336.
This article attempts to deepen feminist understanding of the power dynamics in the practice of client-prostitute relations by exploring how clients (in Mandarin, Piao-ke) make sense of their relationships with prostitutes.  On the basis of tens of online and in-person interviews with Taiwanese Piao-ke, the author explores the diverse and subtle details that surface in the clients’ narratives and that might otherwise have been neglected.  Instead of totalizing Piao-ke as problematic, a post-feminist understanding of the practice is suggested, namely, one founded on a distinction between acceptable and dominant practices and discourses that should be targeted.

Pereira da Cruz Benetti, Silvia and Jaipaul L. Roopnarine, 2006
“Paternal Involvement with School-aged Children in Brazilian Families: Association with Childhood Competence.” Sex Roles, 55(9-10):669-678.
38 middle- to lower-income Brazilian fathers in two-parent families provided estimates of different dimensions of their involvement with their school-aged children, assessed children’s social competence, and rated their beliefs on family roles.  Analysis showed that fathers and mothers spent similar amounts of time in different activities with children, but did differ in didactic interactions, their responsibility for, and actually disciplining children.  There were no significant differences in participation due to gender of child or income.  Fathers’ ideological beliefs about gender roles were positively related to involvement in disciplining children and inversely related to engagement in social activities with children.  Fathers’ involvement in disciplining children was negatively associated with childhood social competence after controlling for mothers’ contribution.

Pérez-Jiménez, David et al., 2007
“Construction of Male Sexuality and Gender Roles in Puerto Rican Heterosexual College Students.” Men and Masculinities, 9(3):358-378.
In this study, the authors explored the contextual elements that influence the construction of male gender roles and sexuality among Puerto Rican heterosexual male college students.  They conducted three focus groups with students at the University of Puerto Rico.  Sessions were transcribed and content analyzed.  Participants believed that gender roles are prescribed mainly through mass media and the family.  The mass media stresses men’s capacity to have frequent sexual relations with multiple partners and take many sexual risks.  Men are also socialized to control their emotions and to be dominant.  Sexuality is still taboo in family and the church.  Safer sex messages are not encouraged and some conceptions of gender roles and sexuality contradict prevention messages.  The relevance of these notions for sexuality and men’s health is discussed.

Peteet, Julie, 1994
“Male Gender and Rituals of Resistance in the Palestinian ‘Intifada’: A Cultural Politics of Violence.” American Ethnologist, 21(1):31-49.
This article examines ritualized inscriptions of bodily violence upon Palestinian male youths in the occupied territories.  It argues that beatings and detention are construed as rites of passage into manhood.  Bodily violence is crucial in the construction of a moral self among its recipients, who are enabled to juxtapose their own cultural categories of manhood and morality to those of a foreign power.  Ritual as a transformative experience foregrounds a political agency designed to reverse relations of domination between occupied and occupier.  Simultaneously, it both reaffirms and transforms internal Palestinian forms of domination.

Pineda, Javier, 2000
“Partners in Women Headed Households: Emerging Masculinities.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):72-92.
This article examines changing expressions of masculinity and gender relations of power in Colombian women-headed households in which men are working and women have access to microcredit linked to the financial NGO Women’s World Banking. At the level of the household analysis, the paper examines the bargaining process within households and gender segregation of work activities. Some men have found in women’s home-based businesses an alternative form of work and survival. This process has been characterized by female leadership, relations of cooperation, and changes in gender identities. The article raises some questions and suggestions about gender-sensitive policy in development programs.

Posel, Deborah, 2005
“The Scandal of Manhood: ‘Baby Rape’ and the Politicization of Sexual Violence in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(3):239-252.
This paper traces the genealogy of sexual violence as a public and political issue in South Africa, from its initial marginalization and minimization during the apartheid era, through to the explosion of anguish and anger which marked the post-apartheid moment, and most dramatically the years 2001 and 2002. Of particular interest is the question of how and why the problem of sexual violence came to be seen as a scandal of manhood, putting male sexuality under critical public scrutiny. The paper argues that the sudden, intense eruption of public anxiety and argument about sexual violence which marked the post-apartheid period had relatively little to do with feminist analysis and politics (influential though this has been in some other respects). Rather, the key to understanding this politicization of sexual violence lies with its resonances with wider political and ideological anxieties about the manner of the national subject and the moral community of the country’s fledgling democracy.

Poudyal, Ranjan, 2000
“Alternative Masculinities in South Asia: An Exploration Through Films for Schools.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):75-78.
Masculinity and its impact on gender relations and the institutionalization of power exercised by men have been critically commented upon by activists and academics working on issues related to gender relations. The failure of the early ‘developmentalist’ approach to population control programs, the increase in violence against women, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic has pushed to the fore, amongst other issues, the question of male sexuality and male culture. The Save the Children (UK) South and Central Asia Regional Office and UNICEF Regional office for South Asia is proposing to make a series of films on masculinities, which deconstructs and reconstructs patriarchy within South Asia. The film-making project involves the production of films on masculinities by male filmmakers from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, within their own countries. This film-making project is intended to increase and extend the impact of SCF’s and UNICEF’s country programs in tackling the problems of increasing violence against girls. The intent is to try and explore the broad patterns of masculinities without ignoring the particularities of each category of men (in terms of class, caste, sexual preference, etc).

Radhakrishnan, Ratheesh, 2005
“PE Usha, Hegemonic Masculinity and the Public Domain in Kerala: On the Historical Legacies of the Contemporary.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 6(2):187-208.
The paper attempts to work out the link between the structuring of the public domain and hegemonic masculinities in contemporary Kerala, South India. Using the debates around an incident of sexual harassment that happened in 1999, it argues for a conjunctural understanding of the contemporary where various events and moments in history are replayed through narrativization and popular memory. The paper goes on to analyse the debates around the incident that produce a ‘narrative public domain,’ to foreground the various notions of masculinity that construct and structure it in relation to notions of female sexuality and changing structures of family. These notions of masculinity could be, the paper argues, a starting point for a historical inquiry into Kerala’s modernity ― an inquiry that would throw light on the past and the ways in which the contemporary is produced through its historical legacies.

Roberson, James, 2005
“Fight!! Ippatsu!! “Genki” Energy Drinks and the Marketing of Masculine Ideology in Japan.” Men and Masculinities, 7(4):365-384.
This article focuses on the marketing of ‘genki’ energy health drinks to consider the role of media representations in the everyday construction of ideologies of masculinity in contemporary Japan.  It is shown that advertisements for these drinks have employed two dominant sets of images of Japanese men and masculinity, portraying either work- and company-based needs for energy and mental acuity or the (masculine) physical strength needed to compete successfully, overcome obstacles, or defeat foes.  It is argued that such advertisements have participated in the representational circumscription of the visual codes of masculinity in contemporary Japan, and through this representational regime have reflected and reproduced a dominant gender ideology that sanctions a powerful, corporatist, middle-class masculinity.

Romero, R. Todd, 2006 
“‘Ranging Foresters’ and ‘Women-like Men’: Physical Accomplishment, Spiritual Power, and Indian Masculinity in Early-Seventeenth Century New England.” Ethnohistory, 53(2):281-329.
Through an examination of seventeenth-century English sources and later Indian folklore, this article illustrates the centrality of religion to defining masculinity among Algonquian-speaking Indians in southern New England.  Manly ideals were represented in the physical and spiritual excellence of individual living men like the Penacook sachem-powwow Passaconaway and supernatural entities like Maushop.  For men throughout the region, cultivating and maintaining spiritual associations was essential to success in the arenas of life defining Indian masculinity: games, hunting, warfare, governing, and marriage.  As is stressed throughout the essay, masculinity was also juxtaposed with femininity in a number of important ways in Indian society.

Roy, Rahul, 2001
“The Eyes Are Silent… The Heart Desires to Speak: Exploring Masculinities in South Asia.” Development, 44(3):15-20.
This article explores the culture of masculinity and violence against women in South Asia, arguing that film making can be an effective tool to encourage young men to reflect on their relationships with women and challenge the dominant paradigms of ‘male behavior.’

Rubenstein, Gidi, 2003
“Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism ― A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(2):100-110.
The present study quantitatively examined the ethnographic social-psychological profile suggested by A. M. Klein (1993) for American bodybuilders using Israeli bodybuilders. Eighty male gym trainees and 80 men who have never trained completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Bem’s Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (AHS) and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scales, and a demographic questionnaire. The bodybuilders showed the highest levels of narcissism and traits socially desirable for men and exhibited the highest scores on both genetic and communal traits. Their AHS and RWA scores did not significantly differ from the other two groups, but their political affiliation was significantly more right wing. Cultural and methodological differences between Klein’s study and the present study as well as personality factors involved in bodybuilding are discussed.

Rydstrøm, Helle, 2006
“Masculinity and Punishment: Men’s Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam.” Childhood, 13(3):329-348.
This article examines men’s use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam.  By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, this article analyzes the ways in which violence is formed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse.  Vietnam has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and in this spirit virtually all men in the local community disapprove of the use of physical punishment when bringing up boys.  However, a father or grandfather occasionally beats his son or grandson when it is deemed necessary to instill discipline in a boy.  The article elucidates the ways in which the contradictions between ideals of nonviolent behavior and actual corporal punishment have fed the construction of certain codes regarding men’s beating of boys.

― 2003
“Encountering ‘Hot’ Anger: Domestic Violence in Contemporary Vietnam.” Violence Against Women, 9(6):676-697.
This article examines husband-to-wife violence within a rural Vietnamese community.  In Vietnam, domestic violence is tied to a complex field of cultural forces that consists of a patrilineal tradition of ancestor worship, assumptions of females’ versus males’ character, Confucian virtues, and a history of war.  Females are expected to encourage household harmony by adjusting themselves and, in doing so, make social life smooth.  Males, on the other hand, are assumed to have a hot character, meaning that a male might fly into a rage and behave violently.  Local ways of constructing males and females, the article suggests, provide conditions for considering females as a corporeal materiality that can be manipulated into the right shape by the means of male violence.

Sampath, Niels, 1997
“‘Crabs in a Bucket’: Reforming Male Identities in Trinidad.” Gender and Development, 5(2):47-54.
This article describes some of the ways in which ‘masculinity’ is understood.  Looking at the example of a community in the Caribbean, it suggests that social changes can offer opportunities to deflect men’s identities away from damaging patriarchal stereotypes.

Seeley, Janet and Edward Allison, 2005
“HIV/AIDS in Fishing Communities: Challenges to Delivering Antiretroviral Therapy to Vulnerable Groups.” AIDS Care, 17(6):688-697.
Fishing communities have been identified as among the highest-risk groups for HIV infection in countries with high overall rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS stems from the time fishers and fish traders spend away from home, their access to cash income, their demographic profile, the ready availability of commercial sex in fishing ports and the sub-cultures of risk taking and hyper-masculinity in fishermen. The subordinate economic and social position of women in many fishing communities makes them even more vulnerable to infection. In this paper we review the available literature to assess the social, economic, and cultural factors that shape many fisherfolks’ life-styles and that make them both vulnerable to infection and difficult to reach with anti-retroviral therapy and continued prevention efforts. We conclude from the available evidence that fisherfolk will be among those untouched by planned initiatives to increase access to anti-retroviral therapies in the coming years, a conclusion that might apply to other groups with similar socio-economic and sub-cultural attributes, such as other seafarers, and migrant-workers including small-scale miners and construction workers.

Setel, Phillip, 1996
“AIDS as a Paradox of Manhood and Development in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.” Social Science and Medicine, 43(8):1169-1178.
This article discusses the emergence of the conditions of risk for HIV among young adults in the 1980s and 1990s, and then explores the perceptions of local actors about the historical and demographic processes that have surrounded the symbolic associations of AIDS. Some attitudes that emerged were that AIDS was seen as an attenuated crisis of the productive and reproductive labors of manhood, or concerns about the moral value of male participation in idealized forms of work and prescribed male/female unions.

Sidnell, Jack, 2000
Primus Inter Pares: Storytelling and Male Peer Groups in an Indo-Guyanese Rumshop.” American Ethnologist, 27(1):72-99.
Language is centrally implicated in the semiotic organization of socio-political realities and in the maintenance of both social equality and social differentiation. Conversations in a rural Indo-Guyanese village, during which men collectively reconstruct past events, allow for differential participation in the activity of storytelling. In the sequential organization of interaction, and the actions embedded therein, the participants display to one another a preoccupation with age, rights to knowledge, and social differentiation based on these criteria.

Silberschmidt, Margrethe, 2001
“Disempowerment of Men in Rural and Urban East Africa: Implications for Male Identity and Sexual Behavior.” World Development, 29(4):657-671.
Patriarchal structures and stereotyped notions of gender hide the increasing disempowerment of many men in rural and urban East Africa. Socioeconomic change has left men with a patriarchal ideology bereft of its legitimizing activities. Unemployment or low incomes prevent men from fulfilling their male roles as head of household and breadwinner. Women’s roles and responsibilities have increased. This affects men’s social value, identity,and self-esteem. Multi-partnered sexual relationships and sexually aggressive behavior seem to strengthen male identity and men’s sense of masculinity. Strategies to improve sexual and reproductive health must take into account how socioeconomic changes have affected traditional gender roles and male sexual behavior.

Simpson, Anthony, 2005
“Sons and Fathers/Boys to Men in the Time of AIDS: Learning Masculinity in Zambia.” Journal of Southern African Studies, 31(3):569-586.
The spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa is driven, at least in part, by particular expressions of heterosexual masculinities, especially those that entail aggressive sexuality.  More needs to be known about how boys come to construct, experience, and define themselves as men and about how hegemonic constructions are, and might be, contested.  The recognition that masculinities are historically, socially, and economically constructed, and that gender is a process, offers the potential for change.  Many studies have described women’s vulnerability to HIV along a number of dimensions, among them biological, economic, social, and cultural.  What is perhaps less self-evident in view of the real power exercised by many men in everyday life in Zambia and elsewhere is the vulnerability of men because of the demands made upon them by particular constructions of masculinity.  This article draws upon life-histories collected from a cohort of men educated at a Zambian Catholic mission to explore their recollections of how they learnt to be men and their discovery of themselves as engendered sexual beings.  The roots of many understandings of masculinity are to be found in domestic and extra-domestic worlds where boys observed the ways in which men took precedence and exercised power over women and children.  The particular contributions of the father and the male peer group to the development of masculine identities are the focus of this discussion.

Singh, Kaushalendra K., Shaleh S. Bloom and Amy Ong Tsui, 1998
“Husbands’ Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Uttar Pradesh, India.” Studies in Family Planning, 29(4):388-399.
This article analyzes data from a 1995/96 survey of husbands regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning reproductive health for both men and women. Findings indicate that men know little about maternal morbidity or sexual morbidity conditions. Men’s views concerning the role of wives indicate a low level of women’s autonomy. Results indicate a pressing need for reproductive health education.

Sinha, Mrinalini, 1999
“Giving Masculinity a History: Some Contributions from the Historiography of Colonial India.” Gender & History, 11(3):445-460.
Contemporary historiography, especially in North American, European, and Australian history, now includes a fairly respectable body of literature on men and masculinity.  While this literature has produced important contributions to the usefulness of gender as a category of historical analysis, there has also been some wariness within feminist scholarship on the grounds that the issue of the gendered organization may be evaded.  Reflecting on the question ‘what is involved in writing a history of masculinity?’, this article considers the potential contribution that the historiography of colonial India offers to the study of masculinity.

Sobralske, Mary, 2006
“Machismo Sustains Health and Illness Beliefs of Mexican American Men.” Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(8):348-350.
To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men’s health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men’s awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men’s health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men’s views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

Sternberg, Peter, 2000
“Challenging Machismo: Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health With Nicaraguan Men.” Gender and Development, 8(1):89-99.
Health education work with men needs to be done from a gender perspective, which encourages men not only to take on responsibility for promoting health, but also to share that responsibility with women.  This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of men’s attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua.

Stolen, Kristi Anne, 1996
“The Gentle Exercise of Male Power in Rural Argentina.” Identities, 2:385-406.
Stolen portrays how power is exercised in face-to-face interaction between men and women, on the basis of the existing sexual division of labor in the household and in society at large, and on men’s privileged access to crucial resources. It is argued that masculinity is hegemonic, and the article aims at revealing the processes whereby hegemonic masculinity “naturalizes” gender inequality.

Suttner, R., 2005
“Masculinities in the African National Congress-Led Liberation Movement: The Underground Period.” Kleio, 37:71-106.
This article aims to uncover elements of the formation and manifestations of masculinities within the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies.  It locates masculinity formation in situations and complexities that have not previously emerged.  It argues that the reading given to early ANC texts, and later, autobiographies, outside of their full context led to an underplaying of the extent and significance of women entering ‘male terrain.’  Analysis uses notions of masculinity to refer to socially constructed conceptions of what is meant by being a man, whereas the notion of manhood is more limited and is primarily related to notions of adulthood.

Swart, S., 2000
“‘Desperate Men’: The 1914 Rebellion and the Politics of Poverty.” South African Historical Journal, 42:161-175.
This article explores the motives of the rank and file for going into rebellion, particularly the ‘desperate classes’.  The author traces the economic crisis of the years prior to 1914 that led to the creation of a class of poor whites, and their increasing loss of faith in the state’s efforts towards amelioration.  The article delineates the way in which the conomic crisis impacted on their identities as fathers, as patriarchs, as farmers, and as men, and what they hoped to regain.

Thompson, Eric C., 2003
“Malay Male Migrants: Negotiating Contested Identities in Malaysia.” American Ethnologist, 30(3):418-438.
Ethnic identity has dominated the political and social landscape of Malaysia throughout most of the 20th century. Recent changes, including government development policies, feminization of the industrial workforce, and rural to urban migration, have transformed the underlying political economy of the country. In relationship to these changes, official discourse has sought to engender a “New Malay” subjectivity, dissociating the Malay-peasant complex of the early 20th century and associating ‘Malayness,’ instead, with urbanism and entrepreneurship. Malay male migrants figure centrally in this articulation of identity and political economy. Focusing on the articulation of multiple fields of identity, the author argues that social and cultural forces are shaping and reshaping the lives of Malay men, although their effects are felt differentially by subjects who must negotiate intersecting fields of ethnicity, gender, migrancy, religion, and class.

Türküm, Ayşe Sibel, 2005
“Who Seeks Help? Examining the Differences in Attitude of Turkish University Students toward Seeking Psychological Help by Gender, Gender-Roles, and Help-Seeking Experiences.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 13(3):389-401.
The present study investigated the differences in Turkish university students’ attitudes toward seeking psychological help and the effects of gender and gender roles on their help-seeking experiences. The Bem Sex Roles Inventory and The Scale of Attitudes toward Seeking Psychological Help—Shortenedwere administered to 398 undergraduate students. The results found male and female students differed in their attitudes toward help seeking. However, no significant interaction was found for students’ gender roles and their attitude scores toward help seeking. The findings and future research needs are discussed.

Unterhalter, Elaine, 2000
“The Work of the Nation: Heroic Masculinity in South African Autobiographical Writing of the Anti-Apartheid Struggle.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):157-178.
The paper draws on autobiographical writings of the South African anti-apartheid struggle to investigate representations of masculinity, work, and gender relations. It identifies a common construction of masculinity in many texts across race, class, and generation. This construction stresses autonomy, adventure, comradeship, and a self-conscious location in history. This heroic masculinity is identified with a particular understanding of work as political work and links with a discourse that neglects the political interests and differently contoured forms of political work by women. The paper considers some similarities and differences between heroic masculinity and forms of work associated with violent masculinity, the subject of much more extensive research in South Africa to date.

Van der Spuy, P., 1996
“‘Making Himself Master’: Galant’s Rebellion Revisited.” South African Historical Journal, 34:1-28.
This article focuses on Galant van de Kaap and those closest to him in an attempt to understand why the Bokkeveld slave rebellion was fought by men and not by women.  The author suggests that the political consciousness of subaltern workers on the Koue Bokkeveld farms was necessarily gendered, and that women were not pushed from the farms by forces that drove the men.  The author stresses the need to examine the political consciousness of men and women separately.

Varley, Ann and Maribel Blasco, 2000
“Exiled to the Home: Masculinity and Ageing in Urban Mexico.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):115-138.
This article addresses the relationship between ageing and masculinity in urban Mexico. We examine the meaning of home for older men, asking why some live alone and what life at home is like for men whose working lives were mostly spent elsewhere. We argue that the growing literature on men has neglected ageing because later life is associated with a subordinate form of masculinity. Although recent work on masculinity in Mexico has rejected the stereotyping of machismo, revealing the importance of the provider role to hegemonic masculinity, this role is gradually lost in later life. We conclude that its loss, together with the legacy of difficulties poorer men face in meeting family responsibilities throughout their life, disadvantages older men.

Vera-Sanso, Penny, 2000
“Masculinity, Male Domestic Authority and Female Labour Participation in South India.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):179-198.
The failure of gender and development studies to investigate men’s gendering casts doubt on the value of much extant feminist research. In the context of household studies the investigation of men and masculinity through male informants is in danger of merely redirecting the object of essentialism and pathologization from men to that of women. Examining the way people employ discourses on gender identity in their attempts to define and contest household relations will enable us to develop a more empathetic approach to the difficulties facing poor men without losing sight of the consequences for women of domestic hierarchies.

Viki, G. Tendayi, Patrick Chiroro and Dominic Abrams, 2006
“Hostile Sexism, Type of Rape, and Self-Reported Rape Proclivity Within a Sample of Zimbabwean Males.” Violence Against Women, 12(8):789-800.
The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students.  Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity.  As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition.  These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable.

Vincent, Louise, 2006 
“Destined to Come to Blows? Race and Constructions of ‘Rational-Intellectual’ Masculinity Ten Years After Apartheid.” Men and Masculinities, 8(3):350-366.
In 1994, a democratic government came to power in South Africa for the first time in the country’s history.  But political transition is never a single event or moment.  Rather, it is a continuous process that faces setbacks and contradictions.  One of the questions we might ask about a society in transition is to what extent its gender order has changed or is changing.  This article sets out to read the country’s transformation drama through the lens of contested conceptions of South African masculinity.  The article is focused on one particular version of masculinity which it terms “rational-intellectual man,” and the argument is that a legacy of racism and the persistence of racialized modes of reasoning continue to marginalize Black men from this and other powerful, high-status forms of hegemonic masculinity.

Viveros Vigoya, Mara, 2001
“Contemporary Latin American Perspectives on Masculinity.” Men and Masculinities, 3(3):237-260.
This article reviews major studies carried out in recent decades on Latin American men as endangered actors ― products and producers of gender relations.  The materials analyzed are organized around the principal themes within which studies of masculinity in Latin America have been framed, namely the construction of masculine identity, fatherhood, practices and representations, homosocial spaces of masculinity, reproductive health, and masculine sexuality.  Through an examination of the current literature, the aims are to provide information on some of the current debates that have emerged on masculinity in Latin America, to identify some of the unexplored themes, and to raise questions about the ways in which masculinity has been understood and studied.

Walsh, Andrew, 2003
“‘Hot Money’ and Daring Consumption in a Northern Malagasy Sapphire-Mining Town.” American Ethnologist, 30(2):290-305.
In Ambondromifehy, a sapphire-mining town in northern Madagascar, young men earn and spend a great deal of what some call ‘hot money.’ Rather than invest their earnings with long-term intentions considered responsible and proper by some around them, they consume ‘daringly’ by spending money to fulfill immediate desires. Walsh argues that such ‘daring consumption’ might be understood as the active response of young men who refuse the passive roles allotted them by both the sapphire trade and traditional systems of social organization.

Walsh, Shannon and Claudia Mitchell, 2006
“‘I’m Too Young to Die’: HIV, Masculinity, Danger and Desire in Urban South Africa.”  Gender and Development, 14(1):57-68.
In the South African urban areas of Atlantis and Khavelitsha, men and boys see gang membership and violence as part of ‘being a man.’  In this context, life itself is perilous and vulnerable.  This article draws on the narratives of boys about their lives, and explores some key questions relating to gender, development, and HIV.  These include: how are men’s and boys’ ideas about sexuality created, and what does this suggest about the kinds of HIV interventions that should be offered?  In particular, how does the reality of everyday life in urban South Africa affect male perceptions of risk in relation to HIV/AIDS?  And how can men and boys best be targeted in HIV prevention and treatment work?

Weis, Lois, et al., 2002
“Puerto Rican Men and the Struggle for Place in the United States: An Exploration of Cultural Citizenship, Gender, and Violence.” Men and Masculinities, 4(3):286-302.
This article explores the construction of masculinity among poor and working-class Puerto Rican men on the mainland, filling a distinct gap in both the literatures on Puerto Rican and men’s studies.  Based on extensive interviews with a group of Puerto Rican men, the authors focus on the ways in which these men are staking out their identity on the mainland, as well as the social context in which this identity construction is taking place.  It is argued that an affirmation of cultural citizenship is wrapped around notions of patriarchal authority and that a screaming to be heard “as a man” on the mainland exists within a context in which these men are stripped of all the costumes and accoutrements that enable “men to be men.”  The subject of domestic violence is also probed.

White, Sarah C., 2000
“‘Did the Earth Move?’: The Hazards of Bringing Men and Masculinities into Gender and Development.” IDS Bulletin, 31(2):33-41.
This article offers a critical review of the new ‘masculinities’ literature in the light of the continuing dominance of patriarchal relations in society and development institutions. It argues that this necessarily challenges accepted understandings of sex/gender in GAD, representing both risk and opportunity. ‘Masculinity’ is at present a highly ambiguous, multi-purpose term, which needs to be more sharply defined if it is to be of analytical use, particularly in cross-cultural contexts. The identification of the study of masculinity with the study of men needs to be broken. Bringing men in must not mean replacing a focus on women with a focus on men, but a genuinely integrated and relational approach. This should include locating gender within broader dimensions of power and social difference, and recognizing its symbolic as well as material aspects.

― 1997
“Men, Masculinities, and the Politics of Development.” Gender and Development, 5(2):14-22.
In this article, White argues that agencies and analysts should seriously consider how men’s self-perception in society affects development outcomes and challenges existing approaches to work on gender issues. Incorporating men and masculinities in a gender perspective should broaden and deepen the understanding of power and inequality between men and women, increasing the effectiveness of development-related activities.

Whitehead, Ann, 2000
“Continuities and Discontinuities in Political Constructions of the Working Man in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: The ‘Lazy Man’ in African Agriculture.” The European Journal of Development Research, 12(2):23-52.
This paper is addresses some contemporary development discourses about rural (black) African work with important gendered representations. In attempts to make African women’s work visible where once it was not, some analysts have slipped into representing African rural men as not doing very much at all. Discourses of ‘lazy’ men have a long history in European ideas about rural sub-Saharan Africa, occurring wherever rural men resisted colonial labor regimes and coercive forms of rural development. The second half of the articles inspects the utilization of time-use research in a recent World Bank document on gender and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. A careful examination of this lead study suggests that this research is presented in ways which underplay men’s contribution to farming. The author proposes that this highly politicized representation of gender relations in rural households results from the Bank’s need to explain why recent market liberalization strategies have not produced sufficient growth in African agriculture. The implication is that such growth could occur if only underemployed (‘lazy?’) African men would work harder.

Wilde, Charles, 2004
“From Racing to Rugby: All Work and No Play for Gogodala Men of Western Province, Papua New Guinea.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 15(3):286-303.
Wilde explores the ways in which rugby is a modern extension of the masculinity embodied in traditional canoe racing among the Gogodala of Papua New Guinea.  During colonial rule, Europeans tried to eradicate ‘uncivilized’ masculine aggression, immorality, and superstition through sport, thinking rugby would be a suitable substitution.  Yet instead of changing the Gogodala conceptions of aggression, masculinity, and ritual, rugby has been adapted to fit with indigenous systems of gender, conflict resolution, and social custom to enhance Gogodala males’ understanding of their place within Papua New Guinea both as individuals and as clan and village groups.

Willis, J., 2003
“Heteronormativity and the Deflection of Male Same-Sex Attraction Among the Pitjantjatjara People of Australia’s Western Desert.” Culture, Health & Sexuality, 5(2):137-151.
This paper describes findings from fieldwork conducted among Pitjantjatjara tribespeople of Central Australia between 1989 and 1997. The study examined the impact of a distinctive gender system and practices of masculinity, particularly sexual and ritual practices, on the risk of contracting sexually transmissible infections and other blood-borne diseases. The research was designed as an ethnography of masculinity, conducted via participant observation, life history interviews, ritual analysis, and critical reflection on the work of early ethnographers. The paper presents selected field data, examined in the light of early twentieth century anthropological description of Pitjantjatjara sexuality. It identifies a systematic deflection of male same-sex attraction away from possible resolution through sexual practices between men. Key components of this deflection are the ritual construction of a culturally distinctive masculinity, the inextricable linkage between masculinity rites and the system for arranging marriages, and the cultural coding of the penis during ritual. The paper concludes that although men may feel erotic attraction for each other, the gender and kinship systems of the Pitjantjatjara conspire to limit completely the possibilities for the physical, sexual expression of this attraction. The findings reported here add to our understanding of the cultural basis of heteronormativity.

Wood, Michael, 2006
“Kamula Accounts of Rambo and the State of Papua New Guinea.” Oceania, 76(1):61-82.
This paper contributes to the ethnography of masculinity and the media in Papua New Guinea.  The author outlines some changes in Kamula men’s understandings of masculinity as they are registered in accounts of conflicts between state security servies, the Kamula, Rambo, and other actors.  Outlining this history shows how Kamula men are increasingly entangled in forms of state power and violence that are partially defined by new myths of masculinity expressed in Melanesian readings of Rambo.  The paper describes how some of the power effects linked to Rambo are transferred to Kamula men.  The author argues that in their accounts of Rambo, the Kamula are also exploreing different models of sovereignty and state power.

Yeoh, Paul, 2006
“Writing Singapore Gay Identities: Queering the Nation in Johann S. Lee’s Peculiar Chris and Andrew Koh’s Glass Cathedral.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 41(3):121-135.
Taking as its object of study Johann S. Lee’s Peculiar Chris and Andrew Koh’s Glass Cathedral, this essay considers the ways in which the relationship between queer identities and (trans)nationalism is construed in two Singapore “coming out” novels.  How does their status as writing emerging from a particular postcolonial urban site inflect the significance of their literary-stylistic choices?  What kinds of affiliations are affirmed, what ties are disavowed?  While the thematization of homosexuality in the Singapore context does not automatically make such texts “subversive,” gay writing brings sharply into focus the problematics arising from a confluence of nationalist and global discourses ― in this case, globalized notions of a transnational gay identity originating largely from the West.  Drawing on and explicitly announcing their participation in a larger body of gay protest literature, these texts offer a valuable opportunity for reflecting on how transnationalism might enable queer subjects to challenge and revise nationally endorsed models of masculinity; at the same time, the extent to which their efforts to articulate a queer identity might compromise their “Singaporeanness” is considered.

Yim, Jennifer Young and Ramaswami Mahalingam, 2006
“Culture, Masculinity, and Psychological Well-being in Punjab, India.” Sex Roles, 55(9-10):715-724.
This study was designed to examine the relationship between internalized idealized cultural beliefs (machismo, chastity, and caste identity) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction and anxiety) in a male surplus population.  The study was conducted using questionnaires in a community sample of Jat caste persons in Punjab, India.  Overall, the correlation between machismo, chastity, and caste beliefs was significant.  Men scored significantly higher than women on beliefs about machismo, chastity, and caste identity.  For men, divine beliefs about chastity predicted higher life satisfaction, and prescriptive beliefs about chastity practices predicted lower life satisfaction.  For women, machismo predicted lower anxiety.  The importance of cultural ecological context in the production of masculinity is highlighted.

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Arias, Omar, 2001
Are Men Benefiting From the New Economy: Male Economic Marginalization in Argentina, Brazil and Costa Rica, Volume 1.  World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 2740.  Washington, DC: World Bank.
The economies of Latin America have undergone extensive reforms, raising concerns about how these changes have affected the labor market. But there is also increasing concern that the reforms may have deeper social ramifications as the new economies strain the ability of certain groups of men to work and to earn good wages, fulfilling their traditional role as providers. Using household surveys broadly covering the period 1988-97 in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica, Arias examines the patterns of unemployment and real wage growth for distinct groups of male workers to see whether there is evidence of a deterioration in men’s ability to be economically self-sufficient. He finds no general trend of male economic marginalization. The incidence and duration of unemployment have increased the most for the typically vulnerable group ― young, less educated, informal sector workers ― but the increased duration of unemployment has also affected older and more educated men. With respect to wages, density and quantile regression analysis indicates that the usual stories of wage marginalization of vulnerable workers can hardly explain the observed variety of wage growth patterns in the three countries. The positive wage performance has been concentrated mainly in the higher quantiles of the conditional wage distribution. This suggests that differences in unobservable worker characteristics, such as industriousness, labor market connections, and quality of schooling, have been key determinants of the ability of male workers in the region to adapt to economic restructuring. These results suggest that assistance should be targeted to some groups so that frustrations in asserting an economic identity do not lead to aggressive behavior. But they also show that we must look elsewhere for the roots of the increase in socially dysfunctional behavior.

Barker, Gary and Christine Ricardo, 2005
Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence.  World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 26.  Washington, DC: World Bank.
The authors carried out an extensive literature review, identified promising programs applying a gender perspective to work with young men, and carried out 50 informant interviews with staff working with young men in Botswana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda, and 23 focus group discussions and interviews with young men in Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. A gendered analysis of young men must take into account the plurality of masculinities in Africa. Versions of manhood in Africa are socially constructed, fluid over time and in different settings, and plural. The key requirement to attain manhood in Africa is achieving some level of financial independence, employment or income, and subsequently starting a family. Older men also have a role in holding power over younger men, and thus in defining manhood in Africa. Initiation practices or rites of passage are important factors in the socialization of boys and men throughout the region. For young men in Africa, as for young men worldwide, sexual experience is frequently associated with initiation into adulthood, and achieving a socially recognized manhood. Efforts to question the sexual behavior of men in the African context, for example, have sometimes run into resistance by national level leaders, who perceive that African men themselves are being ‘bashed’ or maligned. The challenge to promote changes in gender norms is to tap into voices of change, and pathways to change that exist in the context of Africa. Ultimately, it will be the voices of these young men and adult men, and women, who will promote the necessary individual, community, and social changes.

Chant, Sylvia and Matthew Gutmann, 2000
Mainstreaming Men into Gender and Development: Debates, Reflections, and Experiences. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Publishing.
This working paper from Oxfam identifies the key issues concerning men and masculinities in gender and development, and draws attention to some of the main problems that have arisen from male exclusion. It offers suggestions as to how gender and development policy might be more gender-balanced.

Claeson, Mariam, Hnin Pyne and Maria Correia, 2002
Gender Dimensions of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 433. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This World Bank-sponsored study examines the impact of alcohol on Latin American communities and gender relations in particular. It finds that alcohol use contributes significantly to disease, disabilities in men, unsafe sex practices, and violence. The study also suggests several approaches to dealing with this rising problem that go beyond attempts to merely control the availability of alcohol. The focus is on incorporating gender differences into policies and programs.

Greig, Alan, Michael Kimmel and James Lang, 2000
Men, Masculinities, & Development: Broadening Our Work Towards Gender Equality. UNDP Monograph #10. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
This report by the UNDP Gender in Development Programme advocates the recognition of men and masculinity as issues in development. It encourages the recent shift in focus from women to gender, and outlines the necessity for men to be seen as agents of change instead of blame. Also supported is an examination of the relationship between hierarchies based on gender and other distinctions in order to highlight the importance to men of recognizing these unequal power structures. The report explores the nature versus nurture debate of the origins of masculine identity, finding that the cultural constructivist approach is a more progressive approach to engendering development. This approach can be consolidated by incorporating male-oriented programming efforts, particularly in campaigns of reproductive health, violence, governance, and the workplace.

Kane, Eileen, 1996
Gender, Culture and Learning.  Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development/USAID Center for Human Capacity Development.
This monograph analyzes various anthropological, psychological, and biological research regarding differential learning characteristics of boys and girls. It recommends techniques for teaching in developing countries, given data on boys and girls.

Loaiza, Edilberto, 1998
Male Fertility, Contraceptive Use, and Reproductive Preferences in Latin America: The DHS Perspective.  Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
One of the main accomplishments of international survey programs such as the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), is to allow for cross-country comparisons and analyses of basic demographic indicators.  For most of the demographic inquiry, women have always been the main unit of analysis not only for data-collection, but also for policy decisions and interventions. Nevertheless, in this process of study and analysis, there is a growing interest and commitment to approaching these types of studies from a broader perspective that would include men. Efforts have been made to study men’s behaviors for the basic demographic processes, although in a less systematic and rigorous way. In the best of the cases data collection for men mirrors the procedures for women, disregarding the possibility of a unique men’s perspective.  This paper is mainly descriptive, bivariate, and aims to provide a comparison of the empirical evidence of men’s perspective regarding family formation and sexual and reproductive health.

Niang, Cheikh Ibrahima et al., 2004
Targeting Vulnerable Groups in National HIV/AIDS Programs: The Case of Men Who Have Sex With Men.  Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series, No. 82. Washington, DC: World Bank.
The predominant mode of HIV/AIDS transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa is through heterosexual contact. Epidemiological data is largely lacking on the transmission of HIV in Africa among men having sex with men (MSM). Most African governments vigorously condemn the practice of homosexuality or deny that it exists in their countries. However, recent studies have revealed the extent of homosexuality in Africa and the significant vulnerability of MSM to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study highlights the fact that the networks of MSM and those of heterosexual relationships are closely interlinked. It also highlights the violence and stigma to which MSM are subjected, and the limited access of MSM groups to prevention and treatment services for HIV/AIDS. The main objective of this study, which was conducted in Burkina Faso, the Gambia, and Senegal, is to develop innovative approaches that would include MSM in their nations’ HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment strategies.

Parrado, Emilio A., 1998
Marriage and International Migration: Timing and Ordering of Life Course Transitions Among Men in Western Mexico.  Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
This paper analyzes the timing and sequence of life course events marking the transition to adulthood among men in a context of high prevalence of international migration. The main objectives guiding the analysis are first, to understand the relationship between temporary labor migration and men’s marriage timing, and second, to identify the social background and institutional factors associated with different temporal orderings between first union formation and first international migration experience.  The empirical analysis uses data from 34 communities in the Western States of Mexico that have traditionally provided a large number of migrants to the United States.  A central aim of this analysis is to understand the social background characteristics affecting the ordering of migration and marriage and more importantly, the effect of different immigration policies on the synchronization of life course transitions in Western Mexico.

Rajendran, Shobhana et al., 2006
The Impact of Armed Conflict on Male Youth in Mindanao, Philippines.  World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 35.  Washington, DC: World Bank.
The history of armed conflict on the island of Mindanao in southern Philippines is over three decades old. There is a need to understand the situation of young men in the context of the conflict in Mindanao. The specific objectives of this study are: a) to gain an increased understanding of how the conflict has affected male youth; and b) to develop recommendations that respond to their most immediate needs. The study covered seven provinces in four out of the six regions in Mindanao. It shows that despite growing up in an environment shaped by violence, young males in Mindanao continue to hope for change for a better life. The study notes a number of ongoing interventions in the education, health, and agriculture sectors, but only a few of them are youth focused. The study concludes by offering a number of suggestions on the kinds of interventions to address the marginalization of male youth, especially in education, livelihoods, and labor markets.

Slok, Julie, 2001
The Different Impacts of Social and Economic Developments on Men’s and Women’s Labor Force Participation in Korea, Volume 1.  EASES Environmental and Social Research Note, No. 3.  Washington, DC: World Bank.
This note uses current data from Korea, to show how societal and cultural constraints influence men’s and women’s labor force participation and work lifecycle. The impacts of collective economic and social change on men and women in the labor market are varied and distinct. The analysis reveals that aggregate statistics, such as male-female unemployment figures, are not directly comparable because they do not capture the changes within the labor force, nor do they reflect the cultural, legal, and institutional obstacles facing men and women. Yet, an analysis of readily available gender disaggregated statistics concerning male and female entry into, position within, and exit from the labor force provides important insights. Confucian traditions and a patriarchal family system create a foothold for gender discrimination that permeates society and the economy, heavily influencing the labor market. It is highlighted that lifecycle participation in the labor force is different for men than for women, and that men and women also have different status and wages once inside the work force. Consequently, when the East Asian economic and financial crises hit, it had different impacts on men and women. It is suggested that gender sensitive analysis be supported, taking into account awareness of the different starting points and labor force experiences of men and women caused by both cultural and educational behaviors and biases.

Sommers, Marc, 2006
Fearing Africa’s Young Men: The Case of Rwanda. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, No. 32. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This paper sets the case of Rwanda’s male youth within the larger context of Africa’s urbanization and burgeoning youth population. It investigates the pervasive images of male urban youth as a menace to Africa’s development and its primary source of instability. It then turns to the Rwandan case, examining the desperate conditions its young men (and women) faced before the civil war (1990-94) and 1994 genocide, as well as their experience of it. It draws on field interviews with Rwandan youth to consider the situation male youth face in the postwar, post-genocide era. The paper situates the Rwandan case within the debate on whether concentrated numbers of African male youth are dangerous (the youth bulge theory), as well as prospects for Rwanda’s male youth population.

Stycos, J. Mayone, 1998
Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Family Size: A Survey of Indian Adolescents.  Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
In a review of research comparing male and female attitudes toward family size, Mason and Taj concluded that ‘more often than not... fertility goals are very similar. When gender difference do occur...they usually are small and are of both types (men more pronatalist than women and vice-versa).’ On the assumption that attitudes toward family size might be formed well before marriage, Stycos carried out surveys of secondary school students in three Latin American countries. The average number of children desired was only about 2.5. However, although the gender differences were small, they were highly consistent. In every school grade in each of the three countries ― Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru ― mates preferred more children. Moreover, when 13 economic and psychological variables were held constant by multiple regression, males continued to prefer more children in all three countries, at a statistically significant level in two of them. These results raised several questions. First, is the gender difference culturally bound, or does the alleged ‘machismo complex’ in Latin America drive the mate preferences as manifestations of virility? Second, does the foret of the question (asking what number of children the respondent prefers) encourage stereotypic or socially acceptable responses such as two or three children? That is, would less direct and less numerically conceptualized questions still reveal gender differences? Third, if such differences do persist, can they be explained by gender’s relation to other social or psychological differences? The present paper explores these questions through analysis of a large survey of secondary school children in Uttar Pradesh, India, within a cultural context very different from Latin American.

Sweetman, Caroline, 2001
Men’s Involvement in Gender and Development Policy and Practice: Beyond Rhetoric. London: Oxfam.
This report presents several papers that explore the ways in which development organizations have addressed gender and development in the past, the problems they have faced, and possible ways of working which will take account of future concerns. Two key questions addressed are: In what sectors should gender and development work involve men as beneficiaries? What issues face men who work in activities that have a commitment to gender equality and feminist perspectives?

Toure, Lalla, 1996
Male Involvement in Family Planning: A Review of the Literature and Selected Program Initiatives in Africa. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, Inc./USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development.
This literature review examines male attitudes toward family planning efforts in Africa. It includes numerous findings on and recommendations for effective policy implementation and interaction with communities for family planners.

UNAIDS, 2001
Working with Men for HIV Prevention and Care.  Geneva: UNAIDS.
Engaging men as partners is a critical component in AIDS prevention and care as, in many contexts, men are the decision-makers in matters related to reproductive and sexual health.  Men’s roles and responsibilities in relation to their health and to their partner’s health have a significant bearing on the course of the epidemic.  Programs that work with boys and men are crucial in ensuring that men protect not only their own health but also the health of their families.  By working in partnership with men, rather than apportioning blame, it is hoped that men can finally begin to be seen as part of the solution rather than part of the problem.  Twelve projects were selected for analysis in this report that represent a diverse range of interventions with men.  It is hoped that analysis of these strategies will provide insight into effective approaches for working with men to combat the spread of HIV.

― 1999
Regional Consultation on HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support Programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean for Men Who Have Sex with Men.  Geneva: UNAIDS.
Sex between men occurs in most societies.  For several reasons, it is often stigmatized and denied, and therefore the public visibility of male-to-male sex varies considerably from one country to another.  Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable group and the cultural, sociopolitical and religious factors that lead to the denial of male-to-male sex increases their vulnerability.  In Latin America, sound epidemiological data indicate that the epidemic of HIV amongst MSM is spreading fast.  It is a major route of transmission of the virus and there is a need to support and encourage prevention, care and support programs that aim to decrease the spread.  Lessons learned from MSM programs have shown that the vulnerability of this group is reduced when political leaders and other key players in society accept the existence of male-to-male sex and its relevance to HIV/AIDS programming.  There is an important role for leaders to play in creating a supportive environment for MSM that fosters better understanding, eliminates stigmatization and criminalization, and decreases vulnerability to HIV.

UNDAW, 2004
The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality. New York: UNDAW.
This document is a final report of the expert group meeting of the above topic, held in Brasilia in 2003.  The report covers the rationale for focusing specific attention on men and boys, a statement of principles, a list of resources, and an overview of key actors in promoting the role of men and boys.  Additionally, five major issues and arenas where men and boys can become involved in an effort to promote gender equity are discussed at length.

UNFPA, 2003
It Takes 2: Partnering with Men in Reproductive and Sexual Health.  New York: UNFPA.
Partnering with men is emerging as an important strategy for improving reproductive health. This new publication offers guidance on effective and gender-sensitive ways to engage men in the reproductive and sexual health of themselves and their partners. It includes examples of successful strategies and programming as well as lessons learned. A checklist summarizing key points makes this program advisory note an especially useful tool for both designing and evaluating projects.

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This website contains a collection of papers presented at the ‘Men, Masculinities and Gender Relations Development’ seminars held in September 1998 and June 2000, hosted by the Development and Project Planning Centre at the University of Bradford in Bradford, England. The seminars served to describe the issues of men and masculinities as they impact a gendered notion of development.
This page presents summaries of articles published in the Institute of Development Studies’ ID21 Insights Issue 35, which is titled “Do men matter? New horizons in gender and development.” This special issue addresses a variety of subjects in the area of men and development.
Development Experience Clearinghouse, by the U.S. Agency for International Development (the Development Experience System), allows you to search USAID-affiliated publications by topic, region, or keyword. Enter “men” into Title Search box.
Men for Change is a pro-feminist organization for men, dedicated to working with women to promote gender equity and to end sexism and violence.
XY is a website focused on men, masculinities, and gender politics.  XY is a forum for men who are seeking to build life-affirming, joyful, and non-oppressive ways of being. It is guided by three principles: pro-feminism, a commitment to enhancing men’s lives, and a recognition of diversities among men.  XY features over 180 articles on key ‘men’s issues,’ from fathering and men’s health to the relationships between masculinity, class, race, and sexuality, to domestic violence. XY also includes personal stories, book reviews, links to related websites, and an extensive bibliography.
EngenderHealth is committed to involving men globally in reproductive health and to addressing their needs.  This website offers information on men’s roles in reproductive health, overviews of case studies, workshop information, and publications.
This website is part of the United Nations Population Fund, and has links to information on the promotion of men’s roles in family life.  The UNFPA hopes to support gender equality in the 21st century through re-envisioning men’s roles in families.
This website explores men’s unique roles and issues in reproductive health.  Articles include men’s participation in reproductive health, male reproductive health risks, reproductive health programs for men and best how to approach them, and more.
Oxfam’s website on Gender Equality and Men examines what part men can play in gender equality and anti-poverty initiatives.  Concerned that men have written off gender equality as a ‘women’s issue,’ Oxfam’s site links to extensive resources on making gender equality a top priority for both sexes.
This website is for Program H, a program through Brazil’s Instituto Promundo gender and health program.  Program H stimulates young men to question traditional “norms” associated with masculinity and promotes both discussion and reflection about the “costs” of traditional masculinity as well as the advantages of gender equitable behaviors, such as better care for their own health.  This site has information on Program H’s resources, such as educational workshops, lifestyle campaigns, innovative approaches to attracting young men to health facilities, and a culturally sensitive impact evaluation methodology, as well as information on its impact on men’s movements globally.  Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
This website is from the UNFPA State of World Population 2005 report.  This report discusses men’s role in helping to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, and calls for women’s partnership with men for gender equity.  Topics addressed include the socially constructed nature of masculinity, how male identity develops in boys and throughout the lifespan, men’s roles in families, and ways to increase male involvement with projects of gender equity and development.

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